Fluid and electrolyte balance is a dynamic process that is crucial for life. Potential and actual disorders of fluid and electrolyte balance occur in every setting, with every disorder, and with a variety of changes that affect well people.
The nurse also must use effective teaching and communication skills to help prevent and treat various fluid and electrolyte disturbances.

Approximately 60% of a typical adult’s weight consists of fluid (water and electrolytes). In general,  younger people have a higher percentage of body fluid than older people  and men have proportionately more body fluid than women.  Obese people have less fluid than thin people because fat cells contain little water.

Factors that influence the amount of body fluid are: age gender body fat

Body fluid is located in two fluid compartments: the intracellular space (fluid in the cells) the extracellular space (fluid outside the cells) Approximately two thirds (2/3) of body fluid is in the intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment (located primarily in the skeletal muscle mass) .

and transcellular fluid spaces. interstitial. and thrombocytes. leukocytes. . Intravascular--(the fluid within the blood vessels) contains plasma Approximately 3 L of the average 6 L of blood volume is made up of plasma.The extracellular fluid (ECF) divided into the intravascular. The remaining 3 L is made up of erythrocytes.

The interstitial space contains the fluid that surrounds the cell and totals about 11 to 12 L in an adult. sweat. intraocular. (ex. and digestive secretions) . pericardial. synovial. and pleural fluids. (ex. Lymph) The transcellular space is the smallest division of the ECF compartment.cerebrospinal. contains approximately 1 L of fluid at any given time.

Loss of fluid from the body can disrupt this equilibrium. Sometimes fluid is not lost from the body but is unavailable for use by either the ICF or ECF. .Body fluid normally shifts between the two major compartments or spaces in an effort to maintain an equilibrium between the spaces.

.Loss of ECF into a space that does not contribute to equilibrium between the ICF and the ECF is referred to as a third-space fluid shift. or ―third spacing‖ An early clue of a third-space fluid shift is a decrease in urine output despite adequate fluid intake.

the kidneys then receive less blood and attempt to compensate by decreasing urine output. .Urine output decreases because fluid shifts out of the intravascular space.

.Other signs and symptoms of third spacing that indicate an intravascular fluid volume deficit include increased heart rate decreased blood pressure decreased central venous pressure edema increased body weight imbalances in fluid intake and output (I&O).

peritonitis. bowel obstruction.Third-space shifts occur in ascites. . burns. and massive bleeding into a joint or body cavity.

pleural fld. Vol.Body Fluid ICF 2/3 (most skeletal mass) Intravascular 6L (bld. pericardial. synovial.WBC.) 3L Plasma 3L RBC. intraocular. digestive secretion . sweat.Platelets ECF 1/3 Interstitial 11-12L Surround cells. Lymph Transcellular 1L CSF..

bicarbonate. and hydrogen ions. sulfate.Electrolytes Electrolytes in body fluids are active chemicals (cations. and proteinate ions. and anions. The major cations in body fluid are sodium. The major anions are chloride. potassium. which carry positive charges. . which carry negative charges). calcium. phosphate. magnesium.

. More specifically. a measure of chemical activity. In a solution. cations and anions are equal in mEq/L. a milliequivalent is defined as being equivalent to the electrochemical activity of 1 mg of hydrogen.electrolyte concentration in the body is expressed in terms of milliequivalents (mEq) per liter.

namely the plasma.Electrolyte concentrations in the ICF differ from those in the ECF Because special techniques are required to measure electrolyte concentrations in the ICF It is customary to measure the electrolytes in the most accessible portion of the ECF. .

Approximate Major Electrolyte Content in Body Fluid (ELECTROLYTES MEQ/L) Extracellular Fluid (Plasma) Cations Intracellular Fluid Cations Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca++) Magnesium (Mg++) Total cations 142 5 5 2 154 103 26 2 1 5 17 154 Potassium (K+) Magnesium (Mg++) Sodium (Na+) Total cations 150 40 10 200 Anions Chloride (Cl−) Bicarbonate (HCO3−) Phosphate (HPO4−−) Sulfate (SO4−−) Organic acids Proteinate Total anions Anions Phosphates and sulfates Bicarbonate (HCO3−) Proteinate Total anions 150 10 40 200 .

