The Routing Table: A Closer Look

Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 8

Modified by Tony Chen

04/01/2008
ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

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Notes:
 Thanks!

If you see any mistake on my PowerPoint slides or if you have any questions about the materials, please feel free to email me at chento@cod.edu.

Tony Chen College of DuPage Cisco Networking Academy

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Objectives
   Describe the various route types found in the routing table structure Describe the routing table lookup process. Describe routing behavior in routed networks.

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Introduction
 Chapter Focus
– Structure of the routing table •Will examine the format of the routing table and learn about level 1 and level 2 routes. – Lookup process of the routing table – Classless and classful routing behaviors

Cisco IP Routing, by Alex Zinin (ISBN 0-201-60473-6).

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0/24 network.16. or discontiguous. Inc.2.16. ITE PC v4. -R2 and R3 are connected by the 192.1.0. -R3 also has a 172. All rights reserved.168.4.0 Chapter 1 In a later section.0 network that R1 and R2 share.16.0/24 subnet.0/16 network with 172.16. we will configure the interfaces for R2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.0/24 subnets. from the 172.Routing Table Structure  Lab Topology  3 router setup -R1 and R2 share a common 172. which is disconnected.0. Cisco Public 5 .

Cisco Public 6 . Inc. All rights reserved.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Table Structure  The figure shows routing table entries come from the following sources -Directly connected networks -Static routes -Dynamic routing protocols ITE PC v4.

0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. – R1 and R3 already have their interfaces configured with the appropriate IP addresses and subnet masks.  As soon as the “no shutdown” command is issued the route is added to routing table debug ip routing ITE PC v4. –We will now configure the interfaces for R2 and use debug ip routing to view the routing table process that is used to add these entries.Routing Table Structure  The figure shows what happens as the Serial 0/0/1 interface for R2 is configured with the 192.1.168. Cisco Public 7 . Inc. All rights reserved.1/24 address.

All rights reserved.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 8 . •level 1 •level 2 ITE PC v4.Routing Table Structure  Cisco IP routing table is a hierarchical structure –The reason for this is to speed up lookup process –The hierarchy includes several levels. Inc.

0/0.168.1. Cisco Public 9 . /24 for class C networks. Inc.1.0.0/24 is a level 1 network route. All rights reserved.Routing Table Structure  Level 1 Routes –Have a subnet mask equal to or less than the classful mask of the network address.0 network. because the subnet mask is equal to the network's classful mask. such as the 192. © 2007 Cisco Systems. ITE PC v4.168. –192.0 Chapter 1  The source of the level 1 route can be a directly connected network. –Network route •A network route is a route that has a subnet mask equal to that of the classful mask.  Level 1 route can function as –Default route •A default route is a static route with the address 0. –Supernet route •A supernet route is a network address with a mask less than the classful mask.0. static route. or a dynamic routing protocol.

–This same route is also an ultimate route because it contains the exit interface Serial 0/0/1. All rights reserved. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 10 . ultimate route includes either: -A next-hop ip address (another path) OR -An exit interface  The directly connected network 192. Inc.0/24 –It is a level 1 network route because it has a subnet mask that is the same as its classful mask.1.168.168.0/24 can be further defined as an ultimate route.1.Routing Table Structure  The level 1 route 192.

172.0/24. –The first entry. 172. –A parent route is actually a heading that indicates the presence of level 2 routes.Parent and Child Routes  A parent route is a level 1 route –A parent route does not contain any next-hop IP address or exit interface information  When the 172.3. All rights reserved. also known as child routes.0. Cisco Public 11 .16. another route.0.16. ITE PC v4. Inc. –This route is known as a level 1 parent route. does not contain any next-hop IP address or exit interface information. was also added.0 subnet was added to the routing table.16.0.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

–172.0. FastEthernet0/0 ITE PC v4.16. Cisco Public 12 .0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.0 is directly connected. 1 subnets  A level 2 route is a route that is a subnet of a classful network address.16. a parent route is created whenever a route with a mask greater than the classful mask is entered into the routing table.Routing Table Structure  A level 1 parent route is automatically created any time a subnet is added to the routing table. – Child routes are level 2 routes – Child routes are a subnet of a classful network address –C 172.0/24 is subnetted. All rights reserved.3. –In other words.

