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The British Airways Swipe Group-6 Card Debacle
5/4/12

Key Issues

5/4/12

Organization Development
Coach image of implementing change Aimed at
ü Incremental ü Developmental ü First order change

Emphasis on core set of values
ü Humanistic values ü Democratic values
5/4/12

Organization Development  Characteristics of OD approach 5/4/12 .

Key Issues 5/4/12 .

OD change intervention process Kurt Lewin Change Process 5/4/12 .

Action research change process 5/4/12 .

Recommendation 5/4/12 .

Criticisms of OD 5/4/12 .

Criticisms of OD 5/4/12 .

Appreciative Inquiry Works on the model what's working best & build on this knowledge to help develop & design what might be achieved in future Its 4 steps are: 5/4/12 .

SENSE MAKING Assumption of Inertia Standardized change program is needed ü Animation ü Direction ü Paying attention and updating ü Respectful Unfreezing 5/4/12 .

KEY ISSUES Extracted cues of sense making Ongoing sense making Enactment Projective sense making 5/4/12 .

RECOMMENDATIONS Identify appropriate cues and match them to intended change programs Understanding that ongoing sense making stabilizes a situation Correct timing of enactment Understanding the implication of the change 5/4/12 .

 Organizational process aimed at helping employees to accept and embrace changes in their current business environment change  A method of reducing or managing resistance to  Key Features: 5/4/12 .Change Management: Definition  Structured approach to shifting or transitioning  Individuals  Teams  Organizations  Movement from a current state to a desired future state.

Grouard & Meston (1998): Ten Keys  Omission likely to lead to transformational failure  Keys to be implemented simultaneously  Degree to which keys are applied are important  Nadler (1998): 12 Action Steps  Capable of being adapted at every level of organization  Manage three core elements: Power. Motivate People & Transition  Kanter. Stein and Jick (1992): Ten Commandments  Taffinder (1998): Transformation Trajectory 5/4/12 .Change Management: Approaches  Pendlebury.

taken and implemented without proper consultation from affected parties “Respect Deficit” 5/4/12 Overall dissatisfaction with management .Key Issues Employees against the introduction of electronic clocking in systems due to lack of awareness Not part of the big picture: “Future Size and Shape” Unilateral decision.

Application to Case: Kotter’s 8 Step Model  Adopt a See-Feel-Change Approach to grab the attention of employees towards a need for change 5/4/12 .

style of change will depend upon the scale of change and the receptivity of organizational members for engaging in the change Style of change  Collaborative Consultative Directive Coercive 5/4/12 .Contingency Approaches According to contingency theorists.

Coercive/directive Taylorism: Fine-tuning. Style of leadership is Consultative Task Focused Transition: Directive Charismatic Transformation: Radical Change. Consultative Turnarounds: Frame Breaking. Paternalistic 5/4/12 .Dunphy/Stace Contingency Model of Change Developmental Transitions: Constant Change.

longer change  Socializing: Long term.Contingency Approach. Participative experiential learning 5/4/12 .HUY Commanding: Abrupt change Engineering : Medium term change Teaching: Gradual.

Problems with Contingency Approach Fitting an organizational change program to the type of change required is not practical They are ambiguous and require greater choice and decisions Specific set of change action steps are not considered Different style s at different situations There can be things universal for all 5/4/12 .

Key Issues It was seen as a “prelude to a radical shake-up” Lack of adequate consultation Potential Changes in the working patterns of women juggling with childcare should have scheduled in a very sensitive way 5/4/12 .

specific se of change steps should be formulated 5/4/12 .Recommendations The change should be Charismatic : Paradigm shift but less directive and more consultative It should be engineering intervention rather than commanding change intervention According to the scale of action and the style of leadership.

structure.Processual Approach According to Pettigrew “Change is best understood as a complex interplay between content. culture and power relations) 5/4/12 . process and context” By context we mean. external context( economic. political and competitive environment) as well as internal context( strategy.

Stages to engage in the management of Change 5/4/12 .

Lessons for British Airways Change strategies need to adapt in light of the reactions and politics they create. sensitive to competing narratives and political processes Training programs need to be aligned with the desired change 5/4/12 . Change takes time and is unlikely to entail continual development Communication needs to occur in context.

SIX BOX MODEL( for internal alignment) 5/4/12 .

Change Management Model 5/4/12 .

Thank You THANK YOU 5/4/12 .

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