Sodium ions positively charged far outnumber the other cations in the ECF regulating the volume of body fluid retention of sodium is associated with fluid retention. and excessive loss of sodium is usually associated with decreased volume of body fluid (because it affects the overall concentration of the ECF) .

can be extremely dangerous . typically caused by trauma to the cells and tissues.The major electrolytes in the ICF are potassium and phosphate The ECF has a low concentration of potassium and can tolerate only small changes in potassium concentrations Release of large stores of intracellular potassium.

The body expends a great deal of energy maintaining the high extracellular concentration of sodium and the high intracellular concentration of potassium. Outside . It does so by means of cell membrane pumps that exchange sodium and potassium ions. Inside. PISO = Potassium. Sodium.

The direction of fluid movement depends on the differences in these two opposing forces (hydrostatic versus osmotic pressure).Normal movement of fluids through the capillary wall into the tissues depends on hydrostatic pressure* (at both the arterial and the venous ends of the vessel) and the osmotic pressure exerted by the protein of plasma. *(the pressure exerted by the fluid on the walls of the blood vessel) .

the ECF transports other substances (enzymes and hormones) It also carries blood components (red and white blood cells) .In addition to electrolytes.

REGULATION OF BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS Osmosis and Osmolality When two different solutions are separated by a membrane that is impermeable to the dissolved substances Fluid shifts through the membrane from the region of low solute concentration to the region of high solute concentration until the solutions are of equal concentration. This diffusion of water caused by a fluid concentration gradient is known as osmosis .

which influences the movement of fluid between the fluid compartments. .The magnitude of this force depends on the number of particles dissolved in the solutions. not on their weights. The number of dissolved particles contained in a unit of fluid determines the osmolality of a solution.

Effective osmoles Sodium Sorbitol (capable of affecting water movement).Tonicity is the ability of all the solutes to cause an osmotic driving force that promotes water movement from one compartment to another. Glucose Mannitol . The control of tonicity determines the normal state of cellular hydration and cell size.

mannitol. . or contrast agents in the urine. • Osmotic diuresis occurs when the urine output increases due to the excretion of substances such as glucose.Three other terms are associated with osmosis: osmotic pressure oncotic pressure osmotic diuresis • Osmotic pressure is the amount of hydrostatic pressure needed to stop the flow of water by osmosis. It is primarily determined by the concentration of solutes. albumin). • Oncotic pressure is the osmotic pressure exerted by proteins (eg.

It occurs through the random movement of ions and molecules. Examples of diffusion >exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide >tendency of sodium to move from the ECF compartment. between the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli .Diffusion Diffusion is the natural tendency of a substance to move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration .

Movement of water and solutes occurs from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of low hydrostatic pressure.Filtration Hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries tends to filter fluid out of the vascular compartment into the interstitial fluid. .

in this instance.Filtration allows the kidneys to filter 180 L of plasma per day. . the hydrostatic pressure is furnished by the pumping action of the heart. Another example of filtration is the passage of water and electrolytes from the arterial capillary bed to the interstitial fluid.

which is located in the cell membrane and actively moves sodium from the cell into the ECF.Sodium–Potassium Pump Sodium concentration is greater in the ECF than in the ICF. sodium tends to enter the cell by diffusion. . and because of this. This tendency is offset by the sodium– potassium pump.

Conversely. . active transport implies that energy must be expended for the movement to occur against a concentration gradient. the high intracellular potassium concentration is maintained by pumping potassium into the cell. By definition.

In patients with some disorders. >A healthy person gains fluids by drinking and eating. fluids may be provided by the parenteral route (intravenously or subcutaneously) or by means of an enteral feeding tube in the stomach or intestine .ROUTES OF GAINS AND LOSSES >Water and electrolytes are gained in various ways.

A general rule is that the output is approximately 1 mL of urine per kilogram of body weight per hour (1 mL/kg/h) in all age groups. .Kidneys Usual daily urine volume in the adult is 1 to 2 L.

The chief solutes in sweat are sodium. chloride. and potassium.000 mL or more every hour (depending on the environmental temperature) . Actual sweat losses vary from 0 to 1.Skin Sensible perspiration refers to visible water and electrolyte loss through the skin (sweating).

Fever greatly increases insensible water loss through the lungs and the skin.Continuous water loss by evaporation (approximately 600 mL/day) occurs through the skin as insensible perspiration. as does loss of the natural skin barrier (through major burns. . for example). a nonvisible form of water loss.