172.Routing Table Structure  The parent route contains the 172. Cisco Public 13 .  Level 2 child routes contain 172. the level 2 child route.0. The subnet mask for this child route (subnet) is the /24 mask included in its parent route.0.0 .0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.The classful network address for our subnet.16.3.0. Inc. route source & the network address of the route –Notice that the subnet mask is not included with the subnet. All rights reserved.0  Level 2 child routes are also considered ultimate routes –Reason: they contain the next hop address &/or exit interface ITE PC v4.16.16.

16.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.16. •Both 172.0 and 172. –The routing table shows two child routes for the same 172.0/16 classful network ITE PC v4.Routing Table Structure  The figure shows the configuration of the Serial 0/0/0 interface on R2. Inc.0. All rights reserved.16. Cisco Public 14 .3.0.16.2.0/24 parent route.0 are members of the same parent route. •because they are both members of the 172.

0 role of the parent route will be examined when we discuss the route lookup process.Routing Table Structure  Both child routes have the same subnet mask -This means the parent route maintains the /24 mask Note: If there is only a single level 2 child route and that route is removed. Inc. Cisco Public 15 . the level 1 parent route will be automatically deleted. All rights reserved. Thev4. A level 1 parent route exists only when there is at least one level 2 child route. ITE PC Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16 .Routing Table Structure  In classless networks. the routing table presents a slightly different view. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. child routes do not have to share the same subnet mask –Whenever there are two or more child routes with different subnet masks belonging to the same classful network. which states that this parent network is variably subnetted.

All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Table Structure  Parent & Child Routes: Classless Networks ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 17 .

0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Routing Table Structure  Parent & Child Routes: classful and classless Networks classful Network Parent route’s Term Includes the # Subnet mask Type Classful mask is Displayed variably of different included with subnetted masks of each child is seen in child routes route entry parent route in routing table Classful No No No No classless Class-less Yes Yes Yes Yes ITE PC v4. Cisco Public 18 . All rights reserved.

3. proceed to Step 2 Router examines level 2 (child) routes • If there is a match with level 2 child route then that subnet is used to forward packet • If no match then proceed to Step 3 Router determines classful or classless routing behavior • If classful then packet is dropped • If classless then router searches level one supernet and default routes If there exists a level 1 supernet or default route match then Packet is forwarded If not packet is dropped © 2007 Cisco Systems. Examine level 1 routes • If best match a level 1 ultimate route and is not a parent route this route is used to forward packet • If the best match is a level 1 parent route. All rights reserved. 5.0 Chapter 1 19 . Inc. Cisco Public 2. 4.Routing Table Lookup Process  The Route Lookup Process 1. ITE PC v4.

172. Cisco Public 20 . All rights reserved.0.0/18. Routing Table Lookup Process ITE PC v4.0/26.0/26 has the longest match.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.  For example. in the figure we have a packet destined for 172. 172.16. Inc. and 172.16. Three possible routes are shown that do match this packet: 172.0.10. Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes –Best match is also known as the longest match –The best match is the one that has the most number of left most bits matching between the destination IP address and the route in the routing table. Of the three routes.0.0.16.0/12.0. Many possible routes could match this packet.16.16.

Cisco Public 21 .Routing Table Lookup Process  Finding the subnet mask used to determine the longest match Scenario: –PC1 pings 192.1.0 / 24 –Router forwards packets out s0/0/0 ITE PC v4.168. All rights reserved.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.168.1.2 –Router examines level 1 route for best match –There exist a match between192.168.2 & 192.1.

