Produced by: MSC Performance Group Operations and Engineering Department Vodafone Egypt

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GPRS System Survey
GPRS Overview

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Contents
 Chapter 1 : Introduction to GPRS

 Chapter 2 :
 Chapter 3 :  Chapter 4 :  Chapter 5 :  Chapter 6 :

GPRS Air Interface
GPRS BSS GPRS Backbone Network Traffic Cases GPRS Charging

Chapter 1 : Introduction to GPRS

 ADSL Leased lines are increasing.  PSTN networks allow their subscribers to dial up to the internet.  ISDN networks are specially designed to enhance the PSTN capabilities in data transmission.Introduction to GPRS The Future : Data or Voice ? GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS All telecommunication network operators are providing to their customers both voice and data services.  GSM networks provide SMS. WAP and Data transmission services. Can we predict the demand and future growth of data communication ? .

Chairman of Digital Equipment Corp.Introduction Some past predictions GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS I think there is a world market for maybe five computers Thomas Watson. Chairman of IBM 1943 There is no reason anyone would want a computer in his home Ken Olson. 1977 640 K (RAM) ought to be enough for anybody Bill Gates 1981 .

Introduction The Future : Data or Voice ? Tbit/ day 150 125 100 75 Data GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Voice 50 25 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 .

000 GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS 800 (millions) 600 Mobile 400 Internet 200 The New Telecoms World 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 .Introduction Mobiles & Internet Parallel Growth 1.

end 1998 GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS .Introduction Penetration Rates of Mobile Phone Users Year .

Introduction

Data Communication over GSM
Circuit switched. Services available only when connected.

GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS

Consumes large resources of the telecommunication operator.

Introduction

Data Communication over GSM
GSM provides 4 types of services  Voice service.  SMS service  Fax service.  Data service

GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS

Introduction

Limitations of GSM data services
1. Slow data rates
PSTN networks provide rate of 56 kb/s to its users

GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS

ISDN networks provide multiples of 64 kb/s to its users What was the initial rate offered by GSM networks ?

9.6 kbps

Using this service allows the assignment of maximum 4 circuit switched time slots to the same user over the air interface. Slow data rates Enhancements of GSM data rates: HSCSD GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Introducing GSM Phase 2+ allows for Multi-slot capability. HSCSD. the uplink and downlink assignment may not be symmetric. . Thus the rate of 4 x 9. It decides how many timeslots will be assigned to the MS in each direction.e Timeslots assigned in the Rx direction are greater than those assigned in the Tx direction.6 = 38.6 kbps is achievable The capability of the MS to use this service is dictated by a feature called the Multi-Slot Class of the MS. For Internet Model. i.Introduction Limitations of GSM data services 1. a service known as High Speed Circuit Switched Data.

This is achieved by adding extra bits to the actual bits to be sent.6 Kbps To increase the rate more data will be sent Instead of strong error correction. These bits will be used to detect the presence of errors and order retransmission. This makes the link less reliable but increases the rate. Slow data rates Enhancements of GSM data rates: Coding Schemes GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Channel Coding is used in the aim of attaining a reliable data link over the air interface. Rate of data over GSM using this CS is 9. Coding Scheme 1 (CS1) was the first CS to be used and it adds a large number of coding bits causing the user rate to be low. . Coding Scheme 2 (CS2) uses a less number of coding bits allowing the user rate to reach 14.4 Kbps.Introduction Limitations of GSM data services 1.

Slow data rates GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Enhancements of GSM data rates: HSCSD + Coding Schemes Combining the effect of of the HSCSD and CS2 will jump with the rate to reach 14.4 x 4 = 57.6 kbps which is comparable to the PSTN rate. the service will be expensive to the user.Introduction Limitations of GSM data services 1. Yet. . this bit rate is still low for some applications and consumes large number of resources creating congestion situations plus.

Data transfer Communication : Circuit Switching GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS B C A D .Introduction Limitations of GSM data services 2.

Introduction Limitations of GSM data services 2. Data transfer Communication : Packet Switching GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS B Info C A D .

circuit switched communication should be used for video conferences. . For example packet switched communication should be chosen for e-mail. dispatch traffic. telemetry applications and point of sale.Introduction Circuit Switched or Packet Switched GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Circuit Switched communication is suitable for data traffic where one or more of the following cases apply: Constant band width data flow Sensitivity to even small connection delays. Packet Switched communication is suitable for data traffic where one or more of the following cases apply: Data sent in bursts Sensitivity to errors. For example.

GPRS will address these user needs. volume based rather than time based charging. with alternative tariffing i.Introduction General Packet Radio Services GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS As the mobile data market develops. . users will seek out high performance mobile networks that provide optimal handling of “bursty” data applications.e.

Introduction What is GPRS ? GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS GSM-PLMN IP Enhancement of GSM data transfer capabilities A new set of bearer services A new kind of “data-pipe” Focus on IP-interworking Quality of Service categories Packet switching technology Efficient use of air interface resources Volume based Charging Always connected High data rate .

always on-line     No need for frequent log on/log off Easier to access data services Higher speeds Volume based charging  New application .Introduction GPRS End-user Benefits  GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Always connected.

Introduction GPRS Operator Benefits  GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS New packet data services     Attract various segments Efficient radio usage Low investment cost New business model Content Exclusivity Full Service Provider (FSP) E-commerce Wireless ISP ISP Connectivity Bearer services .

.Introduction GPRS Applications GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Applications & services now used with a fixed network. Mobility will enable completely new applications & services. can be used anywhere. The parallel developments in software and hardware technology will be the key factors in the acceptance of these applications by the market.

.Introduction GPRS Applications: Remote Office GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Users get access to their corporate intranet in Europe from a mine site in South-East Asia. GPRS enables this because it is based on the TCP/IP protocol. the same as the Internet and intranets. just as if they were in the office. They can read files and download information.

travel information as well as Internet access. Drivers could subscribe to a service for traffic updates. maps.Introduction GPRS Applications: Cars GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS GPRS makes it easy to send information to and from cars. and inform the driver when the next service is due. Car manufacturers and dealers could check up on vehicles remotely. .

The journalist does not pay for online time only for the data transmitted. .Introduction GPRS Applications: Image Transfer GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The GPRS packet data platform is ideal for ensuring the integrity of the image and reducing cost.

Introduction Other GPRS Applications GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Vending Machines ATM Banking Machines Connectivity Download billboard advertisement Mobile access to medical data .

g.g. Road toll applications. water).Introduction Point To Point (PTP) Applications Typical PTP Applications Messaging (e. Internet WEB-browsing. Automatic Train Control (ATC). . GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Remote (and mobile) access to corporate networks. electricity. Utility meter readings (e. e-mail). Credit card validation (point of sales).

Introduction Point To Multipoint (PTM) Applications Typical PTM Applications PTM multicast (PTM-M) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Message to any subscriber located within a geographical area. Only appointed members can be a subscriber of a certain group. Anyone can be a subscriber of a certain group. No knowledge about which subscribers that will get the message. Complete control over which subscribers that will get the message. PTM group (PTM-G) Message to a given set of subscribers located in a geographical area. .

Introduction Horizontal and Vertical Applications GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS .

Introduction Horizontal and Vertical Applications Horizontal Business •Internet •Intranet/Wan access •E-mail/Fax •Database Access •Conferencing •Voice IP phone Consumer Operations GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Vertical Automation •Car tolls •Telemetry •Vending machines •Meter reading •Surveillance •Position tracking •E-mail/messaging •Job Dispatch •Internet access •Delivery •E-commerce •Fleet Management •News Taxi Police •Field Service Emergency Field Sales .

Introduction GSM and TDMA/AMPS Coverage January 1999 GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS .

Introduction 3G Data Transfer Time GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS .

25 Network GGSN SGSN Gb Gn IP Backbone network Traffic BSC/TRC + PCU BSC/TRC Gp PLMN TE MT BTS Signaling .Introduction GPRS Architecture AUC GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS HLR Gr Gd SMSC PLMN ISDN PSTN GWMSC MSC/VLR EIR Gf Internet Gs Corporate LAN Gi X.