The loss is much greater with increased respiratory rate or depth.Lungs The lungs normally eliminate water vapor (insensible loss) at a rate of approximately 400 mL every day. . or in a dry climate.

GI Tract
The usual loss through the GI tract is only 100 to 200 mL daily, (approximately 8 L every 24 hours in GI circulation). The bulk of fluid is reabsorbed in the small intestine (diarrhea and fistulas cause large losses) In healthy people, the daily average intake and output of water are approximately equal.

Average Daily Intake and Output in an Adult
INTAKE Oral liquids Water in food Water produced
(by metabolism )

1,300 mL 1,000 mL 300 mL

OUTPUT Urine 1,500 mL Stool 200 mL Insensible Lungs 300 mL Skin 600 mL
2,600 mL

Total gain*

2,600 mL Total lo

LABORATORY TESTS FOR EVALUATING FLUID STATUS Osmolality reflects the concentration of fluid that affects the movement of water between fluid compartments by osmosis.

Osmolality measures the solute concentration per kilogram in blood and urine.
It is also a measure of a solution’s ability to create osmotic pressure and affect the movement of water.

Serum osmolality primarily reflects the concentration of sodium.
Urine osmolality is determined by urea, creatinine, and uric acid. When measured with serum osmolality, urine osmolality is the most reliable indicator of urine concentration.

Osmolality is reported as milliosmoles per kilogram of water (mOsm/kg).

Normal serum osmolality is 280 to 300 mOsm/kg Normal urine osmolality is 250 to 900 mOsm/kg.Osmolarity. Sodium predominates in ECF osmolality and holds water in this compartment.‖ is used more often in clinical practice. . another term that describes the concentration of solutions (mOsm/L). The term ―osmolality.

value 18 3 of serum osmolality The calculated value usually is within 10 mOsm of the measured Osmolality.Serum osmolality may be measured directly through laboratory tests or estimated at the bedside by doubling the serum sodium level or by using the following formula: Na⁺x2=Glucose + BUN = Approx. .

Comparison of Serum and Urine Osmolality FACTORS INCREASING OSMOLALITY Free water loss Diabetes insipidus Sodium overload Hyperglycemia Uremia Fluid volume deficit SIADH HF Acidosis FACTORS DECREASING OSMOLALITY SIADH Renal failure Diuretic use Adrenal insufficiency Fluid volume excess Diabetes insipidus FLUID Serum (275–300 mOsm/kg) Urine (250–900 mOsm/kg) .

025. The normal range of specific gravity is 1.010 to 1. . which has a specific gravity of 1. The specific gravity of urine is compared to the weight of distilled water.000.Urine specific gravity measures the kidneys’ ability to excrete or conserve water.

.Urine specific gravity can be measured at the bedside by placing a calibrated hydrometer or urinometer in a cylinder of approximately 20 mL of urine. the lower the specific gravity. Specific gravity can also be assessed with a refractometer or dipstick with a reagent. the larger the volume of urine. normally. Specific gravity varies inversely with urine volume.

Factors that increase or decrease urine osmolality are the same for urine specific gravity.Specific gravity is a less reliable indicator of concentration than urine osmolality. increased glucose or protein in urine can cause a falsely high specific gravity. .

Ammonia molecules are converted to urea and excreted in the urine. an end product of metabolism of protein (from both muscle and dietary intake) by the liver. .5–7 mmol/L). which are absorbed into the bloodstream. The normal BUN is 10 to 20 mg/dL (3. Amino acid breakdown produces large amounts of ammonia molecules.Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is made up of urea.

and any condition that results in expanded fluid volume (eg. . starvation. and sepsis.The BUN level varies with urine output. GI bleeding. pregnancy). fever. dehydration. Those that decrease BUN include end-stage liver disease. a low-protein diet. Factors that increase BUN include decreased renal function. increased protein intake.