Inc. no.1. All rights reserved.Routing Table Lookup Process  The process of matching –1st there must be a match made between the parent route & destination IP •If a match is made then an attempt at finding a match between the destination IP and the child route is made.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. •Do at least 16 of the left-most bits of the parent route match the first 16 bits of the packet's destination IP address of 192.2? –The answer.168. Cisco Public 22 . ITE PC v4.

Inc.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.0 and the level one IP of 192. but a total of 30 bits match. as shown in the figure.168. ITE PC v4. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23 .0 / 24 then packet forwarded out s0/0/0 –Not only does the minimum of 24 bits match.168.1.1.Routing Table Lookup Process  Finding a match between packet’s destination IP address and the next route in the routing table –The figure shows a match between the destination IP of 192.

10. PC1 sends a ping to PC2 at 172.Routing Table Lookup Process  In the example in the figure.3.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. ITE PC v4. All rights reserved. What happens when there is a match with a level 1 parent route?  Before level 2 child routes are examined -There must be a match between classful level one parent route and destination IP address.16. Inc. Cisco Public 24 .

All rights reserved.Routing Table Lookup Process  After the match with parent route has been made Level 2 child routes will be examined for a match -Route lookup process searches for child routes with a match with destination IP ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 25 .

The first 24 bits do match. 172. All rights reserved.16.3. 00:00:25.3.2.0/24. Inc. Cisco Public 26 . The routing table process will use this route. to forward the packet with the destination IP address of 172.16.Routing Table Lookup Process  How a router finds a match with one of the level 2 child routes –First router examines parent routes for a match –If a match exists then: •Child routes are examined •Child route chosen is the one with the longest match  First. Serial0/0/0 ITE PC v4.3. the router examines the parent route for a match.10 out the exit interface of Serial 0/0/0.  R 172.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.0 [120/1] via 172.  The router checks the last child route for 172.16.16.0/24 and finds a match.3.16.2.

Inc.Routing Table Lookup Process  Example: Route Lookup Process with VLSM -The use of VLSM does not change the lookup process -If there is a match between destination IP address and the level 1 parent route then -Level 2 child routes will be searched ITE PC v4. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27 .0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 28 . All rights reserved.Routing Behavior  Classful & classless routing protocols Influence how routing table is populated  Classful & classless routing behaviors filled Determines how routing table is searched after it is ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Routing Behavior  Classful Routing Behavior: no ip classless  What happens if there is not a match with any level 2 child routes of the parent? -Router must determine if the routing behavior is classless or classful -If router is utilizing classful routing behavior then -Lookup process is terminated and packet is dropped ITE PC v4. Cisco Public 29 . All rights reserved. Inc.0 Chapter 1 ip classless and no ip classless © 2007 Cisco Systems.

you will understand "IP classless".255. we know that.0.0. you broke RIP's class so you must show him the way to 10.x. then you have to show me every route there is. RIP is telling you: I am classful.0.26.0.0.0 such as 10. Here.0.44.0 If you show it as 10.0). and then give RIP a packet with a destination of 10.29. I will drop it even though there is a default route (0.0.0.0. for example to 10.0.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.0.0 255. please.0. Why? Why doesn’t RIP send the packet to the default route? Because RIP told you. or I will drop your packet.x route in the universe.htm What is IP Classless?  The "ip classless" command prevents the existence of a single "subnet" route from blocking access via the default route to other subnets of the same old-style network.0 into three.0.0. If you break my leg.x.0. But I bet. it will drop your packet.0 255.0. Inc. Otherwise RIP will drop the packet. Default only works with single-homed ISPs. What is classful? Classful means that a class A subnet should be shown as x. even if there is a default route. How do you ask RIP not to drop your packet and send the unknown destinations to the default route.0.3.0.1 and every other 10. after you read the following lines.0.0. you must understand a very simple logic.0 If you break 10. you will understand what it is all about.1. a class B subnet should be shown as x. RIP will not care about your default route or last resort gateway.0. you are breaking its class. Or.0 and 10. Let’s assume RIP knows about 10.0.0.0 255. you are breaking its class. if you break my class.0 If you show it as 172.net/out/IPClassless. although you have been so mean to him and have broken its class? You tell him: please. send the packet to the default.0.networkking. Here is the logic: Me and you are on a journey.4.0. First. RIP will drop it. otherwise I will drop it.Using the ip classless command (cont.2. Cisco Public             30 .4.0.) http://www.0 255.0 and 10. ip classless! If no ip classless.  RFC 1879 IP classless command is not easy to understand.255. then you must carry me all the way! If you understand this logic.x.255.255.29. ITE PC v4. drop the packet If ip classless. All rights reserved.1. if you break my class.0 such as 172. then you have to show me every damn route.0 255.255.

