NEUROLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOVEMENT

 Individual nerve fibers or nerve cells are called

neuron  Neuron is composed of three region :
 The cell body or soma  The dendrites  The axon

 Most of neurons contain many dendrites (neuron

receiver) – receive impulse then carry toward the cell body  Most neuron have only one axon (neuron transmitter) – conducts impulses away from the cell body.  NERVE IMPULSE
 Nerve impulse is an electrical charge – is the signal

that passes from one neuron to next and finally to an organ.

RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (RMP)
 The cell membrane of a neuron at rest has a

negative electrical potential of about -70mV  The electrical charges found inside and outside the cell were differ by 70mV, and the inside is negative relative to the outside.  It is caused by a separation of charges across the membrane.

DEPOLARIZATION & HYPERPOLARIZATION
 If the inside of the cell becomes less negative

relative to the outside, the potential difference across the membrane will decrease. The membrane will be less polarized. When this happen. The membrane be depolarized  Depolarization happens when charge difference is less than the RMP of -70mV  The opposite can also occur if the charge difference across the membrane increase even more negative number, then the membrane become more polarized. This is called Hyperpolarization.

GRADED POTENTIAL
 Localized changes in the membrane potential –

can be either depolarization or hyperpolarizations.

ACTION POTENTIAL
 An action potential is a rapid and substantial(big)

depolarization of the neurons membrane.  All action potentials begin as graded potentials. Action potentials are generated when enough stimulation occurs to cause a depolarization (15 – 20 mV)  The minimum depolarization required to produce an action potential is called “threshold”

SEQUENCE OF EVENT IN AN ACTION POTENTIAL
 Increased sodium (Na+) permeability through

opening of sodium gates.  Decreased sodium (Na+) permeability as sodium gates close.  Opening of potassium gates and repolarization

 The movement of a signal through the neuron

and its axon is all about ions. An ion is a charged particle, such as Na+, the sodium ion. It has a positive charge, because it is missing one electron. Other ions, of course, are negatively charged  Cells have membranes that are made of lipid molecules (fats), and they prevent most things from entering or leaving the cell. But all over a cell membrane are proteins that stick out on both sides of the cell membrane. Some of these are ion channels.

 Some channels are called gates. They can,

depending on their environment, open or close. For some, it's a matter of what chemicals attach themselves to a part of the gate. For others, it's a change in the positive-negative balance that causes them to open or close. In the neuron, there are many such gates, including sodium gates and potassium gate  s. Both of these respond to positive-negative balance changes

PROPAGATION OF THE ACTION POTENTIAL
 The myelin sheath – a fatty sheath that insulates

the cell membrane of axons.  The gaps between sheaths which are not insulated are called nodes of Ranvier.  Diameter of the neuron – the velocity of nerve impulse transmission is also determined by the neuron size.  The larger diameter neurons conduct nerve impulses faster because larger neurons present less resistance to local current flow.

THE SYNAPSE
 A synapse is the site of impulse transmission from

one neuron to another.  A synapse between two neurons includes: 1. Axon terminals of the presynaptic neurons (neurons carrying impulse). 2. Postsynaptic receptors on the dendrite or cell body of the next neurons. 3. Space (synaptic cleft) between the two neurons.  Impulses are transmitted in 1 derection only.  The presynaptic terminals of the axon contain synaptic vesicles.

THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
 Where motor neuron communicates with the

muscle fiber.  It involves: 1. Pre synaptic axon terminals (motor endplates). 2. The synapse cleft. 3. Receptor on the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber.

NEUROTRANSMITTERS
 Neurotransmitters are the chemicals which

allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are also found at the axon endings of motor neurons, where they stimulate the muscle fibers. And they and their close relatives are produced by some glands such as the pituitary and the adrenal glands  There are more than 40 neurotrasmitters.  Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine are the 2 major neurotransmitters involved in regulating our physiology responses to exercises.

BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
 Cerebrum: site of mind and intellect, motor
control, sensory input and interpretation.
 Frontal Lobe: general intellect and motor control  Temporal Lobe: auditory input and its interpretation  Parietal Lobe: general sensory input and its

interpretation  Occipital Lobe: visual input and its interpretation

 Diencephalon: sensory integration and
homeostasis of the body’s internal environment.
 Thalamus: interprets sensory input and relays it to

the appropriate area of the brain.  Hypothalamus: maintains homeostasis.

 Cerebellum: movement control.

 Brain Stem: relays information between
the brain and the spinal cord.

 Spinal Cord: tracts of nerve fibers that
allow two-way conduction of nerve impulses.  afferent -vs- efferent

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
 The PNS contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves and

31 pairs of spinal nerves.  Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root.
mechanoreceptors (touch) thermoreceptors (temperature) nociceptors (pain) chemoreceptors (oxygen, glucose, electrolytes, etc.)  kinesthetic receptors (movement in joints, balance, etc.) ie. golgi tendon organs
   

 Motor neurons leave the spinal cord through

the ventral root.
 Create muscle contraction  Create muscle inhibition

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
 The ANS controls your body’s involuntary internal

functions.
 Sympathetic Nervous System (fight or flight

mechanism)
 inc. H.R. and cardiac contraction

 coronary vessels dilate increasing B.P. & blood flow
 bronchodilation, inc. metabolic rate & mental capabilities  glucose is released from the liver into the blood

 Parasympathetic Nervous System (housekeeping system)  carry’s out digestion, urination, & life support  conserves energy  decreases blood flow  decreases breathing rate

THE END
 Prepared by :

MUHAMMAD ARIF BIN MALEKI (2010416482) MOHAMAD AMIRUL MUQMININ BIN ROSLAN (2010854032)