Introduction GPRS Interfaces AUC GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS HLR Gr Gd SMSC EIR Gf Internet Gs MSC/VLR SGSN GGSN Corporate LAN X.25 Network SS7 MAP Gr Gf Gd Register Interface Fraud Interface Data Interface BSC/TRC + PCU IP Backbone network SS7 BSSAP+ Gs Switching System Interface PLMN .

25 Network Gb BSSGP over Frame Relay Gb BSS Interface BSSGP . Frame Relay E1 IP Backbone network BSC/TRC + PCU PLMN . NSC .Introduction GPRS Interfaces AUC GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS HLR SMSC EIR Internet Corporate LAN MSC/VLR SGSN GGSN X.

Introduction GPRS Interfaces GTP over IP Gn Network Interface GTP . IP p Eth/FR/ATM IP Backbone network BSC/TRC + PCU Gp PLMN . TCP/UDP . TCP/UDP . IP p Eth/FR/ATM MSC/VLR AUC GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS HLR SMSC EIR Internet Corporate LAN Gi X.25 Network GGSN SGSN IP Gi Internet Interface Gn Application .

From the TE point of view. The TE could be for example a laptop computer. This is the component used for the GPRS system to transmit and receive enduser packet data. connecting the TE to the GPRS system. .Introduction GPRS Architecture Terminal Equipment (TE) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Terminal Equipment is the computer terminal that the end-user works on. you could compare the MT to a modem. The GPRS system provides IP connectivity between the TE and an Internet Service Provider or Corporate LAN connected to the GPRS system.

Channel reselection is provided at the radio link between the MT and the SGSN. The MT is associated with a subscriber in the GSM system. . The MT must be equipped with software for the GPRS functionality when used in conjunction with the GPRS system. that is the TE is not aware of being mobile and retains its assigned IP address until the MT detaches. The IP connection is static from the TE point of view.Introduction GPRS Architecture Mobile Terminal (MT) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Mobile Terminal (MT) communicates with a TE. The MT establishes a link to an SGSN. and over the air with a BTS.

Note that the MT and TE parts could actually be in the same piece of equipment. .Introduction GPRS Architecture Mobile Station (MS) The combination of a TE and an MT is a MS (Mobile Station). It can be concluded from the context which parts would relate to the MT or the TE parts. GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The term MS is used when discussing the GPRS features.

However. Class C mode of operation It allows an MS only to be attached to one service at the time. An MS that only supports GPRS and not circuit switched traffic will always work in class C mode of operation. The MS can then suspend the packet transfer for the duration of the circuit switched connection and afterwards resume the package transfer. Class B mode of operation It allows a MS to be attached to both CS and PS but it can not use both services at the same time.Introduction GPRS Architecture Mobile Classes GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS GPRS MSs can operate in three different modes depending on the MS and the network capabilities: Class A mode of operation It allows a MS to have a circuit switched connection at the same time as it is involved in a package transfer. MS that is involved in a package transfer can receive a page for circuit switched traffic. .

One or several BSCs are served by an MSC. The BSC has the functionality to set up. . A group of BTSs is controlled by a BSC. and a number of BSCs are served by an SGSN. and channel assignment. supervise and disconnect circuit-switched and packet-switched calls. before the BSC forwards CS calls to the MSC/VLR. for the desired compatibility. The BSC must be equipped with GPRS hardware and software when used for GPRS. cell configuration data. It is a high capacity switch that provides functions including handover. and PS data to the SGSN. The protocols towards the BSC are standard GSM protocols. The BSC provides all the radio-related functions. The BTS is the radio equipment which transmits and receives information over the air to let the BSC communicate with MSs in the BSCs service area. The BTS must contain GPRS-specific software. The BTS separates the MS-originated circuit-switched calls from packet data communication.Introduction GPRS Architecture Base Station System (BSS) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Base Station System (BSS) consists of a Base Station Controller (BSC) and a Base Transceiver Station (BTS).

and possibly some private networks. like the SGSN switches the GSM packet-switched traffic. Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). An MSC Location Area is a group of BSS cells. such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Public Data Networks. The SGSN Routing Area (RA) is a subset of the MSC (CS) Location Area (LA). The SGSN Routing Area is the part of the network that is covered by one SGSN.Introduction GPRS Architecture Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) performs the telephony switching functions of the GSM circuit-switched system. It controls calls to and from other telephony and data systems. . An LA is the part of the network in which a MS may move around without reporting its location to the network. The system uses the LAs to search for subscribers in the active state. There can be several MSCs corresponding to one SGSN. One MSC can also be connected to several SGSNs. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).

. Ericsson MSC contains the circuit-switched VLR as an integrated part. If the mobile station makes a call at another time.Introduction GPRS Architecture GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Visitor Location Register (VLR) Functionality in SGSN and in MSC The Visitor Location Register (VLR) database contains information about all mobile stations currently located in the MSC location area or SGSN routing area respectively. Similarly. The SGSN contains the VLR functionality for packet-switched communication. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC location area or SGSN routing area. The VLR contains temporary subscriber information needed by the MSC or SGSN to provide services for visiting subscribers. the VLR of that MSC or SGSN requests and stores data about the mobile station from the HLR. the VLR will then already have the information needed for that call setup.

The Gs interface is used to coordinate the location information of MSs that are attached to both GPRS and the CS network. The Gs interface thus connects the databases in the MSC/VLR and the SGSN. . The Gs interface is essential for supporting the Network operation mode I and Mobile Station (MS) mode of operation A and B.Introduction GPRS Architecture GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Visitor Location Register (VLR) Functionality in SGSN and in MSC The Gs interface is used for dealing efficiently with terminals that are attached to both GPRS (Packet-Switched) and to GSM (Circuit-Switched) traffic. An example is that the Class-A and Class-B MSs connect to the MSC/VLR over the SGSN via the combined CS and PS Mobility Management procedures. if there is a Gs interface. The Gs interface is also used to convey some CS procedures via the SGSN. identification and mobility management. This includes combined IMSI and GPRS attach and detach.

GGSN  Output of charging data. The SGSN forwards incoming and outgoing IP packets addressed to/from a mobile station that is attached within the SGSN service area. The SGSN collects charging information for each MS related to the radio network usage. The SGSN provides:  Packet routing and transfer to and from the SGSN service area.  Session management  Mobility management  Logical link management towards the MS  Connection to HLR. SMS-IWMSC. BSC. .Introduction GPRS Architecture Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is a primary component in the GSM network using GPRS and is a new component in GSM. MSC. SMS-GMSC.  Ciphering and authentication.

communication setup towards external network  Functionality for associating the subscribers to the right SGSN  Output of charging data. Therefore it contains access functionality that interfaces external ISP functions like routers and RADIUS servers (Remote Access Dial-In User Service). GGSN is a primary component in the GSM network using GPRS and is a new component. the GGSN acts as a router for the IP addresses of all subscribers served by the GPRS network. related to the external data network usage. The GGSN collects charging information for each MS.Introduction GPRS Architecture Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS Like the SGSN.  From the external IP network‟s point of view. The GGSN thus exchanges routing information with the external network  GPRS session management. The GGSN provides:  The interface towards the external IP packet networks. .

.Introduction GPRS Architecture The Co-Located SGSN and GGSN GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The SGSN and GGSN functionalities may be combined in the same physical node (network element). or they may reside in different physical nodes.

e. and whether or not packet communication is allowed. does not use the MSC/VLR like for CS GSM. i. For GPRS.Introduction GPRS Architecture Home Location Register (HLR) GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Home Location Register (HLR) is the database that holds subscription information for every person who has bought a subscription from the GSM/GPRS operator. authentication parameters. Note that the authentication triplets for GPRS are fetched directly from the HLR to the SGSN. In addition. the HLR includes information about the location of the MS. subscriber information is exchanged between HLR and SGSN. The HLR stores information for CS and for PS communication. . The HLR contains information about supplementary services.

.Introduction GPRS Architecture SMS-GMSC and SMS-IWMSC GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Short Message Service Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC) and Short Message Service Inter-working MSC (SMS-IWMSC) are connected to the SGSN to enable GPRS MSs to send and receive SMS over GPRS radio channels. The Short Message Service Center (SC or SM-SC) is connected to the GPRS network via the SMS-GMSC and the SMS-IWMSC. The SMS-MSCs are not changed for GPRS use.