Cisco Public 31 .0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Behavior  ip Classless  Beginning with IOS 11.  Classless routing behavior works for -Discontiguous networks And -CIDR supernets ITE PC v4.3. “ip classless” was configured by default –The command “no ip classless” means that the route lookup process uses classful routing table lookups by default.

If a packet doesn't match a child route for the parent network route. Cisco Public 32 .  R2 receives a packet destined for PC3 at 172. –The destination’s subnet mask is a /24 and none of the child routes left most bits match the first 24 bits. then the router drops the packet. Inc. All rights reserved.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. This means packet is dropped ITE PC v4.4.Routing Behavior  Classful Routing Behavior – Search Process “no ip classless” –when classful routing behavior is in effect (no ip classless) the process will not continue searching level 1 routes in the routing table.16.10. –Even with the default route configured.

if the subnet was not in the routing table. the subnet did not exist and packet was dropped  The routing table process will not use the default route.0/0. 0.0. All rights reserved. Inc. networks were all classful This meant an organization could subnet a major network address and “enlighten” all the organization’s routers about the subnetting Therefore. Cisco Public 33 . or any other route.0. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 “no ip classless” © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Behavior  Classful Routing Behavior – Search Process  The reason why the router will not search beyond the child routes At the beginning of the Internet's growth.

In our example.Routing Behavior  The routing table process will not use the default route. Inc.0.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 34 .  This is often a very surprising result when a network administrator does not understand the difference between classful and classless routing behavior. or any other route. R2's default route is not examined nor used. A common error is to assume that a default route will always be used if the router does not have a better route. All rights reserved. “no ip classless” ITE PC v4. 0.0.0/0. although it is a match.

continue searching level 1 supernet routes in the routing table for a match.  Step 4: Match with supernet or default Supernet routes Checked first –If a match exists then forward packet Default routes Checked second  Step 5: If there is no match or no default route then the Packet is dropped ITE PC v4. All rights reserved. including the default route. if there is one.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 35 . Inc.Routing Behavior  Classless Routing Behavior- “ip classless” ip lassless  Step 3: If classless routing behavior in effect then.

Routing Behavior “ip classless”  Classless Routing Behavior – Search Process  Router begins search process by finding a match between destination IP and parent route After finding the above mentioned match. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. then there is a search of the child route  There is no match with the level 2 child routes. Cisco Public 36 . Inc.

Inc.1.168. Cisco Public 37 .0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. C 192.0/24 route does not have 24 left-most bits that match the destination IP address.168.0/24 is directly connected. All rights reserved. Serial0/0/1 ITE PC v4.1.Routing Behavior  If no match is found in child routes of previous slide then –Router continues to search the routing table for a match that may have fewer than 16 bits in the match “ip classless”  The 192.

Routing Behavior S* 0.0.0. Cisco Public 38 . Inc. because it is the best match. ITE PC v4. if no other route matches. –In this case the router will use the default route. Serial0/0/1 “ip classless”  The mask is /0. All rights reserved. The packet will be forwarded out the Serial 0/0/1 interface.0/0 is directly connected. In classless routing behavior.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.  A default route will be the lowestbit match. the default route will match. which means that zero or no bits need to match.

