# Newton‟s law of universal gravitation

Liz Fox 2-16-06

A little review…    Law 1: The orbit of a planet/comet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one focus.fr/m185_l2-newton-laws.html .edumedia. Law 2: A line joining a planet/comet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time Law 3: The ratio of the squares of the revolutionary periods for two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their semimajor axes http://www.

1610  .Astronimia Nova – 1609  Galileo.Sedereus Nuncius .Some background Copernicus.De revolutionibus orbium coelestium – 1543  Kepler.

Newton‟s Principia Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy  Published in 1687  Uses Kepler‟s Laws to prove elliptical orbits  Explains behavior of tides. and the irregularities in the moon‟s orbit  . precession of the equinoxes.

 . and their periodic times are as the 3/2th power of their distances from its center.  The periodic times of the five primary planets are as the 3/2th power of their mean distances from the sun.Newton‟s Astronomical Data and Deductions The planets orbiting Jupiter (Saturn) describe areas proportional to the times of descriptions.

. and are inversely as the squares of the distances of the places of those planets from the sun‟s center.“The nature of the forces”  The forces by which the primary planets are continually drawn off from rectilinear motions. and retained in their proper orbits. tend to the sun.

their [centripetal] forces are in the inverse proportion to their diameters When identical bodies move on unequal circumferences with unequal velocities the [centripetal] force of the faster is to that of the slower as the square of their velocities .Horologium Oscillatorium (On Pendulum Clocks) .An Inverse-Square Law   Centripetal vs.1673   When 2 identical bodies move with the same velocity on unequal circumferences. centrifugal Huygens.

Newton‟s take  The centripetal forces of bodies tend to the centers of the same circles. . and are to each other as the squares of the arcs described in equal times divided respectively by the radii of the circles.

and retained in its orbit. and by the force of gravity is continually drawn off from a rectilinear motion.  .  It is solely the gravity of the earth that keeps the moon in orbit.The Moon‟s Centripetal Acceleration The moon gravitates towards the earth.

there is a power of gravity pertaining to all bodies. proportional to the several quantities of matter which they contain.The Law of Gravitation for Point Masses Law of universal gravitation.  Henry Cavendish (1731-1810)  Hypotheses non fingo  .

it is attracted to the exact center as if all of its mass were concentrated at a point  Same for solid sphere of uniform density  Teachers' Domain: String Theory: Newton's Embarrassing Secret .Gravitation for Extended Bodies Inside a homogeneous hollow spherical shell. a point mass experiences no net gravitational force  Next. if a point mass is placed outside the shell.

Inertial and Gravitational Masses Inertial vs. Gravitational mass  Inertial mass vs.”  Kepler‟s 3rd Law  . weight – “The mass is known by the weight of each body. as I have found by experiments on pendulums. for it is proportional to the weight.

A Final Thought  “Nature and nature‟s laws lay hid in night. God said „Let Newton be!‟ and all was light.” .

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