The SMS-MSCs are not changed for GPRS use. The Short Message Service Center (SC or SM-SC) is connected to the GPRS network via the SMS-GMSC and the SMS-IWMSC. .Introduction GPRS Architecture SMS-GMSC and SMS-IWMSC GPRS System Survey Introduction to GPRS The Short Message Service Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC) and Short Message Service Inter-working MSC (SMS-IWMSC) are connected to the SGSN to enable GPRS MSs to send and receive SMS over GPRS radio channels.

Chapter 2 : Air Interface .

Air Interface Routing Area GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

Air Interface GPRS Protocol Stack GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

Air Interface Multi-frame Structure Packet Header User Data GPRS System Survey Air Interface Network Layer LLC PDU Header Information field Tail LLC Layer RLC Information RLC Information Radio Blocks USF RLC Header RLC BCS Information USF RLC Header RLC BCS Information RLC/MAC Layer Normal Normal Normal Normal Burst Burst Burst Burst GSM RF (Physical Layer) B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 B5 I B6 B7 B8 T B9 B10 B11 I .

. The MAC header contains several elements. including shared transmission resources management (assignment of the radio block to multiple users on the same timeslot).Air Interface Um Interface MAC (Medium Access Control) It controls the access signaling across the air interface. referring to the downlink or uplink. GPRS System Survey Air Interface MAC achieves these functionalities by placing a header in front of the RLC header in the RLC/MAC data and control blocks.some of which are direction-specific.

Air Interface Um Interface MAC (Medium Access Control) The key parameters of MAC header are: GPRS System Survey Air Interface  Uplink status flag (USF).the type of data (control block or data block)contained in the remainder of the RLC/MAC block.  Relative reserved block period (RRBP).  Countdown value (CV).identifies a single uplink block in which the mobile phone will transmit control information.  Payload type (PT). .is sent in all downlink RLC/MAC blocks and indicates the owner or use of the next uplink radio block on the same timeslot.is sent by the mobile to allow the network to calculate the number of RLC data blocks remaining in the current uplink TBF.

Air Interface Um Interface MAC (Medium Access Control) GPRS System Survey Air Interface TS 4 5 6 7 B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 USF 1 1 1 1 TS 4 5 6 USF 2 3 4 USF=3 BTS B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 PCU TS 5 6 7 USF 2 3 5 Data .

.Air Interface Um Interface RLC ( Radio Link Control ) It is responsible for a number of functions: GPRS System Survey Air Interface  Transferring LLC-PDUs between the LLC layer and the MAC function  Segmentation of LLC-PDUs into RLC data blocks and re-assembly of RLC data blocks to fit into TDMA frame blocks  Segmentation and re-assembly of RLC/MAC control messages into RLC/MAC control blocks  Backward error correction for selective transmission of RLC data blocks.

The TBF is temporary and is maintained only for the duration of the data transfer. and spare bits. . Each TBF is assigned a temporary flow identity (TFI)by the network.The coding scheme is critical in deciding the segmentation process. The RLC data blocks consist of an RLC header. GPRS System Survey Air Interface The LLC-PDUs are known collectively as a temporary block flow (TBF) and are allocated the resources of one or more packet data channels (PDCH). an RLC data unit.Air Interface Um Interface RLC ( Radio Link Control ) The RLC segmentation function is a process of taking one or more LLC-PDUs and dividing them into smaller RLC blocks. The RLC data block along with a MAC header may be encoded using one of four defined coding schemes.

Air Interface Um Interface RLC ( Radio Link Control ) GPRS System Survey Air Interface B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 TFI 1 All use TS 6 TFI = 1 Data TFI 2 BTS PCU TFI 3 .

Downlink Direction B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 B5 I GPRS System Survey Air Interface B6 USF=1 TFI=3 Data MS1.Air Interface Scheduling 52 frame multi frame on timeslot 6 . whose USF on TS 6=1. whose TFI=3 5 6 7 USF 1 1 1 1 USF 2 3 4 USF 2 3 5 B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 B5 I B6 52 frame multi frame on timeslot 6 Uplink Direction TFI = 1 Data . will use the next uplink RLC block on this time slot to send its data MS 1 TFI 1 TS 4 5 6 7 TS MS 2 TFI 2 4 5 6 TS MS 3 TFI 3 Data sent on this RLC block belongs to MS3.

Air Interface Um Interface RLC / MAC Data Block GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

Air Interface Um Interface RLC / MAC Control Block GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

Air Interface Channel Coding GPRS System Survey Air Interface Header Radio Block Info bits M bits in RLC/MAC block + Coding bits 456 .M bits of Coding 456 bits in each radio block Coding CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 Max no of info bits 160 Max data rate per TS (kbps) 8 12 14 Target C/I (dB) ~6 ~9 ~12 241 293 401 CS-4 20 ~17 .

These physical channels are called Packet Data Channel (PDCH). but for GPRS only. have been standardized.Air Interface Logical Channels GPRS System Survey Air Interface A number of new logical channels. similar to the existing ones. The logical channels are mapped onto the physical channels that are used for dedicated packet data. The logical channels in GPRS are divided into:  Packet Common Control Channels  Packet Broadcast Channel  Packet Traffic Channels .

Air Interface Logical Channels Packet Common Control Channels PRACH PPCH PAGCH PTCCH PNCH Packet Random Access Channel Packet Paging Channel Packet Access Grant Channel Packet Timing advance Control Channel Packet Notification Channel GPRS System Survey Air Interface Uplink Downlink Downlink Uplink / Downlink Downlink Packet Broadcast Channel PBCCH Packet Broadcast Control CHannel Downlink Packet Traffic Channels PDTCH PACCH Packet Data Traffic Channel Packet Associated Control Channel Uplink / Downlink Uplink / Downlink .

a Packet Data Channel (PDCH) carrying PCCCH and PBCCH is called the Master PDCH If master PDCH is present the following channels will be available in the cell: PRACH PPCH PAGCH Master PDCH can carry PDTCH and PACCH .Air Interface Logical Channels GPRS System Survey Air Interface In Ericsson terminology.

Air Interface GPRS System Information BCCH GPRS supported or not on the cell. GPRS Radio Resources allocated or not. Discontinuous Reception (DRX) parameters. . Cell Selection parameters. Frequency Hopping information. PBCCH GPRS BA list. GPRS System Survey Air Interface The position of the PDCH carrying PBCCH and PCCCH. MS Power Control parameters.

TCH or free time slot . The PDCHs can be allocated in different ways: Dedicated: allocated and released by operator command.Air Interface PDCH Allocation 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 GPRS System Survey Air Interface BTS BSC / PCU The PCU is responsible for assigning channels to the different GPRS MSs. PDCH carrying PCCCH Master PDCH PDTCH CCCH. Allocated and released depending on GPRS traffic demand. On-demand: serving as temporary dynamic GPRS resources.

Air Interface PDCH Allocation GPRS System Survey Air Interface Channels that are allocated for GPRS (PDCH) are allocated in sets of maximum four consecutive time slots. . and can consist of both dedicated and ondemand PDCH. except the number of available TCHs. All channels in a PSET are on the same frequency or hop the same frequency hopping set. There is no additional limit on the number of PDCHs that can be allocated in a cell. Such a set is called a PSET. At present this limits the maximum number of assigned time slots to four. A mobile station can only be assigned PDCHs from one PSET.

This means that the timeslot will carry information belonging to 3 different TBFs.6 on f4 MS 2 MS 1 MS 2 MS 1 MS 3 MS 1 In this example. MS 1 TBF LIMIT . each time slot will serve 3 subscribers.5.Air Interface PDCH Allocation 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 GPRS System Survey Air Interface BTS BSC / PCU MS 1 TS 4.5.7 on f4 4 5 6 7 MS 3 MS 3 MS 4 MS 4 MS 2 MS 2 TS 4.6.

