System Models

How systems are partitioned, structured and organized

NJIT
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5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank

Architectural Models

In complex systems, it is necessary to organize the complexity by partitioning. Architectural models are ways to organize the parts and structure the relationships between them. Two fundamental architectural models are the Client/Server model and the Peer-toPeer model
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The Client/Server Model

The client/server model is organized around clients that request services and servers that provide services. Services might include information (such as the current weather) or computational services (such as complex calculations). There may be intermediate layers between the client and server that perform a portion of the task of locating and providing services.
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Client/Server Performance

Performance, scalability and mobility of the client/server model can be improved by  Partitioning or replicating data on servers  Caching data at proxy servers or clients  Using mobile code and mobile agents  Adding and removing mobile devices

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Leon Jololian/George Blank

The Peer-to-Peer Model

In peer-to-peer models, each node of a distributed system is capable of requesting and providing services. Most of the services available are available from several or even many nodes. Nodes tend to come and go from the network frequently, but redundancy tends to keep most services available.
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their dominant use is to provide information. It can be argued that computers are improperly named.Communications   Probably the key concern of a distributed system is the communication between nodes of the system. so communicator might be a more accurate description than computer. 6 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank . While they can and do provide computations.

people would spend more money on computer games than movie tickets! 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 7 . the utility of a new technology is not understood at the time of it’s introduction.Unintended Consequences   The fact that computers are primarily used as communicators is an example of the law of unintended consequences. Quite often. Computer was then an accurate name. Computers were originally used during World War 2 to compute ballistic tables for the Navy and perform calculations to design the atomic bomb. No one in the movie industry then could have anticipated that by today.

5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 8 . but the people who can see new possibilities in new capabilities of that technology. as mobility increased the value of land within commuting distance of cities. The most valuable employees in any industry are not the technicians who know how to use a technology. It went to investors in and developers of suburban real estate.Another example   Most of the wealth created by the automobile industry did not go to car and truck makers and their suppliers.

Fundamental Models  Fundamental models describe properties common to all architectural models often focusing on communications between nodes  The interaction model manages performance and time limits  The failure model specifies faults and defines reliable communication  The security model describes threats to processes and communication channels 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 9 .

Distributed systems can include a wide variety of hardware. networks and applications.Problems for distributed systems     Distributed systems can be used in many different ways by persons or systems with different objectives. There are many external threats that may affect a system. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 10 . Many types of internal system problems are possible. operating systems.

etc. foster reuse. floor plans. etc. and evolve the system 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .) Architecture helps us understand the system. methods.) software development benefits from a similar approach Time tested designs. keeping plumbing together. and approaches improve quality and performance (Center Hall Colonial. organize development. wiring and plumbing diagrams. (site plan.What is the Architecture Analogy?    11 Just as we need many views to construct a house.

12 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank . layers of software. The components might be nodes on a network. For example. server processes or peer processes. collections of services. one way of partitioning a system is to classify processes as client processes.Architectural Modeling    Architecture details a system by the organization of its components. or other ways of partitioning the system.

Architectural Views System Architecture Application Architecture Business Architecture Presentation Layer Application Layer Business Product Information Layer Service Resource Support Physical Architecture 13 Operations Architecture 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

Fat-Client model : Server only responsible for data management. Three-tier client-server: There is a layer between client and server that may provide data and/or application processing. The client machine implements application logic and interactions with user. 14 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .Some Client/Server Architectural Patterns Thin-Client model: All application processing and data management by server only.

User Interface) Server (e.g. Data) 15 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .g. Client (e.Client/Server Configurations  Client-Server configurations are generally categorized in two types:  Two-tier Configurations: consisting of a client and a server.

Data) 16 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank . Mid-tier for processing Client (e.Client/Server Configurations (cont’d)  Three-tier Configurations: includes another server that offloads certain functions from either the client and/or the server. User Interface) Server (e. this may also be called n-tier.g.g. Since there can be many intermediate servers.

Mid-tier Mid-tier Client Server (e.g.Client/Server Configurations (cont’d)  N-Tier Configurations: a type of three-tier set up that includes multiple intermediate servers. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 17 . Data) Client  Mid-tier Processing and data storage can occur on any node. as shown on the next page (using a three-tier configuration).

User Interface Processing Data User Interface Processing User Interface Processing Processing Data Processing Data Processing Data Data Processing Processing User Interface Data 18 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

Most of the processing is with the middle tier (in a three-tier setup) or the server. User Interface Processing Processing Processing Data 19 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .Fat vs. Thin Clients  Thin Client: In a client/server model. a client is called a “thin client” when the client contains a small amount of processing.

