OFDM ACCESS IN OPTICAL COMMUNICATION

Yatish Bathla (yatishbathla@gmail.com)

Curs 2010 – 2011

04/05/2012

Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica

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Why OFDM ??????
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Vast demand on Bandwidth Robustness against chromatic despersion, ISI and ICI Simple equalizer(popular in Broadband system) Increased efficiency because carrier spacing is reduced (orthogonal carriers overlap) Ease of Dynamic Channel Estimation and mitigation More resistant to fading Capability of Dynamic Bit and Power Loading

Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica
04/05/2012

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Introduction
Electrical Domain  OFDM Basic  Principle  FFT/ IFFT  Cyclic Prefix  Modulation Type  Block Diagram  Software Consideration
Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica
04/05/2012 3

Introduction
Optical Domain  Optical Fiber  Laser  Optical Filter  Optical Amplifier  Optical Modulator  Direct Detection  System Diagram
04/05/2012

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Output Spectrum Output Constellation and EVM Drawback Direct Dtection Coherent Detection overview Drawbacks OFDM OFDM Applications
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Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica

ELECTRICAL DOMAIN Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

OFDM-BASIC     frequency-division multiplexing(FDM) scheme used as a digital multi-carrier modulation method Available spectrum divided into many narrow subcarriers Each OFDM subcarrier has sin(x)/x or sinc spectrum OFDM subcarriers are closely spaced. orthogonal and used to carry data Data is divided into parallel data streams each transmitted on a separate subcarrier Each sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (QAM or PSK) at a low symbol rate Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 6   04/05/2012 .

the time dispersion can be significant compared to the symbol period.PRINCIPLE • • • • In single carrier modulation. which results in inter symbol interference (ISI). A complex equaliser is then needed to compensate for the channel distortion. each of width= W/N Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica . The basic idea of multicarrier modulation was introduced and patented in the mid 60's by Chang [1]: the available bandwidth W is divided into a N number of subbands. data is sent serially over the channel by modulating one single carrier In a multipath fading channel. commonly called subcarriers.

PRINCIPLE •Instead of transmitting the data symbols in a serial way. a multicarrier transmitter partitions the data stream into blocks of Nc data symbols that are transmitted in parallel by modulating the Nc carriers. • The symbol duration for a multicarrier scheme is Tc=Nc/R •Condition for flat fading within the sub bands a reasonable range for Nc can be derived as Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

.FFT/IFFT   IFFT block is the main component in the transmitter and the FFT in the receiver input to the IFFT is the complex vector X   X1 . For IFFT 1 xm  N For FFT j 2 km  X k exp( N ) k 0 N 1 For 0  m  N-1 1 Xk  N j 2 km 0 xm exp( N ) m N 1 For 0  k  N-1 Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica . X 3 . Each of the elements of represents the data to be carried on the corresponding subcarrier.. X N  T Where N is the size of IFFT... X 2 .

As a result a cyclic prefix is required to prevent power leakage from neighboring OFDM symbols The cyclic prefix allocated must be larger than the walk off of the transmission link When the cyclic prefix is not sufficient. Inter-symbolinterference (ISI) occurs and with that the subcarriers affected lose their orthogonality Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .CYCLIC PREFIX     With cyclic prefix the OFDM symbol is extended by copypasting the beginning of the symbol to the end (or vice versa) Chromatic dispersion and PMD cause the subcarriers to drift relatively to eachother.

32-QAM and 64-QAM Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica . 8-QAM.MODULATION TYPE  Basically 6 types: QPSK. 16QAM. 4-QAM.

BLOCK DIAGRAM Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 12 .

Description Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

OFDM TRANSMITTER Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

An ideal low-pass filter has a sinc function impulseresponse with equidistant zero-crossings at the sampling instants and hence no intersymbol interference (ISI). The ideal filter is not realizable and a practical oddsymmetric extension is a raised cosine characteristic fitted to the ideal low-pass filter Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 15 04/05/2012 .PULSE SHAPING     generates a Nyquist response from an incoming electrical impulse An ideal linear low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency or Nyquist frequency fN = SymbolRate/2.

Real part of OFDM signal is multiply by sine function and imaginary part is multiplied with Cosine function.RF-UPCONVERSION     Sine Generator can be used to generate a sine signal of arbitrary amplitude and initial phase. as adjusted with Amplitude and Phase The frequency may be chosen from zero Hz (DC) up to a value lower than half the sample rate. Logical Add Channel provides the ability to “assign” logical channels stored in a global list to the signal Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

OPTICAL DOMAIN Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

OPTICAL FIBRE(SMF) Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 18 .

Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 19 . frequency. linewidth. and polarization.LASER The LaserCW module models a Distributed Feedback laser producing a continuous wave (CW) optical signal The module produces a time dependent field E(t) describing the radiation of a CW laser with the specified power.

Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 20 04/05/2012 . Module and argument of the complex-valued transfer function H(ω) describe the magnitude and phase frequency responses of the filter on the input harmonic signals E(t) = exp[j(ωt+φ0)].OPTICAL FILTER     key components of optical communication systems. the filtered signal in the frequency domain can be found simply as a product of the input signal spectrum and the filter transfer function: Eout(ω) = H(ω)Ein(ω). Filter characteristics can be defined completely by the transfer function.

OPTICAL AMPLIFIER Types of Optical Amplifiers  Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA)  Fiber Optical Amplifier  Doped-Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA)  Non-Linear Optical Amplifier • Raman Amplifier • Parametric Amplifier Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

A coupler An isolator to cut off back propagating noise Pump can be configured in different ways on Erbiumdoped fiber Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 22 04/05/2012 .OPTICAL AMPLIFIER(EDFA)  • • • •  EDFA consist four parts Erbium-doped fiber An optical pump (to invert the population).

OPTICAL MODULATION/DETECTION TECHNIQUE Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

and a low chirp Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 24 . the modulator will have a large extinction ratio. The phase changes take place due to the electro-optical effect.OPTICAL MODULATION (MACH ZEHNDER MODULATOR)    The optical power Pout at the output of MZM. depends on the phase difference ΔΦ between the two modulator branches d(t) is the power transfer function and ΔΦ1(t) and ΔΦ2(t) are the phase changes in each branch caused by the applied modulation signal data(t).

OPTICAL MODULATION (MACH ZEHNDER MODULATOR) Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 25 .

shot and thermal noise Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 26 . avalanche multiplication. The output current is described by sum of photocurrent.Non Coherent Detection (PHOTODIODE)   A model of PIN and APD photodiodes. dark current and noise Photodiode is the one of key components of optical receivers that converts light into electricity due to photoelectric effect. dark current. These can be simulated on base of predefined responsivity.

Non Coherent Detection(PHOTODIODE) Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

DD-OFDM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 28 .

OFDM RECEIVER Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 29 .

Description Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .

assuming a combination of Exponential and Gaussian statistics. The module automatically performs clock recovery.Output DISPLAY (SEE. amplitude and phase correction of the received constellation. Signal Analyzer(SA) is used to display and analyze electrical and optical signals(received modulated optical signal).SA)   Signal Error Estimator(SEE) estimates the Symbol Error Rate (SER) and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of an electrical m-QAM signal. Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 31 04/05/2012 . taking I and Q electrical signals as inputs. It uses probability density function fitting.

OFDM Output(without optical Amplifier ) Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 32 .

OFDM Output(with optical Amplifier ) Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 33 .

007 Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 34 .OFDM Output(without Equalizer) EVM=1.

OFDM Output(with Equalizer) EVM=0.177 Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 35 .

OFDM Output(without Cyclic Prefix) EVM=0.199 Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 36 .

Drawback(Non Coherent Detection)     detection based on energy measurement allows signals to encode only one degree of freedom (DOF) per polarization per carrier reducing spectral efficiency and power efficiency loss of phase information prevents full equalization of linear channel impairments like CD and PMD by linear filters achievable performance is suboptimal compared with optical or electrical equalization making use of the full electric field Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 37 04/05/2012 .

Coherent Detection Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 38 .

OFDM DRAWBACK      Large PAPR(peak to avarage power ratio)  Overcome by different coding scems or clipping Sensitivity for frequency and phase noise Greater complexity More expensive transmitters and receivers Efficiency gains reduced by requirement for guard interval Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 39 .

APPLICATION         Optical fibre to home DAB HDTV-DVB Wireless LAN Networks HIPERLAN/2 IEEE 802.11ª IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access System Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica .11g IEEE 802.

4. no.3.27. 3. 2. VPI Software Optical Device Notes Optical fibre telecommunication Notes 2. Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica 04/05/2012 41 . Journal of Lightwave Technology.org 5. February 1. Jean Armstrong. OFDM for Optical Communications. Vol.Resources 1. 2009 Wikipedia.

Himal A.Resources 5. ISBN 978-0-12374879-9. Channel Capacity of IM/DD Optical Communication Systems and of ACO-OFDM. Lowery. Armstrong. Xia Li.C. 2010 Telecomunicacions per Fibra Òptica . Orthogonal Frequency Devision Multiplexing for Optical Communications. Schmid: Comparison of Asymmetrically Clipped Optical OFDM and DC-Biased Optical OFDM in AWGN. Monarsh University 7. R. Wiliam Shieh. Ivan Djordjevic. Brendon J. Brendon J. Jean Armstrong. 2008 8. Mardling and J.C. Performance of Asymmetrically Clipped Optical OFDM in AWGN for an Intensity Modulated Direct Detection System. Suraweera and Arthur J. Monarsh University 6. Schmidt. Dhruv Kalra. Jean Armstrong.

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