Air Interface PDCH Allocation Maximum TBF limit in the uplink direction is 6 Maximum TBF limit in the downlink direction is 8 GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

non-hopping channels on the BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel) carrier are generally not equivalent to quality to traffic channels on other frequencies. From a radio point-of-view. The operator can specify to some extent where he wants his dedicated PDCH(s) to be located. The BCCH frequencies may have a separate frequency plan. and bursts on the BCCH frequency are not power-regulated. GPRS System Survey Air Interface The operator can specify zero to eight dedicated PDCHs per cell.Air Interface PDCH Allocation Dedicated PDCH Dedicated PDCHs can only be used for GPRS. The operator can decide if the PDCH shall be allocated on the non-hopping BCCH frequency as primary or secondary choice. . or with no preference. Dedicated PDCHs ensure that there are always GPRS resources in a cell.

In a cell without any circuit switched traffic it would be possible to use all channels for GPRS traffic. The number of on-demand PDCHs depends on how much packet switched traffic there is. A load supervision function is implemented so that in a cell with or without dedicated PDCH. new on-demand PDCHs are allocated when the number of GPRS users becomes too high .Air Interface PDCH Allocation On-demand PDCH GPRS System Survey Air Interface On-demand PDCH can be pre-empted by incoming circuit switched calls in congested cells. There is no physical limit on how many on-demand PDCHs there can be in a cell. up to the limit where circuit switched traffic starts to preempt PDCH due to congestion.

In a cell with no MPDCH (no dedicated PDCH allocated) the ordinary control channels. the MPDCH is kept as long as there is at least one dedicated PDCH in the cell. like BCCH. . The first dedicated PDCH that is allocated according to the operator‟s preferences regarding non-hopping BCCH will be configured as an MPDCH. is a PDCH carrying a PBCCH and a PCCCH. The PCCCH carries all the necessary control signaling to initiate packet transfer. RACH etc. The following PDCHs that are allocated will only carry GPRS traffic and associated signaling. as well as GPRS traffic. will handle the broadcasting and signaling to the GPRS mobiles. If the operator decreases the number of dedicated PDCHs.Air Interface PDCH Allocation Master PDCH GPRS System Survey Air Interface A Master PDCH (MPDCH).

. The MS sends access bursts on the RACH. The MS sends access bursts on the Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH) for request for PS services. Information about the allocated resources is then sent on the AGCH to the MS. The paging message will contain information to distinguish CS pages from PS pages. an MS only reads the BCCH to get information about the physical channel where the PBCCH and the PCCCHs can be found. The MS will listen to the PPCH for paging messages. The GPRS traffic and associated signaling. however.Air Interface PDCH Allocation Master present or not GPRS System Survey Air Interface The operator can decide if there shall be an MPDCH in a cell or not. is always transmitted on GPRS-specific channels. The MS then listens to the PBCCH to get all system information it needs. In a cell with an MPDCH allocated. the MS will listen to BCCH and PCH (Packet Channel) for broadcast information and paging messages. regardless of whether an MPDCH is allocated or not. The MS specifies in this message if it is a request for a CS or a PS connection. but on the RACH if the request is for a CS service. In a cell with no MPDCH.

Air Interface Multi-Slot Classes GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

Air Interface PS resources Allocation Strategy Dedicated Channels Available ? GPRS System Survey Air Interface Yes TPF Limit TBF Allows ? Yes No No Are there channels in GPRS Idle list ? Yes No Are there channels in GSM Idle list ? Yes No Reject the attempt Allocate .

Air Interface CS resources Allocation Strategy Are there channels in GSM Idle list ? GPRS System Survey Air Interface Yes No Are there channels in GPRS Idle list ? Yes No Preempt On demand channel Allocate .

.g. if the MS is outside the coverage area for GPRS. SGSN sends the LLC frames to the PCU and the PCU sends an assignment to the MS immediately. Standby state : The MS is GPRS attached and sends routing area updates to the SGSN every time it changes Routing Area. e. The MS is “invisible” to GPRS network . In ready state there is no need to send a page to the MS. The MS sends cell update to SGSN every time it changes cell. Ready state : A packet transfer is ongoing or has recently ended. The SGSN knows the state of all MSs that are in standby or ready state. since the location is known. A ready timer defines how long time the MS shall remain in ready state after a transfer before being in the standby state.Air Interface GPRS MS States and Modes GPRS System Survey Air Interface There are three GPRS mobility management states Idle state : The MS is turned on but not GPRS attached. The time is decided by SGSN and can take values from zero to infinity.

Air Interface GPRS MS States and Modes Idle GPRS System Survey Air Interface Idle GPRS Attach GPRS Detach GPRS Attach GPRS Detach Or Cancel Location Standby timer Expiry Ready Standby timer Expiry or Cancel Location Ready Ready Timer Expiry or Force to STANDBY LLC PDU Transmission Ready Timer Expiry or Force to STANDBY or Abnormal RLC Condition LLC PDU Reception Standby Standby MM State Model of MS MM State Model of SGSN .

Air Interface GPRS MS States and Modes GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

Air Interface TLLI and NSAPI GPRS System Survey Air Interface NSAPI TLLI TLLI NSAPI Temporary Logical Link Identifier Network Service Access Point Identifier .

Air Interface TLLI and NSAPI GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

and the MS only needs to monitor that channel.Air Interface Packet Transfer Network Operation Mode GPRS System Survey Air Interface The network may provide coordination of paging for circuit-switched and packet-switched services. Paging coordination means that the network sends paging messages for circuit-switched services on the same channel that is used for packet-switched services (on the GPRS paging channel or on the GPRS traffic channel). Three network operation modes are defined: Network operation mode I Network operation mode II Network operation mode III .

and that it receives CS paging messages on the packet data channel when it has been assigned a packet data channel. . CCCH. This means that the MS must only monitor one paging channel. paging channel).e.Air Interface Packet Transfer Network Operation Mode I GPRS System Survey Air Interface The network sends CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS. either on the same channel as the GPRS paging channel (i. the packet paging channel or the Common Control Channel. or on a GPRS traffic channel.

even if the MS has been assigned a packet data channel. and this channel is also used for GPRS paging.Air Interface Packet Transfer Network Operation Mode II GPRS System Survey Air Interface The network sends CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel. but that CS paging continues on this paging channel. . This means that the MS must only monitor the CCCH paging channel.

Air Interface Packet Transfer Network Operation Mode III GPRS System Survey Air Interface The network sends CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel. . The network performs no paging coordination. and sends a GPRS paging message on either the packet paging channel (if allocated in the cell) or on the CCCH paging channel. This means that an MS that wants to receive pages for both circuit-switched and packet-switched services must monitor both paging channels if the packet channel is allocated in the cell.

Air Interface Packet Transfer GPRS System Survey Air Interface Mode I Mode II Paging Coordination exist No Paging Coordination Gs interface exist No Gs interface No master PDCH No Gs interface Master PDCH exist Mode III No Paging Coordination .

SGSN sends the page to the affected PCU(s) with information of the cell or routing area. If the MS is involved in a packet transfer. Since the SGSN knows the location of the MS on cell level when it is in ready state and on routing area level otherwise. . or on PCH if PPCH is not available. and the Gs interface between MSC and SGSN is available. PACCH. instead of directly to the BSC. Otherwise the page is sent out on PPCH. the PCU sends the page on the control channel associated with the packet transfer. the MSC sends the pages to the SGSN. the paging area will be of same size or smaller than when the page is sent directly to the BSC.Air Interface Packet Transfer Paging GPRS System Survey Air Interface When an MS in class A or class B mode of operation is attached to both GPRS and CS. via the Gs interface.

This is initiated by the SGSN sending a BSSGP Paging Request to the PCU.Air Interface Packet Transfer Paging It is possible to have a network without a Gs interface. the downlink packet transfer is initiated by paging the MS in a Routing Area. The message is transparent to BSS and looks like an ordinary LLC frame. The MS responds to the page by sending a Paging response message to the SGSN. In this case the MSC sends the page directly to the BSC. The PCU will then calculate which paging group to which the MS belongs. This is done using the uplink packet transfer procedure. and send the paging request in a time slot when the MS is awake (listening). The MS is now in ready state and the SGSN can start to send LLC frames to the PCU with the cell and MS identity. GPRS System Survey Air Interface If the MS is in GPRS MS standby state. .