User Interface Processing Processing Data Processing Data 20 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank . usually more than the server. Thin Clients (cont’d)  Fat Client: A “fat client” is a client that contains a great deal of processing (which may include business logic).Fat vs.

The fundamental system components are objects that provide interface to a set of services. not objects. Distributed Object: Removes the distinction between client and server. 21 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank . Other objects call these services with no logical distinction between the provider and receiver. except that components are systems. Peer-to-Peer: Similar to distributed objects.More Architectural Patterns for Distributed Software Systems Multiprocessor: Common for large real-time systems and critical systems to improve performance and resilience of the system.

Typical Layers in a Distributed System Applications and Services Middleware Operating System Computer and Network Hardware 22 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

) Client Fire Wall (security) 23 Web Sphere – (IBM Corp.Typical Corporate Application (multi-tier client-server) Presentation Data management Application processing Client Client Client (browser) HTTP Web Server(s) Database Server CGI ASP Intranet Internet ODBC CF WS HTTP Client ODBC-Open Database Connectivity CGI – Common Gateway Interface ASP –Active server pages (Microsoft) CF .) 5/4/2012 (browser) Leon Jololian/George Blank Client .Cold Fusion (Allaire Corp.

The classical definition of an operating system is “software that makes hardware useable”.What is Middleware?    Middleware is the software between your application and the operating system and networking on a computer. Middleware can be considered to be the software that makes a distributed system programmable. It can be called the / in Client/Server. Similarly. It is the layer above the operating system but below the application program that provides a common programming abstraction across a distributed system. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 24 .

What is Middleware?   Layer between Application and OS/Network Provides distribution transparency   communication infrastructure registration and lookup of remote service Hardware/OS Networks Programming languages 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank  Resolves heterogeneity of    25 .

ISO: forms of transparency      Access – hide differences in data representation and how a resource is accessed Location – hide where a resource is located Migration – hide that a resource may move to another location Relocation – hide that a resource may move while in use Replication – hide that a resource is replicated 26 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

ISO: transparency continued    Concurrency – hide that a resource may be shared by several competitive users Failure – hide the failure and recovery of a resource Persistence – hide whether a software resource is in memory or on disk 27 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

e. Clients see only one system i. Centralizes control. It allows to implement functionality that otherwise would be very difficult to provide. Development platform (API) not complete system. Functionality widely available to all clients.Pros and Cons of Middleware  Pros:      Reduce number of interfaces. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 28 . Functionality is hard to understand.  Cons    Complex software. the middleware.

These interfaces allow applications to be distributed more easily and to take advantage of other services provided over the network. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 29 .Standard Interfaces   Middleware provides a comprehensive set of higher-level distributed computing capabilities and a set of standards-based interfaces.

30 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .Building Blocks  Application developers and system integrators can use middleware services as building blocks to construct enterprisewide information systems that use distributed computing resources effectively.

Position of Middleware in OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical 31 Complex data conversion Operation and Objects Communication 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

C++) 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 32 . VB.Examples of Middleware   Distributed Computing Environment from OSF     based on RPC and IDL based on objects and IDL interface objects locate each other through ORB defines Internet Inter-ORB protocol (IIOP) builds ORPC on top of DCE RPC CORBA from OMG  DCOM from Microsoft   supports integration of binary components from different languages (e. Java.g.

)  Remote Method Invocation (RMI)   based on a single language (Java) CORBA IDL used for defining interfaces based on RMI proposed for network-aware appliances  Jini from Sun   33 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .Examples of Middleware(cont.

High-Level Services   Many middleware services are high-level services Example: a single request of the data access service can retrieve many rows of information from one or more remote SQL relational databases (less coding effort) 34 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

Evolving Middleware for Application Distributability    The burden of distributing the application’s functions across nodes in a network fell largely on the application programmer. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 35 . Middleware provides transparency of the transport interface code. The transport interface code is divided into transport-independent and transportdependent parts.

Structure of Traditional Distributed Applications  The application includes the application logic and two types of networking code:   Application protocol support code. 36 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank . Transport Interface Code makes the appropriate network calls to send and receive the messages that make up the the application protocol over a specific network transport. Example: The X protocol for transmitting graphical images.

