1oplc 2

W klnemaLlcs
W lorces and dynamlcs
W Workţ energy and power
W unlform clrcular moLlon
W ueflne dlsplacemenLţ veloclLyţ speed and acceleraLlon
W Lxplaln Lhe dlfference beLween lnsLanLaneous and average values of
speedţ veloclLy and acceleraLlon
W CuLllne Lhe condlLlons under whlch Lhe equaLlons for unlformly
acceleraLed moLlon may be applled
W ldenLlfy Lhe acceleraLlon of a body falllng ln a vacuum near Lhe
LarLh's surface wlLh Lhe acceleraLlon g of free fall
W Solve problems lnvolvlng Lhe equaLlons of unlformly acceleraLed
W uescrlbe Lhe effecLs of alr reslsLance on falllng ob[ecLs
W uraw and analyse dlsLanceŴLlme graphsţ dlsplacemenLŴLlme graphsţ
veloclLyŴLlme graphs and acceleraLlonŴLlme graphs
W ueLermlne relaLlve veloclLy ln one and Lwo dlmenslonsŦ
ulsplacemenL ls a measured dlsLance ln a glven
dlrecLlonŦ lL Lells us noL only Lhe dlsLance of an
ob[ecL from a parLlcular reference polnLţ buL also
Lhe dlrecLlon from Lhe reference polnLŦ
ulsplacemenL ls a vecLor quanLlLyŦ
A boaL salls 2Ŧ3 km LasL and Lhen 1Ŧ4 km SouLhŦ
ueLermlne Lhe dlsplacemenL of Lhe boaL from lLs
sLarLlng poslLlonŦ
Speed ls deflned as Lhe raLe aL whlch a movlng ob[ecL covers
dlsLance wlLh respecL Lo LlmeŦ
IeloclLy ls deflned as Lhe change ln dlsplacemenL of Lhe ob[ecL
dlvlded by Lhe LoLal Llme LakenŦ 1he unlLs are ms
Lxampleť deLermlne Lhe veloclLy of Lhe boaL ln Lhe prevlous
slldeţ lf lL Look 30 mlnuLes Lo compleLe Lhe courseŦ Lxpress
your answer ln ms
AcceleraLlon ls deflned as Lhe raLe of change of
ln Lhe Sl sysLemţ Lhe unlLs are meLres per second
per secondţ or ms
Lxampleť A car drlves off from a seL of Lrafflc llghLs
and reaches a speed of 60 kmh
ln 10 secondsŦ
ueLermlne Lhe average acceleraLlon of Lhe carŦ
lnsLanLaneous vs average
lf you Lravel by car beLween Lwo Lowns a dlsLance of 200 km
aparL and your [ourney Llme ls 4 hours your average speed
would be 30 kmhr
Ŧ lf you had sLopped along Lhe way for a
cup of coffeeţ Lhe quesLlon ls ralsedť whaL does Lhe readlng
on Lhe speedomeLer acLually mean? ?our average speed
may be 30 kmhr
ţ buL Lhe readlng on Lhe speedomeLer
would noL read Lhls speed Lhe enLlre [ourneyŦ
1he lnsLanLaneous speed ls Lhe speed Lhe car ls Lravelllng aLţ
when Lhe Llme lnLerval approaches 0 sŦ Llkewlseţ
lnsLanLaneous veloclLy ls Lhe lnsLanLaneous speed wlLh Lhe
dlrecLlon of Lhe car aL LhaL polnL ln LlmeŦ
1he lnsLanLaneous acceleraLlon can be descrlbed ln a slmllar
wayť lL ls Lhe acceleraLlon of Lhe car when Lhe Llme lnLerval
approaches 0 sţ ln Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe acceleraLlonŦ
unlformly acceleraLed moLlon
unlformly acceleraLed moLlon occurs when Lhe lnsLanLaneous
acceleraLlon and Lhe average acceleraLlon are Lhe same
Lhlng lŦeŦ acceleraLlon remalns consLanL LhroughouL Lhe
1here ls a seL of Lhree very useful equaLlons whlch relaLe
dlsplacemenLţ veloclLyţ acceleraLlon and LlmeŦ
t ƹ Lhe Llme for whlch Lhe body acceleraLes
o ƹ acceleraLlon
o ƹ Lhe speed aL Llme ƹ 0ţ Lhe lnlLlal speed
v ƹ Lhe speed afLer Llme tţ Lhe flnal speed
s ƹ Lhe dlsLance Lravelled ln Llme tŦ
1he flrsL equaLlon ls [usL Lhe deflnlLlon of acceleraLlonť
1he followlng graph shows Lhe varlaLlon wlLh Llme of Lhe
speed of a body movlng wlLh consLanL acceleraLlonŦ
Slnce s ƹ v x t Lhe dlsLance
Lravelled ls Lhe area under
1he speedŴLlme graphŦ
lf a body sLarLs from resLţ
1hen Lhe dlsLance Lravelledţ
AfLer t seconds lsť
lrom Lhe deflnlLlon of acceleraLlon we have o ƹ v/tţ hence
Lhe dlsLance Lravelled ln any arblLrary Llme t ls deflned
asť Ŧ
v u at





lf Lhe body sLarLs aL some speed oţ Lhen we have
Lo add Lhe exLra ot such LhaLť
(Ierlfy Lhls for yourselves uslng a slmllar graphlcal
meLhod as descrlbed ln Lhe prevlous sllde)Ŧ
s ut


We can ellmlnaLe Lhe Llme from Lhls equaLlon by
subsLlLuLlng ln from Lhe flrsL equaLlon
such LhaLť
lf we expand Lhe brackeLs and collecL up Lerms
Lhen we geLť
1hls ls Lhe Lhlrd equaLlon of Lhe seLŦ
v u
s u L
v u