Air Interface Packet Transfer Discontinuous Reception and Paging Groups GPRS System Survey Air Interface Max 704 paging groups (15 Seconds) 81 groups in GSM In GPRS the MS can select the Paging Group by negotiation the DRX value with the SGSN In GSM it is an IMSI property .

the MS is assigned a value of the Uplink State Flag (USF). The TFI is used in signaling to identify the MS. . The single RLC block could also be used when the MS only has a very short LLC frame to send. the MS sends a Packet Resource Request on the allocated timeslot. the MS sends a Packet Channel Request message to the PCU. At two-phase access. For each timeslot. the PCU assign resources and sends a new Packet Uplink Assignment to the MS.  A single timeslot is reserved for the sending of one RLC block. This is called a twophase access. This is called a one-phase access. In the Ericsson implementation there are two main ways to allocate resources after receiving a Packet Channel Request message from the MS:  The MS is assigned resources on one or several timeslots for a longer time using the dynamic allocation method.Air Interface Establishment of uplink TBF GPRS System Survey Air Interface The MS has no TBF established If an MS has no TBF established. With the new information received. to further specify its capabilities and/or demands. This can be used to let the MS send a Packet Resource Request message.

Air Interface Establishment of uplink TBF The MS has no TBF established GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

The PCU has to consider the downlink allocation when allocating uplink resources.Air Interface Establishment of uplink TBF The MS has a downlink TBF GPRS System Survey Air Interface If the MS already has a downlink TBF established. the Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH). The Packet Uplink Assignment message is then sent to the MS on the PACCH. . the MS sends a Packet Resource Request message on the control channel associated with the downlink TBF.

Air Interface Establishment of downlink TBF GPRS System Survey Air Interface When the PCU receives LLC frames from the SGSN. The checking result may be that: The MS is in the Standby Mode The MS has a downlink TBF The MS has an uplink TBF The MS is ready but has no TBF established . the PCU checks whether the addressed MS is already involved in a packet transfer.

The PCU will then calculate which paging group the MS belongs to and send the paging request in a timeslot when the MS is awake (listening). This is done by use of the uplink packet transfer procedure. The message is transparent to BSS and looks like an ordinary LLC frame.Air Interface Establishment of downlink TBF The MS is in the Standby mode GPRS System Survey Air Interface If the MS is in GPRS standby state. The MS responds to the page by sending a Paging response message to the SGSN. . The MS is now in ready state and the SGSN can start to send LLC frames to the PCU with the cell and MS identity. This is initiated by the SGSN sending a BSSGP Paging Request to the PCU. the downlink packet transfer is initiated by paging the MS in a Routing Area.

Air Interface Establishment of downlink TBF The MS has a downlink TBF GPRS System Survey Air Interface If the MS already has a downlink TBF. . the new LLC frame is put in the queue with the other LLC frames to that MS.

Probably the PCU will allocate downlink resources on the same time slots (or at least partially) as the MS has uplink resources. The Packet Downlink Assignment message is sent on the control channel that is associated with the uplink assignment. .Air Interface Establishment of downlink TBF The MS has an uplink TBF GPRS System Survey Air Interface If the MS already has an uplink TBF. The MS multi-slot class notes the capability of the MS regarding how many PDCH it can handle in each direction at the same time. the PCU has to take this into consideration. This makes it possible for the MS to use both the uplink and downlink resources at the same time. the Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH).

according to its paging group. The Packet downlink assignment message consists of a list of the channels that will be used and a TFI to address the MS. . That means that it is awake and there is no need to wait for its paging group. a Packet Downlink Assignment message is sent on a timeslot that the MS listens to. A certain time after the MS has been involved in a packet transfer it remains in non-DRX mode. The message can be sent immediately.Air Interface Establishment of downlink TBF The MS is ready but has no TBF established GPRS System Survey Air Interface If the MS has no TBF established.

  To get knowledge about the transmission quality. The reason for sending acknowledgements in unacknowledged mode can be several:  To check that the communication has not been broken. in order to use the coding scheme that gives the best performance.Air Interface Acknowledgement GPRS System Survey Air Interface Radio blocks can be sent in acknowledged or unacknowledged RLC mode. Actually Ack/Nack messages are sent in both modes. but packets are only retransmitted over the air interface in acknowledged RLC mode. . To prioritize MS depending on link quality.

Air Interface Acknowledgement GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

Air Interface Acknowledgement GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

the downlink TBF is released. and a countdown procedure begins. the uplink TBF is released. Ending an uplink TBF When the MS has only a few more RLC blocks to send. The MS is not allowed to continue to send more packets than it had when initiating the countdown procedure. a new assignment corresponding to a new TBF is sent to the MS. a new TBF has to be established. If a new LLC frame arrives immediately after. this is signaled to the network. so there is no need to page the MS. After all blocks have been sent and acknowledged. If the MS has more packets to send after the countdown procedure has been initiated. .Air Interface Ending a TBF Ending a downlink TBF GPRS System Survey Air Interface When there are no more LLC frames to a certain MS in the PCU (but there may be more in the SGSN). The MS is still in ready state.

Air Interface Ending a TBF GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

In active mode. . non-GPRS MSs are steered by the locating functionality implemented in the BSC. GPRS MS manages both the idle packet and transfer packet mode behaviors.Air Interface Cell Selection and Reselection Comparing GPRS with circuit switched GPRS System Survey Air Interface In a GSM network the BSC governs the cell selection behavior of MS in idle and active mode by different methods. In GPRS. the MS determines the base station with which it will communicate. Idle mode MSs autonomously perform cell reselection by using the C1/C2 criteria. That means that the BSC initiates handovers to other cells.

Air Interface Cell Selection and Reselection Comparing GPRS with circuit switched GPRS System Survey Air Interface .

In Ericsson implementation. If no PBCCH is allocated in a cell. The standard allows the network to take over cell reselection for a specific MS or for all MS. This is called Network Controlled Cell Reselection and is not implemented. the GPRS MS will read the system information broadcast on BCCH and use the C1/C2 criteria for cell selection and reselection as in the circuit switched idle mode case. The GPRS cell selection and reselection algorithms are governed by parameter settings.Air Interface Cell Selection and Reselection GPRS System Survey Air Interface The cell selection and reselection algorithms used for controlling idle/transfer mode behaviors are governed by GPRS cell selection and reselection parameter settings broadcast in the packet system information on PBCCH in each GPRS capable cell with allocated PBCCH (MPDCH). C31 and C32. are different from the corresponding parameters for the circuit switched case. GPRS cell selection parameters are automatically mapped on those for cell selection/locating known from the circuit switched case. This achieves the same cell selection behavior for GPRS and enables an easy rollout of GPRS in the network. These parameters. .

a small traffic case GPRS System Survey Air Interface In this example.Air Interface Cell Selection and Reselection Cell reselection. The MS stops listening to the old cell and starts to read the necessary system information in the new cell. The SGSN sends a flush message to the PCU responsible for the old cell. . This message is transparent to the PCU. The flush message contains the addresses of both the old and the new cell. the MS is involved in a downlink packet transfer. The MS discovers that another cell is a better choice according to its own measurements and to the cell selection parameters broadcast on PBCCH or BCCH. Then the MS accesses the new cell and sends a cell update to the SGSN. The SGSN receives the cell update and discovers that there was already an ongoing downlink packet transfer. as well as the MS identity.

all buffered LLC frames that have not been acknowledged or not sent are moved to a queue towards the new cell.Air Interface Cell Selection and Reselection Cell reselection. If the PCU is responsible for the new cell. The PCU assigns new resources to the MS in the new cell and transmission is restarted. If the PCU is not responsible for the new cell. a small traffic case GPRS System Survey Air Interface The PCU checks whether it is also responsible for the new cell. it will delete all LLC frames destined to that MS and leave the retransmission to higher layers. .

. GPRS System Survey Air Interface The value of the parameter Gamma is set per cell by the operator. The value of the Parameter Alpha is set per BSC. a small traffic case Open loop MS power control is implemented.Air Interface Power Regulation Cell reselection. Alpha and Gamma are used with the received power signal strength to decide its output signal strength.

This is not implemented in BSS. The following concerns BSS: Precedence Class. Maximizes the throughput for a MS.Air Interface Quality of Service Profile GPRS System Survey Air Interface There are a number of parameters defined as QoS parameters or attributes. Radio Priority . The part that concerns BSS is the RLC Block mode. Reliability Class. etc. At congestion. Peak Throughput Class. all packets with the lowest class are discarded. This is not implemented in BSS. Both acknowledged and unacknowledged mode supported. Then packets with the second lowest class are discarded. Nothing is guaranteed.