Inc. Cisco Public 39 .16.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.2. All rights reserved.0/16 child route and forwards the traffic out Serial 0/0/1 back to R2.10?  In this case. ITE PC v4. R3 uses the 172.0.16.Routing Behavior  What does R3 do with return traffic back to PC2 at 172.

Routing Behavior  Classful vs. Cisco Public 40 . All rights reserved.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Classless Routing Behavior -It is recommended to use classless routing behavior Reason: so supernet and default routes can be used whenever needed ITE PC v4.

63.Longest Match http://www.1.32.  router# show ip route . Cisco Public 41 . which route would the router choose?  If a packet arrives on a router interface destined for 192.168.32. and see how they look on the router..168.255) ---- (192..32.1.32.0/26 [90/25789217] via 10.32. D 192.168.html  Let's look at the three routes we just installed in the routing table.2 O 192.0 to 192.100..32. Inc.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems..168.1.1 R 192.cisco.168.168.0/24 [120/4] via 10.1.com/warp/public/105/21.1.0 to 192..32. ---- (192.3 .168.1..63) ---- (192.0/19 [110/229840] via 10.32.32.168.168.168.0 to 192.168. All rights reserved. which route would the router choose? Answers are on the next page ITE PC v4.1.32.255) POP QUIZ  If a packet arrives on a router interface destined for 192.

168.1.0 to 192.1 R 192.0 to 192.255)..168.168.168.32.32.168.0/19 [110/229840] via 10. because 192.0 through 192.1.168.168.3 . it also falls into the range covered by 192.255) ---- (192.168.168.2.32.168... but it does fall within the 192.0/24 [120/4] via 10.1.  router# show ip route .168.168.63).168.168.1.1.32.32.1.168.2 O 192.168.0/24 has a longer prefix length ITE PC v4. It also falls within the other two routes available.100 doesn't fall within 192. but the 192. Again.100 arrives on one of the router's interfaces. Cisco Public 42 . All rights reserved.168.0 through 192.168.32.32.32.63) ---- (192.0/19.1.32.com/warp/public/105/21. because 192.1.32.168.32.168. ---- (192. Inc.168.Longest Match http://www.0/26 network (192.168.0/24 destination (192.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.32.1.32.32.63.168.1 is directed toward 10.1.cisco.32. but 192.0 to 192.0 to 192.1.0/26 has the longest prefix within the routing table (26 bits verses 24 or 19 bits).1 falls within the 192.0/26 [90/25789217] via 10.32.32. and see how they look on the router.32.63).255)  If a packet destined to 192..32.  if a packet destined for 192.32..168.html  Let's look at the three routes we just installed in the routing table.0/26 (192..32. it's forwarded to 10.32.168.32.32. D 192.

0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Summary Content/structure of a routing table  Routing table entries -Directly connected networks -Static route -Dynamic routing protocols  Routing tables are hierarchical -Level 1 route Have a subnet mask that is less than or equal to classful subnet mask for the network address -Level 2 route These are subnets of a network address ITE PC v4. Cisco Public 43 . Inc.

All rights reserved.0 Chapter 1 Summary © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 44 . Inc.Routing table lookup process  Begins with examining level 1 routes for best match with packet’s destination IP  If the best match = an ultimate route then -Packet is forwarded -Else-Parent route is examined If parent route & destination IP match then Level 2 (child) routes are examined Level 2 route examination  If a match between destination IP and child route found then Packet forwarded -Else  If Router is using classful routing behavior then Packet is dropped -Else  If router is using classless routing behavior then Router searches Level 1 supernet & default routes for a match  If a match is found then Packet if forwarded -Else  Packet is dropped ITE PC v4.

Summary  Routing behaviors -This refers to how a routing table is searched  Classful routing behavior -Indicated by the use of the no ip classless command -Router will not look beyond child routes for a lesser match  Classless routing behavior -Indicated by the use of the ip classless command -Router will look beyond child routes for a lesser match ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 45 . Inc. All rights reserved.

0 Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems.ITE PC v4. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46 .

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