7 to 1. . It is a better indicator of renal function than BUN (does not vary with protein intake and metabolic state) The normal serum creatinine is approximately 0.5 mg/dL (SI: 60–130 mmol/L) Its concentration depends on lean body mass and varies from person to person.Creatinine is the end product of muscle metabolism. Serum creatinine levels increase when renal function decreases.

normal ranges 44% to 52% for males 39% to 47% for females Conditions: increase the hematocrit value dehydration and polycythemia decrease hematocrit overhydration and anemia .Hematocrit measures the volume percentage of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in whole blood.

excretion ↑.Urine sodium values change with sodium intake and the status of fluid volume (as sodium intake↑ . as the circulating fluid volume ↓. . sodium is conserved) Normal urine sodium levels range from 50 to 220 mEq/24 h (50–220 mmol/24 h) A random specimen usually contains more than 40 mEq/L of sodium Urine sodium levels are used to assess volume status and are useful in the diagnosis of hyponatremia and acute renal failure.

Organs involved in homeostasis: kidneys lungs heart adrenal glands parathyroid glands pituitary gland .HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISMS The body is equipped with remarkable homeostatic mechanisms to keep the composition and volume of body fluid within narrow limits of normal.

while excreting only 1.5 L of urine Act both autonomously and in response to blood-borne messengers (aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) .Kidney Functions Vital to the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance Filter 170 L of plasma every day in the adult.

Major functions of the kidneys in maintaining normal fluid balance include the following: • Regulation of ECF volume and osmolality by selective retention and excretion of body fluids • Regulation of electrolyte levels in the ECF by selective retention of needed substances and excretion of unneeded substances • Regulation of pH of the ECF by retention of hydrogen ions • Excretion of metabolic wastes and toxic substances .

Renal failure will result in multiple fluid and electrolyte problems Renal function declines with advanced age (as do muscle mass and daily exogenous creatinine production) High-normal and minimally elevated serum creatinine values may indicate substantially reduced renal function in the elderly .

Heart and Blood Vessel Functions The pumping action of the heart circulates blood through the kidneys under sufficient pressure to allow for urine formation. Failure of this pumping action interferes with renal perfusion and thus with water and electrolyte regulation. .

Lung Functions Lungs are also vital in maintaining homeostasis exhalation. .remove approximately 300 mL of water daily in the normal adult Abnormal conditions. such as hyperpnea (abnormally deep respiration) or continuous coughing. increase this loss Mechanical ventilation with excessive moisture decreases it.

causing increased difficulty in pH regulation in older adults with major illness or trauma.The lungs also have a major role in maintaining acid–base balance Changes from normal aging result in decreased respiratory function. .

which is stored in the posterior pituitary gland ADH is sometimes called the water-conserving hormone (because it causes the body to retain water) Functions of ADH >maintaining the osmotic pressure of the cells by controlling the retention or excretion of water by the kidneys >regulating blood volume (released as needed) .Pituitary Functions Hypothalamus manufactures ADH.

Adrenal Functions Aldosterone. . a mineralocorticoid secreted by the zona glomerulosa (outer zone) of the adrenal cortex (profound effect on fluid balance) Increased secretion of aldosterone causes sodium retention (and thus water retention) and potassium loss decreased secretion of aldosterone causes sodium and water loss and potassium retention.

.↑aldosterone =sodium retention (thus water retention) and potassium loss ↓aldosterone = sodium and water loss and potassium retention.

Fluid K⁺ deficit . has only a fraction of the mineralocorticoid potency of aldosterone When secreted in large quantities. it can also produce sodium and fluid retention and potassium deficit ↑Cortisol=retain Na⁺.Cortisol. another adrenocortical hormone.

Parathyroid Functions The parathyroid glands.(embedded in the thyroid gland) regulate calcium and phosphate balance by means of parathyroid hormone (PTH) PTH influences bone resorption calcium absorption from the intestines calcium reabsorption from the renal tubules .

cannot tolerate change as readily and must be carefully maintained to ensure that tissues receive adequate nutrients.Other Mechanisms Changes in the volume of the interstitial compartment within the ECF can occur without affecting body function The vascular compartment. .