Chapter 3 : GPRS BSS .

.GPRS BSS Structure and Interfaces of BSS GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS Abis CCU BSC Gb SGSN PCU CCU PCU CCU Packet Control Unit Channel Control Unit (Hardware and Software) (Software) The PCU is responsible for packet routing in the BSC. Gb interface towards SGSN. Radio Link Control (RLC) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers of the Um interface. It implements the following protocol layers:    Physical layer of the Abis interface.

Simplified GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS GPRS Signaling Links (GSL) E1/T1 Gb interface .GPRS BSS The PCU.

GPRS BSS Gb Protocol Stack GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS BSSGP Network Service Control (NS Control) Frame Relay E1 T1 L1 bis Network Service .

GPRS BSS Frame Relay GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS  A layer-2 protocol specified for accessing Wide Area Networks.  High throughput and small delays due to small overheads and simple switching mechanisms.  Statistical multiplexing and port sharing.  Dynamic bandwidth allocation.  Suitable for use on digital-transmission technology over high quality reliable transmission links.  Error correction and flow control is the responsibility of the higher layers. .

GPRS BSS Frame Relay GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS .

Data Transfer. software-defined data paths between two endpoints. There are two types of Frame Relay Virtual Connections: Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC) PVCs are set up and released manually by the network operator on a permanent basis.GPRS BSS Frame Relay Virtual Circuits GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS Frame relay technology is based on the concept of using Virtual Circuits (VCs). Idle and Call Termination. VCs are two-way. They have four operational states: Call Setup.call basis. They have two operational states: Data Transfer and Idle. Not used by GPRS . Used by GPRS Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC) SVCs are set up and released automatically by the network on a call-by.

.GPRS BSS How does the Frame Relay work ? 1. Look up the DLCI in the distribution table of the node. 2. Relay the frame towards its destination by sending it on the outgoing port or trunk specified in the distribution table. 3. GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS Check the integrity of the frame using the Frame Check Sum (FCS). discard the frame. If it indicates an error. discard the frame. If the DLCI is not defined for this link.

GPRS BSS Frame Relay Routing Virtual Connection 1 Virtual Connection 2 Virtual Connection 3 Router DLCI 3 LAN GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS DLCI 2 A DLCI 1 DLCI 4 Router LAN DLCI 8 DLCI 9 B DLCI 5 DLCI 6 C DLCI 7 Router LAN Router LAN .

GPRS BSS Network Service Control GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS  NS Control adds GPRS specific node management functionality to Frame Relay PVCs. and identifies in the SGSN as many NSEs as the number of PCUs connected to it. BSSGP Network Service Control (NS Control) Frame Relay E1 T1 L1 bis Network Service .  It provides load sharing function to distribute BSSGP traffic on the available NSVCs between the PCU and the SGSN.  It identifies one NSE for every PCU.  An NSE communicates over the Gb interface with only one peer NSE using the same NSEI. It identifies one end-to-end NSVC for each Frame Relay PVC.

GPRS BSS Network Service Control GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS NSVCI=1 DLCI=100 BSC1 NSEI=1 DLCI=105 DLCI=106 NSVCI=2 DLCI=107 SGSN DLCI=108 BSC2 NSEI=2 DLCI=109 BSC3 NSVCI=3 NSEI=3 .

 Each PCU will have a signaling BVC towards the SGSN. which will carry the BSSGP management messages used for establishment of the PtPBVCs.GPRS BSS BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS  BSSGP identifies. . for every cell in the BSC. an end-to-end communication path between the PCU and the SGSN that is called PtP-BVC.  The traffic for all the BVCs is multiplexed automatically on the available NSVCs. These BVCs are used for traffic routing to/from the cells.

GPRS BSS BSSGP Virtual Connections GPRS System Survey GPRS BSS .

Chapter 4 : GPRS Backbone .

GPRS Backbone Introduction GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone NMS Billing System GPRS Backbone network SGSN GGSN FW Internet Corporate LAN Intranet Router BG PLMN GSGSN DNS FW Server .

GPRS Backbone Internet Protocol GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone IP is a connectionless protocol that is primarily responsible for addressing and routing packets between network devices. . IP makes what is termed a „best effort‟ attempt to deliver a packet Also an acknowledgement is not required when data is received. Thus it doesn‟t keep copy of the sent packets. Packets then. may be lost. Instead it fires and forgets the packets. The sender or receiver is not informed when a packet is lost or out of sequence. such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). IP is quite unreliable because packet delivery is not guaranteed. delivered out of sequence. IP is also responsible for fragmenting and reassembling packets. The acknowledgement of packets is the responsibility of a higherlayer transport protocol. duplicated or delayed. Connectionless means that a session is not established before data is exchanged.

GPRS Backbone Internet Protocol GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Host A Reliability and sequencing Router Host B Reliability and sequencing IP Fires and forgets Network Interface IP Routes if possible IP Delivers as received Network Interface Packet Packet Packet Fragments .

ATM .GPRS Backbone Internet Protocol Suite and OSI Model GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Application FTP.TR.DNS.TELNET.FR.SMTP Transport TCP or UDP Internet Protocol Network Interface LAN-ETH.FDDI WAN-Serial Lines. SNMP.

GPRS Backbone IP Packet Structure 1 Byte Version IHL 1 Byte Type of Service 1 Byte 1 Byte GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Total Length Identification Time To Live Protocol Flags Fragment Offset Header Checksum IP Header 20 Bytes Long Source Address Destination Address Options + Padding Data .

in bytes. including header and data. . and hence format of the IP header being used. It specifies reliability. for example IPv4 or IPv6. Typically not used Total length 16 Total packet length. Flags 3 Provides the fragmentation control fields. it means ‘More fragments’. delay and throughput parameters. Identification.GPRS Backbone IP Packet Structure Field Length in Bits Description GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Version 4 Specifies version of the IP protocol. which is the most common header. Type of Service 8 Indication of the quality of service requested for the IP packet. it means ‘Don’t fragment’. Header must be at least 20 bytes long. If it is 1. it means ‘May fragment’. First bit is not used and is always 0. Internet Header Length (IHL) 4 Length of header in 32-bit words. it means ‘Last fragment’. If it is 1. Primary purpose is to allow the destination device to collect all fragments from a packet. since they will all have the same identification number. 16 Unique number assigned by the sending device to aid in reassembling a fragmented packet. This field can also be used with IPsec. If the third bit is 0. precedence. Minimum value is five. If second bit is 0.

UDP is 17 and TCP is 6. excluding the header checksum field. In the first fragment. Each IP device that the packet passes through will decreases the value by the time it takes it to process the IP header.GPRS Backbone IP Packet Structure Fragment Offset 13 GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Used with fragmented packets to aid in reassembling the full packet. Protocol 8 Indicates the higher-level protocol to which IP should deliver the data in the packet. Sending IP device performs a calculation on the bits in the IP header. or in a unique fragment. . If value drops to zero the packet is discarded. this value is always zero. Time to Live 8 Contains time(s). for example. that packet is allowed to remain on an internetwork. even if routing tables become corrupt. and places the result in the header checksum field. This guarantees that packets cannot travel around an IP network in a loop. All routers must decrease this value by a minimum of one. Header Checksum 16 This is a checksum on the header only. which ensures integrity of header values. The value is the number of 8-byte pieces (header bytes are not counted) that are contained in earlier fragments.

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Dest. Options Var These are not required in every packet. Data Var The total length of the data field plus header is a maximum of 65535 bytes. .GPRS Backbone IP Packet Structure Source Address 32 This is the 32-bit IP address of the sending device. Address 32 This is the 32-bit IP address of the receiving device. They are mainly used for network testing or debugging.

GPRS Backbone IP Packet Structure Fragmentation IP Header Original IP Packet Data area Data 1 Data 2 GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Data 3 IP Header 1 Data 1 IP Header 2 Data 2 IP Header 3 Data 3 Router 1 Router 2 Router MTU = 1500 Bytes Router Router MTU = 4500 bytes Ethernet MTU = 4500 bytes .