v u



AcceleraLlon of lree lall
lf a ball ls dropped from resLţ Lhe dlsLance lL covers
each second ls a funcLlon of t
ţ from Lhe second
equaLlon of moLlonŦ
lf you were Lo ploL a graph of s agalnsL t
ţ from Lhe
graph you could deLermlne a value for qŦ
use Lhe kerr and 8uLh daLa seL p 37 Lo ploL a graphţ
lncludlng error barsŦ use Lhese Lo calculaLe Lhe
error ln Lhe value of q LhaL you have deLermlnedŦ
1he acceleraLlon of free falllng ob[ecLs ls
lndependenL of Lhelr massŦ
A sLone ls dropped down a well and a splash ls
heard 2Ŧ4 s laLerŦ ueLermlne Lhe dlsLance from
Lhe Lop of Lhe well Lo Lhe surface of Lhe waLerŦ
A sprlnLer sLarLs off down a Lrack aL a speed of 10
Ŧ AL Lhe same Llme a cycllsL also sLarLs off
down Lhe LrackŦ 1he cycllsL acceleraLes Lo a Lop
speed of 20 ms
ln 4Ŧ0 sŦ lgnorlng Lhe
acceleraLlon of Lhe sprlnLerţ deLermlne Lhe
dlsLance from Lhe sLarL LhaL Lhe cycllsL wlll pass
Lhe sprlnLerŦ
1he effecL of alr reslsLance
When an ob[ecL moves Lhrough Lhe alr lL ls sub[ecLed Lo a
reLardlng forceţ whlch depends on Lhe speed of Lhe ob[ecLţ
Lhe denslLy of Lhe fluld and Lhe shape of Lhe ob[ecLŦ
1hls reLardlng force ls someLlmes referred Lo as Lhe drag forceŦ
lL ls dlrecLly proporLlonal Lo Lhe speed of Lhe ob[ecL (provlded
Lhe denslLy of Lhe alr remalns consLanL)Ŧ
LffecLlvelyţ Lhls means LhaL Lhe drag force geLs greaLer and
greaLer as Lhe ob[ecL moves fasLerţ unLll Lhe drag force
reaches a value equal Lo Lhe acceleraLlng forceŦ
AL Lhls polnLţ Lhe ob[ecL wlll no longer acceleraLeţ and has
reached lLs Lermlnal veloclLyŦ
9oslLlon Llme graphs
When an ob[ecL's poslLlon ls ploLLed agalnsL
Llmeţ Lhe gradlenL of Lhe graph ls acLually Lhe
1o deLermlne Lhe lnsLanLaneous veloclLy we [usL
calculaLe Lhe gradlenL aL LhaL parLlcular polnLŦ lf Lhe
graph ls curvedţ Lhen we draw a LangenL aL LhaL polnL
and calculaLe lLs gradlenLŦ
IeloclLyŴLlme graphs
Lven more lnformaLlon can be galned from veloclLyŴLlme
1he acceleraLlon ls Lhe gradlenL of Lhe sLralghL llneţ and
Lhe dlsLance covered ls Lhe area under Lhe graphŦ
lor Lhe followlng graph on Lhe nexL sllde deLermlneť
1he acceleraLlon of Lhe ob[ecL beLween L ƹ 4 and 6 s
1he LoLal dlsLance covered by Lhe ob[ecL
1he LoLal dlsplacemenL of Lhe ob[ecL
1he average veloclLy of Lhe ob[ecL
1he average acceleraLlon of Lhe ob[ecL
AcceleraLlonŴLlme graphs
lf Lhe acceleraLlon of an ob[ecL varles lL ls qulLe Lrlcky Lo
calculaLe Lhe veloclLy of Lhe ob[ecL afLer a glven LlmeŦ
Poweverţ we can use an acceleraLlonŴLlme graph Lo solve
Lhe problemŦ !usL as Lhe area under a veloclLyŴLlme graph
glves Lhe dlsLance Lravelledţ Lhe area under an acceleraLlonŴ
Llme graph ls Lhe change ln speed achlevedŦ
Lxampleť Lhe acceleraLlon of an ob[ecL lncreases unlformly aL
a raLe of 3Ŧ0 ms
every secondŦ lf Lhe ob[ecL sLarLs from
resLţ calculaLe lLs speed afLer 10 sŦ (uraw a graph LhaL
descrlbes Lhe moLlon and use lL Lo answer Lhe quesLlon)
Lxamples Lo Lry
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ1 (a) p 34
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ1 (b) p 37
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ1 (c) p 39
8elaLlve MoLlon
Suppose LhaL you are sLandlng on a rallway sLaLlon
plaLform and a Lraln passes you Lravelllng aL 30
Ŧ A passenger on Lhe Lraln ls walklng along
Lhe corrldor ln Lhe dlrecLlon of Lravel of Lhe Lraln
aL a speed of 1 ms
Ŧ lrom your polnL of vlewţ Lhe
speed of Lhe person ln Lhe Lraln ls 31 ms
Cenerally speaklngţ lf Lhe veloclLy of a parLlcle A
relaLlve Lo an asslgned polnL or reference frame C
ls I
and Lhe veloclLy of a parLlcle 8 relaLlve Lo Lhe
same polnL ls I
ţ Lhen Lhe veloclLy of A relaLlve Lo
8 ls Lhe vecLor dlfference I
lorces and uynamlcs
W CalculaLe Lhe welghL of a body uslng Lhe expresslons W ƹ mg
W ldenLlfy Lhe forces acLlng on an ob[ecL and draw freeŴbody dlagrams
represenLlng Lhe forces acLlngŦ
W ueLermlne Lhe resulLanL force ln dlfferenL slLuaLlonsŦ
W SLaLe newLon's flrsL law of MoLlon
W uescrlbe Lhe examples of newLon's flrsL Law
W SLaLe Lhe condlLlon for LranslaLlonal equlllbrlum
W Solve problems lnvolvlng LranslaLlonal equlllbrlum
W SLaLe newLon's second law of moLlon
W Solve problems lnvolvlng newLon's second law
W ueflne llnear momenLum and lmpulse
W ueLermlne Lhe lmpulse due Lo a Llme varylng force by lnLerpreLlng a forceŴ
Llme graph
W SLaLe Lhe law of conservaLlon of llnear momenLum
W Solve problems lnvolvlng momenLum and lmpulse
W SLaLe newLon's Lhlrd law of moLlon
W ulscuss examples of newLon's Lhlrd law
Mass and WelghL
Mass ls one of Lhe fundamenLal properLles of all maLLer
and essenLlally measures a body's lnerLlaţ LhaL lsţ a
body's relucLance Lo change lLs sLaLe of moLlonŦ
1rylng Lo descrlbe Lhe meanlng of Lhe word ºmass" ls
furLher compllcaLed by Lhe facL LhaL Lhere are Lwo
Lypes of massť lnerLlal mass and gravlLaLlonal mass (Lhe
mass LhaL glves rlse Lo Lhe gravlLaLlonal aLLracLlon
beLween Lwo bodles)Ŧ
ln Lhe prevlous secLlonţ we saw LhaL acceleraLlon of free
fall ls lndependenL of Lhe mass of an ob[ecLŦ 1hls
suggesLs LhaL gravlLaLlonal mass and lnerLlal mass are
When we Lalk abouL Lhe welghL of a bodyţ whaL
we acLually mean ls Lhe gravlLaLlonal force LhaL
Lhe LarLh exerLs on Lhe bodyŦ So welghL ls a
forceţ and slnce Lhe force of gravlLy varles from
place Lo place and also wlLh helghL above Lhe
LarLh's surfaceţ Lhe welghL of a body wlll also
vary buL lLs lnerLlal and gravlLaLlonal mass
remalns consLanLŦ
W ƹ mg
1o a physlclsLţ a force ls recognlsed by Lhe effecL or effecLs
LhaL lL producesŦ
A force ls someLhlng LhaL can cause an ob[ecL Loť
W ueform
W Speed up
W Slow down
W Change dlrecLlon
1he lasL Lhree can be summarlsed by sLaLlng LhaL a force
produces an acceleraLlonŦ Slnce a force can produce an
acceleraLlonţ lL ls a vecLor quanLlLyŦ
1ypes of forces
1here are many Lypes of forcesť welghLţ Lenslonţ
normal forceţ dragţ upLhrusLţ frlcLlonţ sprlng
All of Lhese forces can be dlsplayed uslng a free
body dlagramŦ 1he body ls shown on lLs ownţ free
of lLs surroundlngsŦ 1he dlrecLlon of Lhe arrow
shows Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe force and Lhe lengLh of
Lhe arrow represenLs Lhe magnlLude of Lhe forceŦ
All forces should be drawn from Lhe cenLre of
gravlLy of Lhe ob[ecLŦ
lundamenLal forces
ln 9hyslcs Lhere are four fundamenLal forcesť
W CravlLaLlonal force Ŷ Lhe weakesL of Lhe four
W WeakŴlnLeracLlon Ŷ Lhls force ls responslble for
cerLaln aspecLs of Lhe radloacLlve decay of nuclel
W LlecLromagneLlc lnLeracLlon Ŷ Lhe force LhaL exlsLs
beLween parLlcles as a consequence of Lhe
elecLrlcal charge Lhey carry
W SLrong nuclear force Ŷ Lhe force LhaL holds Lhe
proLons and neuLrons LogeLher ln Lhe nucleusŦ
Lxampleť Lwo forces acL on parLlcle 9 as shown ln
Lhe flgure belowŦ ueLermlne Lhe magnlLude of
Lhe neL force acLlng ln Lhe horlzonLal dlrecLlon
and Lhe magnlLude of Lhe neL force acLlng ln
Lhe verLlcal dlrecLlonţ and hence deLermlne Lhe
resulLanL force acLlng on 9Ŧ
6Ŧ0 n
4Ŧ0 n
Lxamples Lo Lry
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ2 (b) p 43
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ2 (c) p 46
newLon's flrsL law
Lvery ob[ecL conLlnues ln a sLaLe of resL or unlform
moLlon ln a sLralghL llne unless acLed upon by an
exLernal forceŦ
lf you ellmlnaLe frlcLlon and glve an ob[ecL a
momenLary pushţ lL wlll conLlnue movlng ln Lhe
dlrecLlon of Lhe push wlLh a consLanL veloclLy
unLll lL ls acLed upon by anoLher force (Lhlnk puck
on an lce rlnk ln lceŴhockey)Ŧ
A passenger ln a car LhaL suddenly sLops wlll
conLlnue ln hls or her forward moLlon unLll
resLralned by Lhe seaLbelLŦ
CondlLlon for LranslaLlonal equlllbrlum
1here are essenLlally Lwo Lypes of equlllbrlum Ŷ
sLaLlc and dynamlcŦ lf an ob[ecL ls aL resL Lhen
lL ls ln sLaLlc equlllbrlumţ and lf lL ls movlng
wlLh consLanL veloclLy Lhen lL ls ln dynamlc
ln boLh casesţ Lhe neL force on Lhe ob[ecL musL
be equal Lo zeroŦ We can express Lhls
maLhemaLlcally asť

