Carbon and organic molecules

• Carbon and its bonds

• Polymers and monomers
- Carbohydrates

- Proteins
- Lipids

- Nucleic acids

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Why is carbon so important to molecules of life? • A carbon atom forms four covalent bonds

• C can make chains or rings

Structural formula

Ball-and-stick model

Space-filling model

Methane

The 4 single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron.
Figure 3.1, top part
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Arrangement of atoms determines molecular shape. Shape determines function of molecules

• Methane, CH4
Figure 2.8Bx
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1x3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Inc. ball and stick model Figure 3.• Butane. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Inc.What affects solubility in water? • Molecules with +/. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .charge are usually hydrophilic or “water-loving” • Molecules with no charge and non-polar are usually hydrophobic and not soluble in water Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .How do cells make so many different molecules that are needed for life? • Polymers are long chains of smaller molecular units called monomers • A huge number of different polymers can be made from a small number of monomers Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

Inc. glycogen Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. fructose. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . sucrose. ribose – Disaccharides: maltose. lactose – Polysaccharides: starch.CARBOHYDRATES • Carbohydrates are a class of molecules – Monosaccharides: glucose.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Monosaccharides • are single-unit sugars • a multiple of CH2O • fuels for cellular work Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.12a–b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.Carbohydrates PRESS TO PLAY DISACCHARIDES ANIMATION Figure 2.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. including non-sugars. taste sweet because they bind to “sweet” receptors on the tongue Table 3. Inc.Why is sugar sweet? • Molecules.

Inc.disaccharides Dehydration synthesis Sucrose Glucose Glucose glucose fructose Maltose Figure 3. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units • Size: thousands of linked monosaccharides • purpose: energy storage. structural Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. fungi) Starch granules in potato tuber cells Glucose monomer STARCH Glycogen granules in muscle tissue GLYCOGEN Cellulose fibrils in a plant cell wall Cellulose molecules CELLULOSE Figure 3. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.• Starch (plants) and glycogen (animals) • Cellulose (plants) and chitin (insects.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .• Starch Cellulose = fiber Indigestible by animals Figure 3.7x Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .insulation. cushioning .membranes . oils. • hydrophobic • composed largely of carbon and hydrogen • Purposes: .energy storage .Lipids include fats.signals Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. and steroids. Inc.

• Fats are triglycerides – one glycerol molecule linked to three fatty acids – fatty acid chains often differ Fatty acid Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

• Saturated fats lack double bonds – solid at room temperature (lard) • Fatty acids of unsaturated fats contain double bonds – liquid at room temperature (plant oils) • Trans fats have “wrong way” double bonds Figure 3. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .8C Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

Inc.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Figure 3. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.Phospholipids • both polar and nonpolar portions • major component of cell membranes Quic kTim e™ and a TIFF (Unc ompress ed) decompres sor are needed to s ee this pic ture. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.Waxes form waterproof coatings and can prevent organisms from drying out or getting wet Qui ckTi me™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) d eco mpressor are nee ded to se e th is p ictu re . Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Steroids are often hormones testosterone estrogen Anabolic steroids Hormone Replacement Therapy Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

• Cholesterol • Membranes • Precursor to Vitamin D. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .9x1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. bile salts HDL High Density Lipoprotein LDL Low Density Lipoprotein Figure 3.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Proteins are essential to the structures and activities of life • Proteins are involved in – cellular structure – movement – nutrition – defense – transport Figure 3. Inc.11 – communication • Enzymes regulate chemical reactions Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Proteins are the most structurally and functionally diverse of life’s molecules Proteins are made from just 20 kinds of amino acids – Their diversity is based on different arrangements of amino acids Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

which distinguishes each of the 20 different amino acids Figure 3.12A Amino group Carboxyl (acid) group Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.• Each amino acid contains: – an amino group – a carboxyl group – an R group. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

Inc.• Each amino acid has specific properties Leucine (Leu) Serine (Ser) Cysteine (Cys) HYDROPHOBIC HYDROPHILIC Figure 3. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .12B Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

13 Amino acid Dipeptide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .• Cells link amino acids together by dehydration synthesis • Peptide bonds Carboxyl group Amino group Dehydration synthesis PEPTIDE BOND Amino acid Figure 3.

14B . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3. Inc.14A Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.A protein’s specific shape determines its function • A protein consists of polypeptide chains folded into a unique shape – shape determines the protein’s function – A protein loses its function when its polypeptides unravel Figure 3.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .15. 16 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Inc.A protein’s primary structure is its amino acid sequence Secondary structure is polypeptide coiling or folding produced by hydrogen bonding Primary structure Amino acid Secondary structure Hydrogen bond Pleated sheet Alpha helix Figure 3.

17. 18 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. with four identical polypeptide subunits Figure 3.Tertiary structure is the overall shape of a polypeptide Quaternary structure is the relationship among multiple polypeptides of a protein Tertiary structure Polypeptide (single subunit of transthyretin) Quaternary structure Transthyretin. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

6 2 Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.Enzymes enable chemical reactions Glucose Enzyme (sucrase) Active site Substrate (sucrose) Fructose 1 Enzyme available with empty active site • enzyme is unchanged and can repeat the process A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction 4 Products are released 3 Substrate is converted to products Figure 5. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

low or high • High salt concentration Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.What can denature a protein? • High temperature • pH. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides • Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA serve as the blueprints for proteins • They ultimately control the life of a cell • DNA sequence is inherited by progeny Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sugar .20A Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.• The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides – Each nucleotide is composed of a sugar. Inc. and nitrogenous base Nitrogenous base (A) Phosphate group Figure 3. phosphate.

20B Sugar-phosphate backbone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .• The sugar and phosphate form the backbone for the nucleic acid Nucleotide Figure 3. Inc.

20C Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .• DNA consists of two polynucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds – The sequence of the four kinds of nitrogenous bases in DNA carries genetic information Base pair Nitrogenous base (A) Figure 3. Inc.

Inc.• Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – Chemical energy used by all cells – Energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond – ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .How ATP Drives Cellular Work Figure 2.20 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.

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