GPRS Backbone IP Addressing 1 Byte Version IHL 1 Byte Type of Service 1 Byte 1 Byte GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Total Length Identification Time To Live 1 Byte 1 Byte Protocol Flags Fragment Offset Header Checksum 1 Byte 1 Byte IP Header 20 Bytes Long Source AddressByte 1 Byte 1 1 Byte Destination Address 1 Byte Options + Padding Data .

160. depending on the number of interfaces they have. For example. Each IP address is 32 bits long and is composed of four 8-bit fields. PCs.1. for example. Host devices. 11000001 10100000 00000001 00000101 193.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Every network interface on a TCP/IP device is identified by a globally unique IP address. Routers typically have two or more IP addresses. Each octet represents a decimal number in the range 0-255. called octets.5 is known as . typically have a single IP address. The address is normally represented in „dotted decimal notation‟ by grouping the four octets and representing each one in decimal form.

The address for each host must be unique to the network ID.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Each IP address consists of a network ID and a host ID. In the example above.160. The host ID identifies a TCP/IP network device (or host) within a network. GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone The network ID identifies the systems that are located on the same network.5‟. The network ID must be unique to the internet work.1. the PC is connected to network ‟193. Router .0‟ and has a unique host ID of „.

GPRS Backbone IP Addressing GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Class A networks The high-order bit in a class A address is always set to zero. Each network can have up to 16777214 hosts. The next seven bits (completing the first octet) represent the network ID and provide 126 possible networks. Class A networks 0 Network ID Host ID . The remaining 24 bits (the last three octets) represent the host ID. Class A addresses were assigned to networks with a very large number of hosts.

Class B networks 1 0 Network ID Host ID . Class B addresses were assigned to medium-sized to large-sized networks. Each network can have up to 65534 hosts.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Class B networks The two high-order bits in a class B address are always set to binary 1 0 The The next 14 bits (completing the first two octets) represent the network ID and provide 16382 possible networks. The remaining 16 bits (last two octets) represent the host ID.

Each network can have up to 254 hosts. The next 21 bits (completing the first three octets) represent the network ID and provide 2097150 possible networks. Class C networks 1 1 0 Network ID Host ID . The remaining 8 bits (last octet) represent the host ID.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Class C networks The three high-order bits in a class C address are always set to binary 1 1 0 . Class C addresses were used for small networks.

126 0 Network ID Class B networks Host ID Ranges from 128 .GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Class A networks GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Ranges from 1 .223 1 1 0 Network ID Host ID .191 1 0 Network ID Class C networks Host ID Ranges from 192 .

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone A multicast group may contain one or more hosts. There are no network or host bits in the multicast operations. The remaining bits designate the specific group.255.255. When expressed in dotted decimal notation.0. or none at all.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Class D addresses Class D addresses are employed for multicast group usage.0. in which the client participates. The four high-order bits in a class D address are always set to binary 1 1 1 0. multicast addresses range from 224. .0 through 239.255. Only those hosts registered for the multicast operation accept the packet. Packets are passed to a selected subset of hosts on a network.

It is reserved for future use. The high-order bits in a class E address are set to 1 1 1 1 .GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Class E addresses GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Class E is an experimental address not available for general use.

When any device uses the loop-back address to send data.1 is reserved for loop-back and is designed for testing and inter-process communication on the local device. The network ID and host ID bits cannot all be 0s. If all bits are set to 0. The host ID must be unique to the local network.0. The class A network address 127. .GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Addressing Guidelines 1. the protocol software in the device returns the data without sending traffic across any network.0. GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone The network ID cannot be 127. 2. 3. the address is interpreted to mean „this network only‟.

30. that is.work ID.255. If all bits are set to 1. for example. a broadcast on the source‟s local network.255) then it. GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone The network ID and host ID bits of a specific device cannot be all 1s. the address is interpreted as a broadcast rather than a host ID.255. is a limited broadcast. If a destination address contains all 1s in the host ID but a proper net.30. this is a directed broadcast.255.255.0.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Addressing Guidelines 4. that is. a broadcast on a specified network (in this example network 160.0)  . 160. The following are the two types of broadcast:  If a destination address contains all 1s in the network ID and the host ID (255.

For this purpose the IANA has reserved the following three address blocks for private intranets: 10. the address space can be used simultaneously by many organizations.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Private IP Address Space GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Organizations should use private Internet address for hosts which require IP connectivity within the enterprise network.255. Since these addresses are never injected into the global Internet routing system.31.0.0 192.0.255.255 192.255 Class A networks Class B networks Class C networks Any organization that elects to use addresses from these reserved blocks can do so without contacting the IANA or an Internet registry.0.0.168. but do not require external connections to the global Internet.255 172. .168.0 172.0 10.16. The disadvantage of this addressing scheme is that it requires an organization to use a Network Address Translator (NAT) for global Internet access.255.255.

GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Subnet Mask A subnet mask is a 32-bit address used to:   GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Block out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the network ID from the host ID. that is. The Subnet mask Blocks out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the Network ID from the host ID. Specify whether the destination host‟s IP address is located on a local network or on a remote network. the destination is local to the source. It specifies whether the destination‟s host IP address is located on a local network or on a remote network. The destination‟s IP address is ANDed with the same subnet mask. . If the result of both ANDing operations match. The source‟s IP address is ANDed with its subnet mask. it is on the same subnet.

255.20.0.255.30.0 (/24) For example.30. the network address 160.0 (/16 Class C default mask 255.GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Subnet Mask GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone A Default subnet masks or prefix lengths exist for class A.20 and its host ID is 10 Address 160. The prefix-length is equal to the number of contiguous one-bits in the subnet mask.255.20.0 (/8) Class B default mask 255.20. an IP device with the configuration below knows that its network ID is 160.0.10 with a subnet mask 255. B and C addresses: Class A default mask 255.0 For convenience the subnet mask can be written in prefix length notation.0 can also be expressed as 160.10 Subnet Mask 255.30.255.0.30. .10/24.255.255.255. Therefore.

GPRS Backbone

IP Addressing
Subnet Mask

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

GPRS Backbone

IP Addressing
Subnet Mask

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

The deployment of subnetting within the private network provides several benefits:  The size of the global Internet routing table does not grow because the site administrator does not need to obtain additional address space, and the routing advertisements for all of the subnets are combined into a single routing table entry. The local administrator has the flexibility to deploy additional subnets without obtaining a new network number from the Internet. Rapid changing of routes within the private network does not affect the Internet routing table, since Internet routers do not know about the reachability of the individual subnets. They just know about the reachability of the parent network number.

 

GPRS Backbone

IP Addressing
Subnet Mask

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

GPRS Backbone IP Addressing Subnetting Example GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone 01000000 00000000 11000000 10000000 = 1………1 11000000 .

GPRS Backbone

Domain Name Resolution - DNS

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

213.154.39.10

www.vodafone.com.eg

Internet addresses are hard for humans to remember, but easy for protocol software to work with. Symbolic names are more natural for humans, but hard for protocol software to work with.

GPRS Backbone

Domain Name Resolution - DNS

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

The DNS is based on a hierarchical scheme, with the most significant part of the name on the right. The leftmost segment is the name of the individual computer. Other segments in a domain name identify the group that owns the name. Basically, the Internet is divided into hundreds of top-level domains where each domain covers many hosts. Each domain is partitioned into subdomains, and these are further partitioned, and so on. There are two types of top-level domains: generic and country.

GPRS Backbone

Domain Name Resolution - DNS
The seven three-character generic domains are as follows: com commercial organization

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

edu
gov mil net org int

educational institution
government organization military group major network support center organization other than those above international organization

Country domains consist of a two-letter entry for every country, as defined in ISO 3166. For example: eg uk se Egypt. United Kingdom Sweden

GPRS Backbone Internet Domain Name Space Generic GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Countries int com mil gov edu org net uk se fr eg Yahoo EUN Groups News aun suez asunet Story .

the resolver places the specified name in a DNS request message and then sends the message to the local server. A host asking for DNS name resolution is called a resolver. The resolver then waits for the server to send a DNS reply message that contains the answer . The name is said to be resolved to an address.GPRS Backbone Domain Name Resolution .DNS GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone The translation of a domain name into an equivalent IP address is called Name Resolution. Each resolver is configured with the address of a local domain name server. If a resolver wishes to become a client of the DNS server.

yahoo.com .GPRS Backbone Domain Name Resolution .com Recursive query DNS Client groups.DNS Root Name Server GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Iterative query COM Name Server Local Name Server yahoo.