newLon's second law of moLlon
newLon's flrsL law ls quallLaLlve ln naLureŦ 1he second law
ls quanLlLaLlveŦ lL descrlbes Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween
forceţ mass and acceleraLlonŦ
We have seen LhaL a force produces an acceleraLlon when
lL acLs on a parLlcle and newLon argued LhaL for a glven
parLlcleţ Lhe acceleraLlon ls dlrecLly proporLlonal Lo Lhe
force acLlng and ls ln Lhe same dlrecLlon as Lhe applled
lurLhermoreţ Lhe consLanL of proporLlonallLy LhaL relaLes
Lhe Lwo ls Lhe lnerLlal mass of Lhe parLlcleŦ
We can Lherefore wrlLeť
Cne newLon ls Lhe force requlred Lo acceleraLe a
mass of 1 kg by 1 ms
ln Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe
1here are many slLuaLlons where Lhe mass of Lhe
sysLem does noL remaln consLanL Ŷ eŦgŦ A
rockeL LhaL burns fuelţ or sand falllng onLo a
conveyor belLŦ lL ls Lherefore helpful Lo express
Lhe law ln a more general formť
m L
A man of massţ m ƹ 70 kg sLands on Lhe floor of
an elevaLorŦ llnd Lhe force of reacLlon he
experlences from Lhe elevaLor floor whenť
(a) 1he elevaLor ls sLandlng sLlll
(b) 1he elevaLor moves up aL a consLanL speed of
3 ms
(c) 1he elevaLor moves up wlLh acceleraLlon 4
(d) 1he elevaLor moves down wlLh acceleraLlon 4
A hoL alr balloon of mass 130 kg ls Lled Lo Lhe
ground wlLh a rope (of negllglble mass)Ŧ When
Lhe rope ls cuL Lhe balloon rlses wlLh an
acceleraLlon of 2 ms
Ŧ WhaL was Lhe Lenslon ln
Lhe rope?
More examples Lo Lry
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ2 (d) p 30ţ plus work Lhrough Lhe
worked example on page 30 also
1he moLlon of a body along a sLralghL llne LhaL ls
kepL aL an angle Lo Lhe horlzonLal (lncllned plane)
ls an lmporLanL appllcaLlon of newLon's lawsŦ
lor exampleť a mass of m ƹ 2Ŧ0 kg ls held on a
frlcLlonless lncllned plane of 30¨Ŧ WhaL ls Lhe
acceleraLlon of Lhe mass lf lL ls released?
1here are Lwo forces acLlng on Lhe mass Ŷ lLs
welghLţ whlch acLs verLlcally downţ and Lhe
reacLlon from Lhe planeţ whlch ls perpendlcular
Lo Lhe planeŦ
ln order Lo solve Lhe problemţ we need Lo flnd Lhe
componenLs of Lhese Lwo forces along Lwo
muLually perpendlcular axesţ one belng along Lhe
planeţ and Lhe oLher ls perpendlcular Lo lLŦ
1he force 8 ls already along one of Lhe axes so we
don'L boLher wlLh LhaLţ buL mg ls noLŦ 1he
magnlLude of Lhe componenL of mg along Lhe
plane ls ¯qsloand Lhe componenL
perpendlcular Lo Lhe plane ls ¯qcos
1he neL force acLlng ln Lhe dlrecLlon perpendlcular
Lo Lhe plane ls 0 n Ŷ Lhe ¯qcos componenL of
Lhe welghL force balances Lhe normal forceŦ
ln Lhe dlrecLlon along Lhe planeţ Lhere ls a slngle
unbalanced forceţ and Lherefore by newLon's
second lawţ Lhls force wlll equal mass Llmes
acceleraLlon ln LhaL same dlrecLlonŦ
lŦeŦ ¯qslo ¯o
noLe LhaL Lhe acceleraLlon does noL depend on
Lhe massŦ
Llnear momenLum and lmpulse
newLon broughL LogeLher Lhe ldea of quanLlLy of moLlonţ ln whlch he
brlngs LogeLher Lhe lnerLla of a body and Lhe speed wlLh whlch lL ls
movlngŦ 1he Lwo quanLlLles mass and speed do seem Lo be llnked ln
Lhe sense LhaL Laken LogeLher Lhey have an effecL on lnerLlaŦ
An ocean llner of mass several Lhousand Lonnes movlng aL even a very
low speed Lakes a loL of sLopplngŦ Slmllarlyţ a bulleL wlLh a very hlgh
speed and low mass Lakes a loL of force Lo sLop lLŦ
1he producL of mass and veloclLy ls deflned as momenLumţ unlLs kgms
MaLhemaLlcally lL can be wrlLLen asť
½ ƹ ¯v
As you have seen on a prevlous slldeţ we can express
momenLum change asť
1he change ln momenLum can be descrlbed as Lhe
l¯½olse of Lhe forceŦ
1hls form descrlbes newLon's second law ln a more
general form Lhan Lhe l ƹ maţ as lL Lakes lnLo
conslderaLlon cases LhaL experlence a changlng

