PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY Proponent: Erik Erikson

July 7, 2007 De La Salle University - Dasmariñas

Erik Erikson
A GLANCE IN HIS LIFE…
Erik Erikson was born in Germany of Danish parents in 1902. He left high school without graduating . He spent several years traveling around Europe. Came to the United States to escape the tension in Europe.

that is the growing personality. 1910 . Erik Erikson Identity and the Life Cycle.PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY Growth consists of a series of challenges…each successive step is a potential crisis because of a radical change in perspective…Different capacities use different opportunities to become full-grown components of the ever – new configuration.

Erikson’s “Psychosocial” term is derived from the two source words namely: Psychosocial Psychological Social “psycho” – relating to mind External relationships and environment .

Trust vs Mistrust Infancy (Birth to 18 months) Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability. care. . A lack of this will lead to mistrust.THE 8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES 1. and affection.

THE 8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES 2. Autonomy vs. Success in doing small things leads to autonomy Failure leads to shame & doubt . Shame & Doubt 2 -3 years old A stage of exerting independence Develop the capacity to move about and do many things on their own.

Toilet Training .

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. Inferiority 6 – 11 years old Children's’ behavior is characterized by active curiosity and a sense of how they stand in relation to others. Children want to win recognition and praise through the things they do. they’ll feel incompetent and will develop inferiority. If the children are encouraged to succeed they will develop a sense of industry and confidence. Industry vs.THE 8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES 4. If their attempts to succeeds fails and if the adults give them negative feedback.

. Achieve physical maturity Concerned with the question of who they will become They either develop a solid sense of ego identity or left with considerable confusion. Identity vs.THE 8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES 5. Role Confusion 12 – 18 years old Youth develop a desire from independence from parents.

THE 8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES 6. Isolation Young Adulthood (19 – 40 years old ) Expected to establish a close committed relationship with another person. Intimacy vs. Success leads to strong relationships Failure results in loneliness and isolation .

THE 8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle age ( 40 – 65 years old) To be generative – to see one’s children grow and develop To be proud of the productive and creative accomplishments that will leave a legacy for younger generations ( such as those that teachers often feel) .

. Despair Old age (65 to death) Feel a sense of integrity when they can look back at their lives with pride and a sense of accomplishment May experience a feeling of despair if they have not achieved a sense of satisfaction with their lives.THE 8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES 8. Integrity vs.

.Aged individuals who are still productive.

toilet training Basic Virtue Maladaptation Hope and drive Sensory Distortion / Withdrawal 2. Trust vs. Anal Shame and Doubt Wilpower and self control Impulsivity / Compulsion .Psychosocial Stages Erickson’s Psychosocial Stage 1. Mistrust Freudian Psychosexual Stages Oral Life Stages/ Relationships / Issues Infant / mother / feeding and being comforted. Autonomy vs. teething Toddler / parents/ bodily functions.

teachers. Inferiority Latency Narrow Virtuosity / Inertia .Psychosocial Stages Erickson’s Psychosocial Stage Freudian Psychosexual Stages Life Stages / Relationships / Issues Basic Virtue Maladaptation 3. Initiative vs. friends/ achievement & accomplishment Competence and method Ruthlessness / Inhibition 4. Industry vs. Guilt Phallic Preschool / family Purpose and / exploration and direction discovery Schoolchild / school.

friends. social life Fidelity & Devotion Fanaticism / Repudiation 6. work connections / intimate relationships.Psychosocial Stages Erickson’s Psychosocial Stage Freudian Psychosexual Stages Life Stages / Relationships / Issues Basic Virtue Maladaptation 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion Puberty and Genitality Adolescent / Peers. groups / resolving identity. Isolation Genitality Love & Affiliation Promiscuity / Exclusivity . becoming a grown-up Young adults / lovers. Intimacy vs.

Despair Wisdom / Renunciatio n Presumption / Disdain . life achievements Care & production Over extension / Rejectivity 8. contributing Late adult / society. Generativity Mid-adult / children. life / meaning & purpose. the world. helping.Psychosocial Stages Erickson’s Psychosocial Stage Freudian Psychosexual Stages Life Stages / Relationships / Issues Basic Virtue Maladaptation 7. Integrity vs. community / giving back.

.Educational Implications of Erikson’s Theory Industry versus Inferiority – Elementary grade children need to acquire a sense of accomplishment. – Elementary grade children need to feel that they are accepted and that their culture and language are respected.

Educational Implications of Erikson’s Theory Identity versus Role Confusion – also known as “identity crisis” – Adolescents engage in continuous reflection about themselves and need to have opportunities to share concerns with caring adults. – Adolescents need help in achieving their sense of identity. .

FOCUS AREA How can teachers help children and youth successfully resolve the challenges of the different stages of psychosocial development? .

FOCUS AREA As a teacher. what can you to ensure that all the students in your classroom develop a sense of identity? What can a school or teacher do to help adolescents who are having difficulty resolving their adolescent identity crisis and developing a sense of self? .

FOCUS AREA What can you do as a teacher to educate parents about the important roles they can play to help children and adolescents cope with the challenges of psychosocial development? .

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