BARORECEPTORS The baroreceptors are small nerve receptors Detect changes in pressure within blood vessels and transmit this information to CNS Responsible for monitoring the circulating volume Regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity as well as endocrine activities .

nerve endings in the aortic arch and in the cardiac sinus Another high-pressure baroreceptor is located in the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the nephron .Categorized as low-pressure and highpressure baroreceptor systems Low-pressure baroreceptors-located in the cardiac atria (left atrium) High-pressure baroreceptors.

baroreceptors transmit fewer impulses from the carotid sinuses and the aortic arch to the vasomotor center. conduction. and contractility and in circulating blood volume. . A decrease in impulses stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system. The outcome is an increase in cardiac rate.As arterial pressure decreases.

arterial pressure ↓ baroreceptors transmit ↓ fewer impulses ↓ from the carotid sinuses and the aortic arch to the vasomotor center ↓ ↓ ↓ impulses stimulates SNS and inhibits PNS ↓ ↓ ↑ contractility. conduction ⇩ . circulating blood volume ↑ cardiac rate.

decreases glomerular filtration. and increases sodium and water reabsorption. .Sympathetic stimulation constricts renal arterioles. this increases the release of aldosterone.

↑ the release of aldosterone ↓glomerular filtration .Sympathetic stimulation constricts renal arterioles: and ↑sodium and water reabsorption.

Renin is released by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidneys in response to decreased renal perfusion.RENIN–ANGIOTENSIN–ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM Renin-an enzyme that converts angiotensinogen. increases arterial perfusion pressure and stimulates thirst. Angiotensin II. . (inactive substance formed by the liver). with its vasoconstrictor properties. into angiotensin I Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II.

serum sodium decreases. aldosterone is released in response to an increased release of renin Aldosterone is a volume regulator and is also released as serum potassium increases.As the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated. or adrenocorticotropic hormone increases .

Kidney (Juxtaglomerular cell) ↓ renal perfusion ↑ release Renin ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Renin converts into Angiotensin I Stimulates SNS ↓ ↓ Aldosterone Release Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Angiotensin II -vasoconstriction -↑ arterial perfusion perfusion -stimulate thirst ↑ serum K ↓ serum Na .

ADH AND THIRST ADH and the thirst mechanism have important roles in maintaining sodium concentration and oral intake of fluids Oral intake is controlled by the thirst center located in the hypothalamus .

thirst then occurs. aldosterone.As serum concentration or osmolality increases or blood volume decreases. neurons in the hypothalamus are stimulated by intracellular dehydration. . and baroreceptors The presence or absence of ADH is the most significant factor in determining whether the urine that is excreted is concentrated or diluted. and the person increases oral intake of fluids Water excretion is controlled by ADH.

Volume cellulardehydration hypothalamus (nueron) Thirst occurs ⇣ ⇣ ↓ .smolality ↓ bld.↑ serum conc⁻.

causing increased reabsorption of water and decreased urine output. As osmotic pressure increases.OSMORECEPTORS Located on the surface of the hypothalamus. which increases the release of ADH. where it alters permeability to water. osmoreceptors sense changes in sodium concentration. the neurons become dehydrated and quickly release impulses to the posterior pituitary. ADH travels in the blood to the kidneys. .

Na⁺ conc⁻ Hypothalamus (osmoreceptor) ↡ ↓ ↑ osmotic pressure Neuron become dhn Travel in blood to kidney ↓ Alter permeability of water ↓ Quick impulse to PPG ↓ ↓ ↑ ↓ ADH ↑ reabsorption of water ↓ urine output ↓ .

The retained water dilutes the ECF and returns its concentration to normal Restoration of normal osmotic pressure provides feedback to the osmoreceptors to inhibit further ADH release .

heart failure. high sodium intake. chronic renal failure.RELEASE OF ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is released by cardiac cells in the atria of the heart in response to increased atrial pressure Any disorder that results in volume expansion or increased cardiac filling pressures (eg. or use of vasoconstrictor agents) the release of ANP. will increase . atrial tachycardia.

Atria of Heart ↓ ↑ pressure Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Therefore: ↑ cardiac filling pressure Volume expansion ↑ Na⁺ intake HF CRF Atrial tachycardia Vasoconstrictor agent = ⇧ ANP .

⇧ANP acute heart failure paroxysmal atrial tachycardia hyperthyroidism subarachnoid hemorrhage small cell lung cancer ⇩ANP chronic heart failure medications urea (Ureaphil) prazosin (Minipress) .The action of ANP is the direct opposite of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and decreases blood pressure and volume ANP in plasma is normally 20 to 77 pg/mL (20—77 ng/L).

an ignorant man follows public opinion…” .“A wise man makes his own decisions.

Sunset is as good as a sunrise .

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