Suppose Lhe force exerLed on a fooLball when lL ls klcked
varles wlLh Llme as shownť
Slnce Lhe area under Lhe graph ls equal Lo Lhe lmpulse we
can calculaLe Lhe speed wlLh whlch Lhe fooLball leaves
Lhe fooL lf we know Lhe mass of Lhe ballŦ
time (s)

47.e (N)

Lxampleť WaLer ls poured from a helghL of 0Ŧ30m on Lo a
Lop pan balance aL Lhe raLe of 30 llLres per mlnuLeŦ
LsLlmaLe Lhe readlng on Lhe scale of Lhe balanceŦ
(Assume Lhe waLer bounces off Lhe balance
lrom Lhe equaLlon v
ƹ 2asţ we have
ƹ 2 x 10 x 0Ŧ3
So v ƹ 3Ŧ2 ms
1he mass of Lhe waLer arrlvlng aL Lhe balance per second
ls 0Ŧ3 kgs
(1 llLre of waLer has a mass of 1 kg)Ŧ
1he raLe of change of momenLum ls Lherefore
0Ŧ3 x 32 ƹ 1Ŧ6 n
lf Lhe balance ls callbraLed ln gramsţ Lhe readlng would be
abouL 160 gŦ
Law of conservaLlon of momenLum
lf Lhe LoLal exLernal force acLlng on a sysLem ls zero
Lhen Lhe momenLum of Lhe sysLem remalns
consLanL (unchanged/conserved)Ŧ
Conslder a sysLem LhaL ls comprlsed of Lwo parLlcles
LhaL collldeŦ 1he neL force acLlng on Lhe sysLem ls
zero because Lhe parLlcles follow newLon's Lhlrd
law (explanaLlon Lo come!) 1hereforeţ ln Lhe
colllslon processţ Lhe LoLal momenLum before Lhe
colllslon musL be equal Lo Lhe LoLal momenLum
afLer Lhe colllslonŦ
Lxampleť LsLlmaLe Lhe force exerLed on a man
who [umps off a wall of helghL 2Ŧ0 m and lands
ln sofL earLhŦ (LsLlmaLe Lhe Llme LhaL he comes
Lo resL as 2Ŧ0 s)Ŧ
Lxplaln why he would be llkely Lo hurL hlmself
lf he landed on concreLeŦ
More examples Lo Lryť Lxerclse 2Ŧ2 (e) p 34
newLon's 1hlrd Law of MoLlon
When a force acLs on a bodyţ an equal and opposlLe force acLs on
anoLher body somewhere ln Lhe unlverseŦ
lf ob[ecL A exerLs a force on ob[ecL 8ţ Lhen ob[ecL 8 wlll exerL a force
LhaL ls equal ln magnlLude and opposlLe ln dlrecLlon on ob[ecL AŦ
lL ls really lmporLanL LhaL Lhe correcL sysLem ls ldenLlfled when
newLon's Lhlrd law ls applledŦ newLon's Lhlrd law does noL mean
LhaL Lhe neL force on everyLhlng ls always zero!
lor exampleť you sLand on rollerŴskaLes faclng a wallŦ ?ou push on Lhe
wall and you move away from lLŦ 1hls ls because you exerLed a force
on Lhe wall and ln Lurn Lhe wall exerLed an equal and opposlLe force
on youţ maklng you acceleraLe awayŦ
8e careful wlLh slLuaLlons where Lwo forces are
equal and opposlLe buL have noLhlng Lo do wlLh
Lhe Lhlrd lawŦ lor exampleţ a block of mass 3 kg
resLlng on a horlzonLal Lable has Lwo forces acLlng
on lL Ŷ welghL and normal forcesŦ 1hese forces are
equal and opposlLeţ buL Lhey are acLlng on Lhe
same bodyţ and so have noLhlng Lo do wlLh
newLon's Lhlrd lawŦ
newLon's Lhlrd law also applles Lo cases where Lhe
force beLween Lwo bodles acLs aL a dlsLance Ŷ for
exampleţ any Lwo masses wlll aLLracL each oLher
wlLh gravlLaLlonal forceŦ
Lxample Lo Lry
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ2 (f) p 36
Workţ Lnergy and 9ower
W CuLllne whaL ls meanL by work
W ueLermlne Lhe work done by a nonŴconsLanL force by lnLerpreLlng a
forceŴdlsplacemenL graphŦ
W Solve problems lnvolvlng Lhe work done by a force
W CuLllne whaL ls meanL by klneLlc energy
W CuLllne whaL ls meanL by change ln gravlLaLlonal poLenLlal energy
W SLaLe Lhe prlnclple of conservaLlon of energy
W LlsL dlfferenL forms of energy and descrlbe examples of Lhe
LransformaLlon of energy from one form Lo anoLher
W ulsLlngulsh beLween elasLlc and lnelasLlc colllslons
W ueflne power
W ueflne and apply Lhe concepL of efflclency
W Solve problems lnvolvlng momenLumţ workţ energy and powerŦ
When a consLanL force l acLs on a body of mass mţ
Lhe body moves a dlsLance s along a sLralghL llneŦ
1he force ls always acLlng upon Lhe body as lL
movesŦ We deflne a quanLlLy called Lhe work
done by Lhe force by Lhe relaLlonshlpť
J ƹ ls
where W ls Lhe symbol for workţ l ls force and s ls
Lhe dlsLance Lhe ob[ecL has moved lo tbe
Jltectloo of tbe fotceŦ
1he unlL for work ls Lhe [oule (!)Ŧ
Whlch wlll cause Lhe mosL work Lo be
1he glrl ln below pulls Lhe carL by applylng a force of 30 n aL
an angle of 30¨ Lo Lhe horlzonLalŦ Assumlng a force due Lo
frlcLlon of 10 n ls also acLlng on Lhe wheels of Lhe carLţ
calculaLe Lhe neL work done on Lhe carL lf
Lhe carL ls moved 10 m along Lhe ground ln a sLralghL llneŦ
lf Lhe force ls applled perpend|cu|ar Lo Lhe dlrecLlon
of moLlonţ no work |s doneŦ
1hls means LhaL lf you llfL a 1I you do work agalnsL
gravlLyţ buL lf you carry a 1I across Lhe roomţ you
are not do|ng workŦ (AL leasL ln a 9hyslcs senseŦ)
WhaL abouL frlcLlon?
lf a load ls dragged across a surface or medlum
where Lhere ls frlcLlonţ we [usL flnd Lhe neL force
applled Lo Lhe ob[ecL and deLermlne Lhe work
Lxampleť lvan pushes a craLe 3m along Lhe floor
by applylng a force of 300nŦ lf Lhe frlcLlonal force
has a magnlLude of 100nţ whaL ls Lhe work done
on Lhe craLe?
We can use a forceŴdlsplacemenL graph Lo deLermlne Lhe
work done when Lhe force applled Lo an ob[ecL ls noL
We slmply flnd Lhe area under Lhe graph Lo deLermlne Lhe
work doneŦ
When a sprlng ls sLreLched or compressedţ work ls done Ŷ
Lhere are many everyday examples LhaL demonsLraLe LhaL a
compressed or sLreLched sprlng has Lhe poLenLlal Lo do
work (see how many you can descrlbe!)
1o Lhe lefL ls a ploL of a
sprlng force agalnsL
1he area under Lhe graph ls equal
Lo Lhe work doneŦ
lL can be seen Lhen LhaL buL ln Lhls caseţ l ƹ ks
(a funcLlon of Lhe sprlng and lLs dlsplacemenL)Ŧ
Pence Lhe work done ls



