WAES3204 Image Processing

Chapter 1 Part 1 : Introduction

Computer Imaging
• Computer imaging can be defines as the acquisition and processing of visual information by computers • Computer vision
– The processed (output) images are for the use of a computer

• Image processing
– The output images are for human consumption

Computer Imaging
• Human visual system and the computer as a vision system has varying limitation and strengths
Computer Imaging

Computer Vision

Image Processing

Computer Vision • Images are examined and acted upon by a computer • Image analysis – Examination of image data to facilitate solving a vision problem – feature extraction • Process of acquiring higher level info – Pattern classification • Using higher level information and identify objects in the image .

Why Computer Vision • Because it is • Tedious for people to perform the applications such as feature extraction and pattern classification. • These application require working in a hostile environment • Require a high rate of processing • Require access and use of large database .

Application of Computer Vision • Manufacturing – Quality control • Medical Community – Diagnose skin tumor automatically – Aid surgeons – Perform clinical test automatically • Law enforcement – – – – Automatic identification of fingerprints DNA analysis Retina scan. facial scan Highway speeders .

• Major fields – Image restoration – Image enhancement – Image compression .e the image that will be examined will be done (examine) by human.Image Processing • The application involves a human being in the visual loop • i.

3-1 – pg. Photography • Model the degradation process and apply the inverse process to restore the image (Figure 1.6) • Restoration is the process of modeling the distortion of an image and reversing the degradation .Image Restoration • Process of taking an image with known or estimated degradation and restoring I to its original appearance • E.g.

3-2. Stretch the contrast of an image (Figure 1.Image Enhancement • Improving image visually by taking advantage of the human visual system • Eg. pg 7) • Problems specific .

Image Compression • Reduces large amount of data need to represent an image • Eliminate data that is visually unnecessary .

• Entertainment – creating and editing artificial scene • CAD/CAM • Virtual Reality .Uses of Image Processing • Medical field • Biological research – enhanced microscopic image to bring out the feature that are otherwise indiscernible.

4-1.Computer Imaging System • Hardware – Figure 1. pg. 8 Image acquisition subsystem Computer System Image display Standard Videos Signal Analog Signal Digitization Digital Image Digital Signal .

Sampling Analog Signal Digital Signal Digitization .

Hierarchical Image Pyramid High Level Operation Feature Extraction Transforms Segmentation Edge Detection Preprocessing Image Representation Feature/Objects Spectrum Segments Edges/Line Neighborhood/subimage Low Level Raw Image Data Pixel .

Human Visual Perception Eye Brain Optical Nerve .

WAES3204 Image Processing Chapter 1 Part 2 : Image Representation .

Types of Images • • • • Binary Gray-scale Color Multispectral .

Binary Image • Only 2 values • 1 or 0 • 1 bit/pixel image .

Gray Scale Image • • • • One color images Only brightness information is available 8 bits/pixel 256 different brightness level .

Color Image • 3 band monochrome image data • Each band of data corresponds to different color • RGB – Red. green and clue – 8 bits per color – 24 bits/pixel .

c). IB(r.c) IB(r.c) A typical RGB color image can be thought as there separate image : IR(r.c).c) An (R.B) color pixel vector . IG(r.Color Image Representation IR(r.c) IG(r.G.

HSL color map • Hue / Saturation / Lightness (HSL) • Hue • Deep. bright orange – Large intensity (“bright) – Hue (“orange”) – High saturation (“deep) – Color (green. orange) • RGB – Red = 245 • Saturation – Green = 110 – How much white in the – Blue = 20 color – Can’t understand – Pink is more saturated than red • Lightness – Brightness of the color . blue.

HSL Color Space Lightness Green Zero Saturation Full Red Blue Hue Black .

RGB to HSL Mapping .

-ray Acoustic Radar data • Sources – Satelite system – Underwater sonar system – Various type of airborne radar – Infrared imaging system – Medical diagnostic system .Multispectral Images • Contains information outside the normal human perceptual range • Include – – – – – Infrared Ultrasound x.

curves. and shape by storing only key points – Joint key points and render to obtain image .c) • Vector image – Representing lines.Digital Image File Format • Bitmap image – Represented by image model I(r.

Information in Image • Header information – No of rows (height) – No of columns (width) – No of bands – No of bits per pixel – File type • Raw pixel data .

File Format • Simplest – BIN & PPM • BIN – Raw image data – No header – User must know necessary parameters • PPM – – – – – – Raw image data Simple header PBM – binary PGM – gray scale PPM color PNM any of the above .

File Format • GIF – – – – – Graphics Interchange Format 8 bits/pixel (256 colors) Allows only 1 type of compression Header 13 byte long Contains only basic information • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) – JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) – Compress images with JPEG algorithm – User can define the amount of compression .

File Format • TIFF – Tagged image file format – More sophisticated that GIF – 24 bits/pixel – 5 types of compression – Header • Variable size • Arranged in hierarchical manner – Most comprehensive formats .

File Format • SGI (Silicon Graphics Inc) – Supports 16 million colors – 512 byte header • EPS (Encapsulated Post Script) – Used for desktop publishing .

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