School of Graduate Study

DPM 124

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
ENGR W.P. MENES
DPM STUDENT

DR. BLANDINO M. MACEDA
PROFESOR

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CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK APPLIED BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE MODERN ORGANIZATION .

(a.) OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT .

(b. 1995-1999 (Authors) Ann Philbin Sandra Mikush .) THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Perspectives from participants in the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation’s Organizational Development Program.

THEORETICAL FRAME WORK .

where all behavior could be understood by looking at cause and effect. A formal set of rules was bound into the hierarchy structure to insure stability and uniformity.MAX WEBER (1947) THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Expanded on Taylor's theories. Weber also put forth the notion that organizational behavior is a network of human interactions. and stressed the need to reduce diversity and ambiguity in organizations. The focus was on establishing clear lines of authority and control. . Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of power. It recognized the importance of division of labor and specialization.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK VISION CEO A B C .

they noted the importance of giving managers at all levels the authority to make decisions over their domain.THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Lawrence and Lorsch (1969) Studied how organizations adjusted to fit their environment. . In highly volatile industries. Managers would be free to make decisions contingent on the current situation.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK VISION CEO A B C .

(c.) Applying Behavioral Science to Planned Organizational Change .

TWO Important applied behavioral science approaches • Situational Leadership • One Minute Management .

. The model allows you to analyze the needs of the situation you’re in.SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP The Situational Leadership method from Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey holds that managers must use different leadership styles depending on the situation. your leadership style should vary from one person to another. and another way at other times. Depending on employees’ competences in their task areas and commitment to their tasks. and then use the most appropriate leadership style. You may even lead the same person one way sometimes.

This recognizes that the leader's style is highly variable. the forces in the follower and also forces in the leader.SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) Identified three forces that led to the leader's action: the forces in the situation. and even such distant events as a family argument can lead to the displacement activity of a more aggressive stance in an argument than usual. .

but also the overall importance of getting things done. . a leader is more likely to be directive in style simply because of the implications of failure. Thus in critical situations.SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP Maier (1963) noted that leaders not only consider the likelihood of a follower accepting a suggestion.

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.One Minute Management • The Power of Simple Truths • It identifies simple human truths about working together.

If people don’t know where you’re going. . Without clear goals your leadership doesn’t really matter. how can you help them get there? Goal setting gets everything started.Set One-Minute Goals All good performance starts with clear goals. It is creating a clear picture of what good performance looks like and what are the expected behaviors to get there.

People love to be acknowledged for their work. It’s unique and rewarding when a manager comes around and is looking for things that are going right instead of wrong. You don’t want to be a seagull manager who only flies in. makes a lot of noise and dumps on people when there are problems.One Minute Praising The second secret is to look for opportunities to catch people doing things right. .

It’s also important to distinguish between “can’t do” behavior versus “won’t do” behavior.The One Minute Reprimand This is how you deal with people when they’re not performing up to expectations. then it is more appropriate to use redirection instead of a reprimand. A One Minute Reprimand is for people who have the skills and talent to do better. If the problem is a lack of skills or training. etc. . The key here is to focus on the behavior and not the person. identifying needed resources and support. This means taking a second look at goals.

) .Relevance of Organizational Development in Managing Change in Modern Organization (d.

serious questioning has emerged about the relevance of OD to managing change in modern organizations. • The need for "reinventing" the field has become a topic that even some of its "founding fathers" are discussing critically .MODERN DEVELOPMENT • In recent years.

scholars have begun to examine organizational development from an emotion-based standpoint .• With this call for reinvention and change.

invasions of privacy. continual changes. harassment. anxiety. cynicism. . and abuses of power. many employees experience the emotions of aggression. restructuring. and fear. • Due to downsizing. mergers. outsourcing. apprehension.deKlerk (2007) • Writes about how emotional trauma can negatively affect performance. which can lead to performance decreases.

symbolize the trauma and put it into perspective. practitioners must acknowledge the existence of the trauma.D. . and then allow for and deal with the emotional responses. provide a safe place for employees to discuss their feelings. O.deKlerk (2007) Suggests that in order to heal the trauma and increase performance.

• One method of achieving this is by having employees draw pictures of what they feel about the situation. as everyone is required to draw a picture and then discuss its meaning. and then having them explain their drawings with each other. • Drawings often prompt active participation in the activity. . • Drawing pictures is beneficial because it allows employees to express emotions they normally would not be able to put into words.

.• The use of new technologies combined with globalization has also shifted the field of organization development. • Roland Sullivan (2005) defined Organization Development with participants at the 1st Organization Development Conference for Asia in Dubai-2005 as "Organization Development is a transformative leap to a desired vision where strategies and systems align. in the light of local culture with an innovative and authentic leadership style using the support of high tech tools.

• These ideas will not appeal to old-style paternalistic X-Theory organizations and cultures. . • These principles are for forward-thinking emotionally-mature organizations. unless they want to change for the better.• There are some modern principles for organizational change management and effective employee training and development of an organization. and people above profit. who value integrity above results.

ACTION RESEARCH TOOL Wendell L French and Cecil Bell .

. In the language of systems theory. realizes it may need outside help to effect changes. this is the input phase.STAGE 1. in which the client system becomes aware of problems as yet unidentified. and shares with the consultant the process of problem diagnosis.

these action steps are carried out on the job as part of the transformation stage. Following the workshop or learning sessions. . This stage includes actions relating to learning processes in the form of role analysis and to planning and executing behavioral changes in the client organization. Included in this stage is action-planning activity carried out jointly by the consultant and members of the client system.The second stage . Feedback at this stage would move via Feedback Loop A and would have the effect of altering previous planning to bring the learning activities of the client system into better alignment with change objectives.

Major adjustments and reevaluations would return the OD project to the first. stage for basic changes in the program. Minor adjustments of this nature can be made in learning activities via Feedback Loop B.The third stage. or planning. This stage includes actual changes in behavior (if any) resulting from corrective action steps taken following the second stage. . Data are again gathered from the client system so that progress can be determined and necessary adjustments in learning activities can be made.

client centered.• Action research is problem centered. • It involves the client system in a diagnostic. active-learning. in devising methods for finding their real causes. problem-finding.] . and the client and the change agent collaborate in identifying and ranking specific problems. • Data are not simply returned in the form of a written report but instead are fed back in open joint sessions. and problemsolving process. and in developing plans for coping with them realistically and practically. and action oriented.

is nevertheless an integral part of the process. • Action research also sets in motion a longrange. and measuring results. forming hypotheses. cyclical. . although not pursued as rigorously as in the laboratory. self-correcting mechanism for maintaining and enhancing the effectiveness of the client's system by leaving the system with practical and useful tools for selfanalysis and self-renewal.• Scientific method in the form of data gathering. testing hypotheses.