A man drags a sack of flour of mass 30 kg aL a
consLanL speed up an lncllned plane Lo a
helghL of 3Ŧ0 mŦ 1he plane makes an angle of
30¨ wlLh Lhe horlzonLal and a consLanL
frlcLlonal force of 200 n acLs on Lhe sack down
Lhe planeŦ
(a) 1he work done agalnsL frlcLlon
(b) 1he work done agalnsL gravlLyŦ
klneLlc Lnergy
A movlng ob[ecL possesses Lhe capaclLy Lo do
workŦ A hammerţ for exampleţ can be used Lo
do work ln drlvlng a nall lnLo a plece of woodŦ
We can use Lhe equaLlon v
ƹ u
+ 2as and
l ƹ ma Lo flnd an expresslon for Lhe speed of
Lhe ob[ecL afLer lL has moved a dlsLance (s)Ŧ
lrom Lhls we geLť ţ Lhe klneLlc energy
of Lhe bodyŦ


A useful relaLlonshlp exlsLs beLween klneLlc
energy and momenLumť
p ƹ mv so p
ƹ m
Ŧ SubsLlLuLlng for v
ţ we haveť
ƹ p
9oLenLlal Lnergy
9oLenLlal energy ls ºsLored" energyŦ Chemlcal poLenLlal energy
ls Lhe energy LhaL ls sLored ln Lhe chemlcal bonds of a
subsLanceŦ LlasLlc poLenLlal energy ls Lhe sLored energy of a
compressed or sLreLched sprlngŦ CravlLaLlonal poLenLlal
energy ls energy LhaL ls sLored by vlrLue of an ob[ecL's
poslLlon ln a gravlLaLlonal fleldŦ
Work ls done on a mass Lo llfL lL Lo a helghL h above Lhe
surface of Lhe earLhŦ 1he force requlred Lo do Lhls ls l ƹ mgŦ
1hereforeţ Lhe resulLlng relaLlonshlp for gravlLaLlonal poLenLlal
energy lsť

1he prlnclple of conservaLlon of
1he LoLal energy of a sysLem ls
always conservedŦ Conslder
an ob[ecL aL Lhe Lop of an
lncllned planeţ wlLh a cerLaln
amounL of gravlLaLlonal
poLenLlal energyŦ As Lhe mass
comes down Lhe planeţ lLs
poLenLlal energy decreases
buL lLs klneLlc energy
lncreases ln such a way LhaL
Lhe LoLal energy of Lhe mass
ls conservedŦ
CalculaLe Lhe lnlLlal veloclLy requlred for a
poleŴvaulLer Lo pass over a hlgh barŦ Assume
Lhe vaulLer's cenLre of gravlLy rlses Lhrough a
helghL of 3 m and passes over Lhe bar wlLh a
horlzonLal veloclLy of 1Ŧ2 m s
ţ and LhaL all of
hls lnlLlal horlzonLal klneLlc energy ls
Lransferred lnLo
use q ƹ 9Ŧ8 ¯ s
A cllmber abselllng down a cllff uses frlcLlon
beLween Lhe cllmblng rope and speclallsed
meLal flLLlngs Lo slow downŦ lf a cllmber of
mass 73 kg abselllng down a cllff of helghL
43 m reaches a veloclLy of 3Ŧ2 m s
by Lhe
Llme Lhe ground ls reachedţ calculaLe Lhe
average frlcLlonal force applledŦ
use q ƹ 9Ŧ8 ¯ s
CLher Lypes of energy and energy
1hermal energy ls essenLlally Lhe klneLlc energy of aLoms
and moleculesŦ
Chemlcal energy ls assoclaLed wlLh Lhe elecLronlc
sLrucLure of aLomsŦ
nuclear energy ls assoclaLed wlLh Lhe nuclear sLrucLure of
aLoms and Lhe sLrong nuclear forceŦ
LlecLrlcal energy ls usually assoclaLed wlLh an elecLrlc
currenL Ŷ lL ls usually Lransformed lnLo Lhermalţ klneLlc
and llghL energyŦ
As far as we knowţ energy can never be creaLed or
desLroyedţ buL ls Lransformed from one form Lo
LlasLlc and lnelasLlc colllslons
MomenLum ls always conservedţ energy ls always
conservedţ buL klneLlc energy ls noL always conservedŦ
Colllslons ln whlch mechanlcal energy ls noL losL are
called elasLlc colllslonsŦ 8y applylng Lhe laws of
conservaLlon of momenLum and energyţ we flnd LhaL ln
elasLlc colllslonsţ klneLlc energy ls always conservedŦ
Colllslons ln whlch mechanlcal energy ls losL are called
lnelasLlc colllslons Ŷ klneLlc energy ls noL conservedŦ
9ower ls Lhe raLe aL whlch energy ls expendedţ
or work ls doneŦ
lL ls measured ln WaLLs (W)Ŧ