Program 2 Appl.Traditional Distributed Applications Node 1 Appl. Protocol Support Code Transport Interface Code Appl. Program 1 Appl. Protocol Support Code Transport Interface Code Node 2 Appl. Protocol Transport Protocol 37 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

A common example of this is a Java Applet. such as search engines.Distributed System Variations    Multiple servers: Services with large demands. may have many servers dedicated to a particular task. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 38 . Mobile code: Code may be retrieved from a server for execution on a client system. Proxy servers and Caches: Data likely to be needed again may be stored in memory or on local for fast retrieval.

and web crawlers. This may be a security problem. as such agents include worms. Only the code necessary to retrieve the programs and data is stored on the network appliance. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 39 . continued   Mobile Agents: A running program including code and data may run on remote systems. Network Computers: All code and data may be stored on a server and moved to a local thin client temporarily for execution.Variations. viruses.

continued   Thin Clients: Most of the processing may be done on a remote server. and Bluetooth. most commonly a Web Browser. Mobile clients and spontaneous interoperation: Transient mobile devices such as laptop computers. 3G.Variations. cell phones and PDAs may connect to the network using technologies such as GSM. running on the client. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 40 . with little more than a client interface. WiFi.

Some of those challenges include:  Performance  Quality of service  Caching and Replication  Dependability 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 41 .Design Requirements  There are many challenges in designing computer systems.

Load balancing: High potential throughput can be defeated if the work is not distributed to make maximum use of potential because some of the system is idle. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 42 . Throughput: IT systems are expensive.Performance issues    Responsiveness: Users want both speed and consistency. and are often sold on the basis of their ability to perform the most work for the least money.

Quality of Service     Performance is one aspect of quality of service. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 43 . Security: this is protection from compromise or loss of information or investment. Time Criticality: some information must be available in the right place at the right time. Others include: Reliability: this includes availability (“uptime”) and freedom from errors. This is a major concern in designing networks.

availability and time critical sensitivity is storing extra copies of data in memory (caching) or on a local disk (replication). 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 44 .Caching and Replication    One tool for increasing throughput. Data stored can be small (translated web addresses) or large (multiple copies of corporate databases). There are many challenges in managing data that can be changed in one place while having copies in other places.

Dependability Issues    Correctness is ensuring that data is current and accurate. determining privileges and protection of systems and data. Security includes identifying users. Fault tolerance is ensuring that when something goes wrong. the system can recover or bypass the fault rapidly without loss of information. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 45 .

you cannot build a house from plans that only describe the plumbing. But the plumbing diagram contains all the information that the plumber needs to install the plumbing.Fundamental Models  Modeling is based on abstraction. You may also have a wiring diagram for the electrician. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 46 . We ignore some parts of a system to concentrate on others. For example. a framing diagram for the carpenters and an excavation plan for the bulldozer and backhoe operators.

Questions for a model    What are the main entities in a system? How do those entities interact with each other? What characteristics affect the individual and collective behavior of those entities? 47 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

Make generalizations about what is possible or impossible to accomplish based on those assumptions.Purpose of a Model   Make explicit all of the relevant * assumptions about a system. *Note that it is a real challenge to include everything that matters while excluding everything that does not matter! 48 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 49 . Failure Model: defines and classifies potential faults for analysis in order to design a fault tolerant system.Fundamental Models for Distributed Systems    Interaction Model: describes the communications between the system and external actors and the communication between components of the system. Security Model: identifies potential threats to a system so that countermeasures can be developed.

Interaction Model Concerns   Performance of communication channels Computer clocks and timing events   Synchronous distributed systems Asynchronous distributed systems  Event ordering 50 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank .

Failure Model Concerns       Process omission failures Communication omission failures Arbitrary failures Timing failures Masking failures Communication Reliability  Validity  Integrity 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 51 .

Security Model Concerns    Protecting objects Securing processes and their communications Defeating security threats      Cryptography and shared secrets Authentication and Authorization Secure channels Denial of service Mobile code 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 52 .

Include only one wired and one wireless connection from a student computer. 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 53 .Classroom Team Exercise  Create an architectural diagram of the systems you have used so far for this class. connecting hosts with links to the circles. Use a cloud to represent the Internet and circles for the AFS and PC networks at NJIT.

Some Review questions      What are the parts of a typical client/server system for corporate transaction processing? How can a search engine coordinate searching for current data with constant updates from web crawlers on data that is replicated many times? What is the difference between a buffer and a cache? What applications are best for mobile code? Can you think of other technological examples of the law of unintended consequences? 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 54 .

Communications of ACM. Distributed Systems. pp. Bernstein. The Middleware Source Book. 86-98 5/4/2012 Leon Jololian/George Blank 55 .Digital Press Byte Magazine. 1996. 2005 J. Middleware: A Model for Distributed System Services. Concepts and Design. Colonna-Romano & P.References     George Coularis. Srite. Feb. 65-78 P. pp. Addison Wesley. Jean Dollimore and Tim Kindberg. Fourth Edition. April 1996.

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