achieving a very high irradiance.LASER A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. Spatial coherence typically is expressed through the output being a narrow beam which is diffractionlimited.  The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. often a so-called "pencil beam.  They can be launched into a beam of very low divergence in order to concentrate their power at a large distance ." Laser beams can be focused to very tiny spots.

A laser which produces light by itself is technically an optical oscillator rather than an optical amplifier as suggested by the acronym. It has been noted that the acronym LOSER. A beam produced by a thermal or other incoherent light source has an instantaneous amplitude and phase which vary randomly with respect to time and position." would have been more correct. Longitudinal coherence implies a polarized wave at a single frequency whose phase is correlated over a relatively large distance (the coherence length) along the beam. for "light oscillation by stimulated emission of radiation. and thus a very short coherence length. .

Laser radiation output from the front mirror can be seen to produce a tiny (about 1mm in diameter) intense spot on the screen to the right .Helium-neon laser demonstration laboratory at university of Paris 6. The pink-orange glow running through the center of the tube is from the electric discharge .  that glowing plasma however also acts as the gain medium through which the internal beam passes as it is reflected in between the two mirrors.

is partially transparent. as well as a means to supply energy to the gain medium. A cavity consists of two mirrors arranged such that light bounces back and forth.  The energy is typically supplied i. 5. 3. each time passing through the gain medium. Typically one of the two mirrors. the output coupler. know to pumping as an electrical current or as light at a different wavelength.CONSTRUCTION OF LASER A laser consists of a gain medium inside a highly reflective optical cavity. 2. Gain medium Laser pumping High reflector Output coupler Laser beam . The gain medium is a material with properties that allow it to amplify light by stimulated emission. 4.e. 1.

Emission can be spontaneous or stimulated. The gain medium absorbs pump energy. and shape. . In the latter case. When the number of particles in one excited state exceeds the number of particles in some lower-energy state. which amplifies the beam by the process of stimulated emission.  By itself. Hence. the photon is emitted in the same direction as the light that is passing by.MECHANISM OF LASER The gain medium of a laser is a material of controlled purity. population inversion is achieved and the amount of stimulated emission is larger than the amount of absorption. one obtains a laser. this makes an optical amplifier. concentration. which raises some electrons into higher-energy ("excited") quantum states.  Particles interacts with light by either absorbing or emitting photons. size. When an optical amplifier is placed inside a resonant optical cavity. the light is amplified.

where energy is extracted from a transition in an atom or molecule. such beams exhibit the minimum divergence for a given diameter.  Gaussian beam in most lasers.CHARACTERISTIC OF LASER  The light very similar to the input signal in terms of wavelength. phase. Einstein who derived the relationship between the A coefficient describing spontaneous emission  The B coefficient which applies to absorption and stimulated emission. This gives laser light its characteristic coherence. normal to the of propagation. with no beam divergence at that point  A laser relies on stimulated emission. . and allows it to maintain the uniform polarization  Monochromaticity established by the optical cavity design. and polarization.  It is highly collimated: the wave fronts are planar.

CLASSIFICATION OF LASER A laser can be classified as operating in either a) Continuous mode b) Pulsed mode .

In some other lasers it would require pumping the laser at a very high continuous power level which would be impractical or destroy the laser by producing excessive heat. . Many of these lasers actually lase in several longitudinal modes at the same time. In some lasing media this is impossible. Such a laser is known as continuous wave (CW).CONTINIOUS WAVE MODE Some applications of lasers depend on a beam whose output power is constant over time. Such lasers cannot be run in CW mode. For continuous wave operation it is required for the population inversion of the gain medium to be continually replenished by a steady pump source.

Some lasers are pulsed simply because they cannot be run in continuous mode  the production of pulses having as large an energy as possible. this goal is satisfied by lowering the rate of pulses so that more energy can be built up between pulses .  This encompasses a wide range of technologies addressing a number of different motivations.PULSE MODE OPERATION  Pulsed operation of lasers that the optical power appears in pulses of some duration at some repetition rate. Since the pulse energy is equal to the average power divided by the repetition rate.

Depending on the optical design one or more of these transitions can be lasing simultaneously. 488 nm and 514.TYPES OF LASER GAS LASER: The helium-neon laser ( He Ne) is able to operate at a number of different wavelengths. Argon-ion lasers can operate at a number of lasing transitions between 351 and 528. such lasers are regularly used in industry for cutting and welding.7 nm.5 nm . these relatively low cost but highly coherent lasers are extremely common in optical research and educational laboratories. Carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers can emit many hundreds of watts in a single spatial mode which can be concentrated into a tiny spot. however the vast majority are engineered to lase at 633 nm. the most commonly used lines are 458 nm.

•CHEMICAL LASER:  Chemical lasers are powered by a chemical reaction permitting a large amount of energy to be released quickly. the first working laser was a ruby laser. such as chromium or neodymium. . For example. in the Hydrogen fluoride laser (2700-2900 nm) SOLID-STATE LASERS  use a crystalline or glass rod which is "doped" with ions that provide the required energy states.  As examples.  Such very high power lasers are especially of interest to the military.  The population inversion is actually maintained in the "dopant". made from ruby (chromium-doped corundum). fed by streams of gasses. They continuous wave chemical lasers at very high power levels. have been developed and have some industrial applications.

medicine. including consumer electronics. law enforcement. entertainment. surgical treatment. dentistry Industry: Cutting. eye treatment. science. kidney stone treatment.USES Their varied applications in every section of modern society. material heat treatment. and the military. beginning in 1982 followed shortly by laser printers. non-contact measurement of parts . The first laser-equipped device to become common. industry. marking parts. information technology. welding.  Medicine: Bloodless surgery. laser healing.

laser scattering. CDs and the like). laser pointers. laser annealing. holograms. missile defence. barcode scanners. laser ablation. electrooptical countermeasures (EOCM). bubble grams. optical discs (e.g. laser capture micro dissection. alternative to radar. LAW ENFORCEMENT: used for latent fingerprint detection in the forensic identification field RESEARCH: Spectroscopy. .MILITARY: Marking targets. fluorescence microscopy PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT/COMMERCIAL: laser printers. blinding troops. thermometers. laser inter ferometry. guiding munitions.

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