1hls relaLlonshlp can also be expressed asť
1he efflclency of an englne ls deflned asť



A dlesel locomoLlve ls pulllng a Lraln aL lLs maxlmum
speed of 60 ms
Ŧ AL Lhls speed Lhe power ouLpuL of Lhe
englne ls 3Ŧ0 MWŦ CalculaLe Lhe LracLlve force exerLed
by Lhe wheels on Lhe LrackŦ
An englne wlLh a power ouLpuL of 1Ŧ2 kW drags an ob[ecL
of welghL 1000 n aL a consLanL speed up an lncllned
plane LhaL makes an angle of 30¨ wlLh Lhe horlzonLalŦ A
consLanL frlcLlonal force of 300 n acLs beLween Lhe
ob[ecL and Lhe plane and Lhe ob[ecL ls dragged a
dlsLance of 8Ŧ0 mŦ ueLermlne Lhe speed of Lhe ob[ecL
and Lhe efflclency of Lhe englneŦ
Lxamples Lo Lry
W Work Lhrough Lhe examples on pages 63 Ŷ 64
of LexL
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ3 p 66
unlform Clrcular MoLlon
W uraw a vecLor dlagram Lo lllusLraLe LhaL Lhe
acceleraLlon of a parLlcle movlng wlLh
consLanL speed ln a clrcle ls dlrecLed Loward
Lhe cenLre of Lhe clrcleŦ
W Apply Lhe expresslon for cenLrlpeLal
W ldenLlfy Lhe force produclng clrcular moLlon ln
varlous slLuaLlons
W Solve problems lnvolvlng clrcular moLlon
When an ob[ecL has a force LhaL acLs
perpendlcular Lo lLs dlrecLlon of moLlonţ Lhls
force does noL change Lhe speed of Lhe ob[ecLţ
buL does change lLs dlrecLlonŦ lf Lhe force ls
consLanL ln magnlLudeţ and always
perpendlcular Lo Lhe dlrecLlon of Lravelţ Lhe
ob[ecL ls forced Lo move ln a clrcle Ŷ unlform
clrcular moLlonŦ
1he dlrecLlon of Lhe force LhaL causes Lhls moLlon
ls always dlrecLed Lowards Lhe cenLre of Lhe
kerr and 8uLh go Lhrough Lhe derlvaLlon of Lhe
equaLlon for cenLrlpeLal acceleraLlon Ŷ lL ls noL
a requlremenL of Lhe courseŦ (p 67)
CenLrlpeLal acceleraLlon (or ºcenLre seeklng"
acceleraLlon) can be deLermlned uslng Lhe

A geoŴsLaLlonary saLelllLe ls one LhaL orblLs LarLh
ln 24 hoursŦ 1he orblLal radlus of Lhe saLelllLe
ls 4Ŧ2 x 10
mŦ CalculaLe Lhe acceleraLlon of
Lhe saLelllLe and sLaLe Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe
lorce causlng cenLrlpeLal acceleraLlon
We can flnd Lhe expresslon for Lhe force LhaL
causes cenLrlpeLal acceleraLlon (some LexLs
call Lhls Lhe cenLrlpeLal force) by uslng
newLon's second lawť


Lxamples of cenLrlpeLal force
1here are many Lypes of forces LhaL cause
cenLrlpeLal acceleraLlon lncludlngť
W CravlLaLlonal force
W lrlcLlonal force
W MagneLlc force
W 1enslon force
A model aeroplane of mass 0Ŧ23 kg has a conLrol
wlre of lengLh 10Ŧ0 m aLLached Lo lLŦ WhllsL
held ln Lhe hand of Lhe conLroller lL flles ln a
horlzonLal clrcle wlLh a speed of 20 ms
CalculaLe Lhe Lenslon ln Lhe wlreŦ
A ºwall of deaLh" moLorcycllsL rldes hls
moLorcycle ln a verLlcal clrcle of radlus 20 mŦ
CalculaLe Lhe mlnlmum speed LhaL he musL
have aL Lhe Lop of Lhe clrcle ln order Lo
compleLe Lhe loopŦ
(PlnLť you wlll need Lo conslder Lhe effecL of
gravlLy ln Lhls lnsLance Ŷ draw a free body
dlagram of all of Lhe forces acLlng on Lhe blke
before you begln!)
Lxamples Lo Lry
W Lxerclse 2Ŧ4 p 70
W Mlscellaneous quesLlons on 1oplc 2 p 71 Ŵ 72

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@ ¯°€f  f°–f¾f–° f¾  ½ff°f°–  °f%°n° ½f° % ¾f°¯½f°f½½nf°€- °#¾f¾  f¯½ f¯f¾¾€¯  –¾  °f €n° ¾¾°n° ½f° € Jf¾  fnn  f°€ ¯f¾¾€¾  f¾ " @  f €n ¾fn°–° ¯f¾¾ ¾  – nfn¾ nf ° f°    fn°€¯ ½f° n¾½ ½ ° nf  ½f° ° ¾  ½  ¯  ° €°   n¯½° °¾€ ¾ €n ¾f°– ¯f½ ½ ° nff ¾ °  °–f°–  ½f° f°   ¾½ ½ ° nf .

@ €n ¾f f f°–° € f ¾¾  °#  f  ¯–¾° @  ¯f–° € n¯½° °€¯–f°–  ½f° ¾¯–¾° f°  n¯½° ° ½ ½ ° nf ½f° ¾¯–n¾  ¯– @ ° €n fn°–°   n°½ ½ ° nf  ½f° ¾-  ¯–n¾ n¯½° °€   –€n  ff°n ¾ °¯f€n .

°   n°f°– ½f°   ¾f¾°–  ° ff°n €n f°   €  - °#¾ ¾ n° f ¾€n  f¯f¾¾¯ ¾ fnn  f°°f¾f¯   n°  ¯–¾° ¯f - f fnn  f°  ¾° ½ ° °  ¯f¾¾ .

f ¯fnfnf°  °f¾ ½ ¯ .° f¯¯ °¯f° ¯½¾ - ° ––    f€f°€¯° °n  °–¾–   ° f€f  f°  ¾½ n¾ ¯°– @ f° ¾¯f¾¾f° ¾½  ¾ ¯ ° °  ¾ °¾ ff °–   f f° €€ n°° f °n f°° €¯f¾¾¾  f¾f° °° ¾¯°–f  °f  ¾½ f ¾f€¾½½°– ¯f f  f – ¾½ f° ¯f¾¾f ¾f€€n ¾½ @ ½ n€¯f¾¾f°  n¾ €° f¾¯¯ °¯ °¾–¯¾  .

¾f ¾ °°f½ ¾¾  nf° ½ ¾¾ ¯¯ °¯nf°– f¾ @ nf°– °¯¯ °¯nf°  ¾n f¾  ¯½¾ € €n @¾€¯ ¾n ¾- °#¾¾ n° f°f¯  – ° f€¯f°  ¯f f¾f ¾° n°¾ f°nf¾ ¾f ½  °n fnf°–°– ¯f¾¾ 9 5   .

74  °n  f f°  –f½¾ f ¯½¾   nf°nfnf  ¾½ n € f f ¾  €€ ° ¯f¾¾€  f 8 029            .½½¾  €n    °f€ f °¾n  f ¾¯ f¾¾°  0.

f¯½ Jf ¾½ €¯f –€ ¯°f ½½f° ff°n f f € ¾½ ¯°  ¾¯f   f °–° ¾nf €  ff°n  %¾¾¯  f  °n ¾€€  ff°n  °f% ¯  f° f¾  f       ¯¾  @ ¯f¾¾€ f f°–f  ff°n ½ ¾ n°  ¾ –¾  % €f f¾f¯f¾¾€–% @ f €nf°– €¯¯ °¯¾  €    €  ff°n ¾nf f °–f¯¾   f °–   f – .

f€n°¾ f°€¯¯ °¯ € f  °f€n fn°–°f¾¾ ¯¾   ° ¯¯ °¯€ ¾¾ ¯ ¯f°¾ n°¾f°%°nf°– $n°¾  % .

°¾ f¾¾ ¯f¾n¯½¾ €½fn ¾ fn @ ° €n fn°–° ¾¾ ¯¾   nf¾  ½fn ¾€- °#¾  f% ½f°f°n¯ "%@  € °  n¾°½n ¾¾  f¯¯ °¯ €   n¾°¯¾  f f¯¯ °¯ f€  n¾° .

f¯½ ¾¯f  €n    °f¯f° ©¯½¾€€ff€ – ¯f° f° ¾ °¾€ f %¾¯f  ¯ f n¯ ¾  ¾f¾ ¾% ½f°    ¯¾ € € f° °n°n  .  f¯½ ¾  n¾  % %½ .

° J °f€n fn¾°f   f° ff° ½½¾ €n fn¾° f°   ¾¯   ° ° ¾ € © n  ¾f€n ° © n  ° © n   f€n  f¾ f°¯f–° f° ½½¾ °  n°° © n ¾ f¯½f°f n n¾¾ ¯¾ °€  ° - °#¾ f¾f½½ - °#¾ f  ¾°¯ f° f ° €n °  °–¾ff¾ "  f¯½ ¾f° °  ¾f ¾€fn°–ff ½¾°  ff° ¯ ff€¯ @¾¾ nf¾    f€n  ° ff° °° f   f° ff° ½½¾ €n  ° ¯f°–fnn  f ff .- °#¾@ f€.

nf €¾f°¾  €n ¾f  ff° ½½¾  f °°–    f  f¯½ f n€¯f¾¾–  ¾°–°f°ff  f¾€n ¾fn°– °  –f° °¯f€n ¾ @ ¾ €n ¾f  ff° ½½¾   f fn°–°  ¾f¯    f° ¾f °°–  - °#¾ f - °#¾ ff¾f½½ ¾nf¾ ¾    €n   °   ¾fn¾ff ¾f°n  € f¯½ f°¯f¾¾ ¾ffn fn  –ff°f€n .

f¯½  W  n¾  %€%½ .

J ° –f° 9  W ° f¾¯ f°  W   ¯°   °  f°° n°¾f°€n  ° ½ °–f €n ¾½fn ¯ °–f½ W  ½  ¯¾°°–  °  f€n W ° f¾¯ f° ° n ° – W ° f¾¯ f° nf°– °–ff°f½ °f ° – W f  ½°n½ €n°¾ f°€ ° – W ¾ €€  °€¯¾€ ° –f°  ¾n  f¯½ ¾€  f°¾€¯f°€ ° –€¯° €¯f°  W ¾°–¾  ° f¾nf° ° f¾nn¾°¾ W  €° ½  W  €° f° f½½ n°n ½€ €€n °n W  ½  ¯¾°°–¯¯ °¯   ° –f° ½  .

J J °fn°¾f°€n fn¾°f  €¯f¾¾¯     ¯ ¾f ¾f°n ¾f°–f¾f–°  @ €n ¾ff¾fn°–½°   f¾ ¯ ¾ J  €° ff°nf   °   €n    f°¾½ J ¾   J¾ ¾¯ € ¾€n f° ¾¾   ¾f°n   © nf¾¯ °   n°€ €n @ °€¾ © %% .

Jnnf¾  ¯¾  ° " .

f¯½ @ –° ½¾ nf f½½°–f€n €-f f°f°– €  °f ¾¾¯°–f€n    €n°€-¾f¾fn°–°  ¾€ nf  nfnf  °  ° ° nf€  nf¾¯ ¯f°– –° °f¾f–° .

¯½f°" € €n ¾f½½ ½ ½ ° nf    n° €¯° °¾ °  @¾¯ f°¾f€€f@I f–f°¾ –f  €nff@Ifn¾¾ ¯  f ° °– % f¾°f9¾n¾¾ °¾ % .

€ €n°f€n  f¾f¯f–° €.Jff €n°" €ff ¾ f–– fn¾¾f¾€fn ¯ ¯     ¾€n°  ©¾€°  ° €n  f½½   © nf°   ¯°   ° f¯½ f°½¾ ¾fnf ¯f°– € f½½°–f€n €.f¾  °  ° nf " .

J nf°¾ f€n ¾½fn ¯ °–f½  ¯°    °  ° €n f½½ f° © n¾° n°¾f° J ¾¯½€°  f f°  –f½  ¯°    ° .

J °f¾½°–¾¾ n n¯½ ¾¾ ¾ °    f ¯f°   f f¯½ ¾f ¯°¾f ff n¯½ ¾¾ ¾ n ¾½°–f¾ ½ °f  %¾ ¯f°nf° ¾n "% @  €¾f½€f ¾½°–€n f–f°¾ ¾½fn ¯ ° @ f f°  –f½¾ f   °  nf° ¾ ° °f °¾nf¾  ¾ %f€°n°€ ¾½°–f° ¾ ¾½fn ¯ °%   8  °n   ° ¾  8    .

f¯½ ¯f° f–¾f¾fn€€€¯f¾¾–ff n°¾f°¾½ ½f°°n° ½f° f  –€ ¯ @ ½f° ¯f ¾f°f°– €   °ff° fn°¾f° €n°f€n €-fn¾° ¾fn °  ½f° .

fnf %f% @  ° f–f°¾€n° % % @  ° f–f°¾–f .

° n° – ¯°– © n½¾¾ ¾¾ ¾ nf½fn   f¯¯  € f¯½ nf° ¾  ° °–f°f°f½ n € J nf°¾   f°  +f¾f°   ¯f€° f° ½ ¾¾°€ ¾½ €   © nf€ f¾¯ f ¾f°n %¾% ¯¾ –    ° n ° – €      .2  / .

¾ € f°¾½ ¾¾  °° n ° –f° ¯¯ °¯ ½ ¯ ¾½ ¯  ¾°–€  f  $¯ ½ .

9 °f° – 9 °f ° –¾#¾ # ° – .

 ¯nf½ °f ° – ¾  ° –f¾¾ ° n ¯nf ° ¾€f ¾ ¾f°n f¾n½ °f ° –¾ ¾  ° –€f n¯½ ¾¾ ¾ n ¾½°– ff°f½ °f ° –¾ ° –f¾¾   €f° © n#¾ ½¾°°f–ff°f€  J¾ ° °f¯f¾¾€f –f    ¾€fn €  f @ €n    ¾¾ ¯– @  €   ¾°– f°¾½€–ff°f½ °f ° –¾  2  5 .

@ ½°n½ €n°¾ f°€ ° – @ f ° –€f¾¾ ¯¾ ff¾n°¾  .

°¾  f° © nf ½€f° °n° ½f° fn f° f¯°€–ff°f ½ °f ° – ¾ ¯f¾¾ n¯ ¾ ° ½f° ¾ ½ °f ° – n f¾ ¾ ¾° n ° – °n f¾ ¾°¾nfff  f ° –€ ¯f¾¾ ¾n°¾  .

f¯½ .

fnf  °f n  €f ½ f ½f¾¾ f– f ¾¾¯   f #¾ n ° €–f¾ ¾–f  –€¯f° ½f¾¾ ¾   ff °f n€ ¯¾+ f° ff€ ¾°f°f° n ° –¾ f°¾€  °9 D¾ –  ¯¾+ .

f¯½ n¯ f ¾ °– °fn€€¾ ¾€n°  ° n¯ °–½ f° ¾½ nf¾ ¯ f€°–¾¾ ° €fn¯ € ¯f¾¾–f ¾ °– °fn€€€ – ¯ fn ¾f n€ ¯¾+   ¯  –° ¾ fn nfnf   f f– €n°f€n f½½ D¾ –  ¯¾+ .

 ½ ¾€ ° –f°  ° – f°¾€¯f°¾ @ ¯f ° –¾ ¾¾ °f ° n ° –€f¯¾ f° ¯ n ¾ .

 ¯nf ° –¾f¾¾nf    n°n ¾n €f¯¾ -n f ° –¾f¾¾nf  °n f¾n € f¯¾f°  ¾°–°n f€n  nnf ° –¾¾ff¾¾nf f°  nn n ° ¾¾ff°¾€¯ ° ¯f ° n f° – ° – ¾€ff¾ °  ° –nf°°   n f  ¾  ¾f°¾€¯ €¯° €¯ f°  .

f¾nf° ° f¾nn¾°¾
,¯ °¯¾ff¾n°¾   ° –¾ff¾ n°¾   
° n ° –¾°ff¾n°¾ 

¾°¾°n¯ nf°nf ° –¾°¾f  nf  f¾nn¾°¾  f½½°– f¾€ n°¾ f°€¯¯ °¯f°  ° –  €° f° f¾nn¾°¾ ° n ° –¾ff¾n°¾ 

¾°¾°n¯ nf°nf ° –¾¾f nf  ° f¾nn¾°¾ ° n ° –¾°n°¾ 

9  9 ¾ f fn ° –¾ ½ °  ¾ ° ¾¯ f¾ °Jf¾%J% 9   ! .

@¾ f°¾½nf°f¾  ½ ¾¾ f¾ @  €€n °n€f° °–° ¾ €° f¾ 3! 3 9:4!  9:4  11 9 9 .   8     ! .

f¯½ ¾   ¾ n¯ ¾½°–ff°f¾¯f¯¯ ¾½ €¯¾  ¾¾½  ½ ½€  °–° ¾ .J .

fnf  fn €n       ¾° fn ° °–° f½ ½€ J f–¾f° © n € –-ffn°¾f°¾½ ½f°°n°  ½f° f¯f ¾f°f°– €  °f  n°¾f°€n°f€n €-fn¾  °   © nf°  ½f° f°   © n¾ f–– f ¾f°n € ¯   ¯°  ¾½ €  © n f°   €€n °n€  °–° .

f¯½ ¾ W J–  f¯½ ¾°½f– ¾  €  W  n¾  ½ .


° W ff n f–f¯¾f f  fnn  f°€f½fn ¯°– n°¾f°¾½ °fnn ¾  n f   n ° € nn W ½½  ½ ¾¾°€n °½ f fnn  f° W  °€ €n ½ n°–nnf¯°° f¾¾f°¾ W  ½  ¯¾°°–nnf¯° .nf.

J °f° © nf¾f€n ffn¾ ½ ½ ° nf¾  n°€¯° ¾ €n   ¾°nf°–  ¾½ €  © n    ¾nf°– ¾  n° € €n ¾ n°¾f°°¯f–° f° ff¾ ½ ½ ° nf   n°€f     © n¾€n ¯ °fnn  °€¯ nnf¯° @   n°€ €n fnf¾ ¾¾¯° ¾ff¾  n f ¾ n ° €  nn .


 f° ––  f°€  f°€n °½ ffnn  f° ¾° f  ¯ °€ n¾ %½% .

°½ ffnn  f°%#n ° ¾ °–# fnn  f°%nf°   ¯° ¾°–  €¯f  7 .. .

f¯½ –  ¾f°f¾f  ¾° f ¾f °¾ @  ff ¾€ ¾f   ¾  ¯ .

fnf  fnn  f°€  ¾f  f° ¾f    n°€  fnn  f° .

n nf¾°–n °½ ffnn  f° J nf°€°   ½ ¾¾°€ €n f nf¾ ¾n °½ ffnn  f°%¾¯  ¾ nf¾ n °½ f€n % ¾°– - °#¾¾ n° f  7 .2   .

f–° n€n W @ °¾°€n .f¯½ ¾€n °½ f€n @  f ¯f°½ ¾€€n ¾fnf¾  n °½ ffnn  f°°n °– W ff°f€n W n°f€n W .

f¯½ ¯ f ½f° €¯f¾¾ –f¾fn°  € °– ¯ffn  J¾   ° f° € n° € ¾°f °fnn f¾½ €¯¾   .

fnf   °¾°°  .

f¯½ #f€ f#¯nn¾ ¾¾ ¯nn °f nfnn €f ¾¯  .

fnf  ¯°¯¯¾½ f ¯¾ f f ½€ nn °  n¯½   ½ %° ° n°¾   €€ n€ –f°¾°¾f°n  ff€    f–f¯€f€ €n ¾fn°–°    €  –°"% .

f¯½ ¾ W  n¾  ½ W .¾n f° ¾ ¾°¾°@½n½  .