 If accuracy is important. but mark it as a non-authoritative binding. The TTL specifies how long the authority guarantees that the binding will be valid.  If efficiency is important.GPRS Backbone Domain Name Resolution .DNS GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone  Internet name servers use name caching to reduce the traffic on the Internet and improve performance. the client chooses to contact the authority and verify that the binding between name and address is still valid. it includes a time to live (TTL) value in the response.  Whenever an authority responds to a request. . the client chooses to accept the non-authoritative answer and proceed.  Servers report cached information to clients.

A port is used by transport protocols to identify which application protocol or process they must deliver incoming messages to.GPRS Backbone Transmission Control Protocol . called sockets.TCP GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone TCP is a reliable. A port can use any number between 0 and 65. . Each socket has a socket number (address) consisting of the IP address of the device and a 16-bit number called a port.536. Broadcasting and multicasting are not applicable to TCP. Processes or applications communicate with each other by having both the sending and receiving device create end points.There are exactly two endpoints communicating with each other on a TCP connection. connection-oriented delivery service.

the segment is retransmitted. Each segment travels across the network in a single IP packet. TCP also reacts to congestion on the network and automatically adjusts the transmission speed to the bandwidth available on the network. TCP also provides flow control. waiting for the other end to acknowledge reception of the segment.GPRS Backbone Transmission Control Protocol . . A receiving TCP only allows the other end to send as much data as the receiver has buffers for. If an acknowledgement is not received in time. Reliability is achieved by assigning a sequence number to each segment. This prevents a fast host from taking all the buffers from a slower host.TCP GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone TCP views the data stream as a sequence of octets or bytes that is divided into segments for transmission. When TCP sends a segment it maintains a timer. Each end of a TCP connection has a finite amount of buffer space.

GPRS Backbone

TCP Packet Structure
1 Byte 1 Byte Source Port 1 Byte 1 Byte

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

Destination Port

Sequence Number
Acknowledgement Number Offset Reserved Checksum Options Flags Window Urgent Pointer Padding

Data

GPRS Backbone

Well known TCP Port Numbers

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

GPRS Backbone

User Datagram Protocol - UDP

GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides a connectionless packet service that offers unreliable „best effort‟ delivery. This means that the arrival of packets is not guaranteed, nor is the correct sequencing of delivered packets. UDP is used by applications that do not require an acknowledgement of receipt of data, for example, audio or video broadcasting. UDP is also used by applications that typically transmit small amounts of data at one time, for example, the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). UDP provides a mechanism that application programs use to send data to other application programs.

UDP provides protocol port numbers used to distinguish between multiple programs executing on a single device. That is, in addition to the data sent, each UDP message contains both a destination port number and a source port number. This makes it possible for the UDP software at the destination to deliver the message to the correct application program, and for the application program to send a reply.

GPRS Backbone UDP Packet Structure GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone 1 Byte 1 Byte 1 Byte 1 Byte Source Port Identification Destination Port UDP Checksum Data .

GTP 8 7 Version 6 5 4 3 Reserved 2 GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone 1 LFN Message type Length Sequence Number Flow Label LLC Frame Number x x x x x x x FN Reserved TID ( 8 Octets ) .GPRS Backbone GPRS Tunneling Protocol .

GTP TID = IMSI + NSAPI GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone .GPRS Backbone GPRS Tunneling Protocol .

GPRS Backbone GTP Encapsulation IP Payload Header IP Payload Header GTP IP Header Header GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone IP Payload Header SNDCP BSSGP PDN1 NSAPI-1 GGSN 1 SGSN NSAPI-2 TLLI PDN2 GGSN 2 .

Having a central service also means that it is easier to track usage for billing and for keeping network statistics. allowing a company to set up a policy that can be applied at a single administered network point. Access Negotiation Remote Access Server RADIUS RADIUS Server Database .RADIUS GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Remote Authentication Dial In user Service (RADIUS) is a client / server protocol that enables the Remote Access Server (RAS) to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service. but RADIUS server can provide and administrate IP addresses for dial in users. RADIUS allows a company to maintain user profiles in a central database that all remote servers can share.GPRS Backbone Remote Access Dial In user Server . RADIUS was specified for user authentication and authorization. It provides better security.

RADIUS Inband RADIUS GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Corporate/ISP Operator Gi Domain Tunnel Router GPRS core network GGSN RADIUS Server .GPRS Backbone Remote Access Dial In user Server .

GPRS Backbone Remote Access Dial In user Server .RADIUS Outband RADIUS GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Corporate/ISP Operator Gi Domain Tunnel Router GPRS core network GGSN RADIUS Server .

Automatic Allocation This is similar to manual allocation in that a permanent mapping exists between a host‟s unique client identifier and its IP address. Dynamic Allocation DHCP assigns an IP address for a limited period of time. in automatic allocation this mapping is created during the initial allocation of an IP address. However. Both automatic and manually assigned addresses are considered to have permanent leases. The IP addresses assigned during automatic allocation come from the same pool as dynamic addresses. DHCP is simply used as a mechanism to deliver a predetermined network address and other configuration options to a host.GPRS Backbone Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – DHCP DHCP supports three mechanisms for IP address allocation: GPRS System Survey GPRS Backbone Manual Allocation In this scheme. This IP address is known as a lease. but once assigned they cannot be returned to the free address pool without administrative intervention. It is necessary for a network administrator to provide the unique client ID/IP address mapping used by the DHCP server. There is a one-to-one mapping between the unique client identifier (generally the Ethernet address) offered by the client during DHCP initialization and the IP address returned to the client by the DHCP server. This mechanism allows addresses that are no longer needed by their host to be automatically .

Chapter 6 : Traffic Cases .

.Traffic Cases General GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases The following traffic cases are described to present the basic principles of a GPRS network:  MS Attach and MS Detach  PDP Context Activation and PDP Context Deactivation  SGSN Routing Area Update.

Traffic Cases MS Attach GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases MS Attach GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases MS initiated detach procedure GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases SGSN initiated detach procedure GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases HLR initiated detach procedure GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases PDP Context Activation GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

PDP. QoS.QoS negotiation .Traffic Cases PDP Context Activation SGSN performs .APN  ISP address translation via DNS .Subscription Checking .APN  GGSN address translation via DNS . Protocol Configuration options ] GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases Activate PDP context Request [ APN. Configuration ] UDP-RADIUS Access Accept [ Authentication.type(= IP).RADIUS client allocation.QoS.type(= IP). Protocol Configuration options ] GGSN performs . NSAPI. PDP. UDP-RADIUS Access Request [ Authentication.TID creation Create PDP context request [ APN. TID. Configuration ] GGSN stores the IP-address Activate PDP context Accept [ Protocol Configuration options ] MS SGSN GGSN ISP .

Traffic Cases Combined GPRS/IMSI Attach GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases MS initiated PDP Context Deactivation GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases SGSN initiated PDP Context Deactivation GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases GGSN initiated PDP Context Deactivation GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases SGSN Routing Area Update Intra-SGSN Routing Area Update GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases SGSN Routing Area Update Inter-SGSN Routing Area Update GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

Traffic Cases Basic Roaming Scenarios GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

e. i. and by that the cost for the operator is lower if visited GGSNs are used.Traffic Cases Basic Roaming Scenarios Home GGSN: GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases When using the home GGSN the traffic will always use the same gateway between the GPRS network and the external network. This means that it saves capacity on the backbone. . Visited GGSN: The main advantage with using a visited GGSN is that the InterPLMN backbone is not used. capacity that GPRS operators have to pay for. the traffic will always take the same way out from the GPRS network.

gprs” Network ID Operator ID The Network ID is often sent to the network by the terminal. . If the external network accessed is a corporate Intranet the Intranet performs the authentication.e. If the external network gives Internet access three scenarios can be identified: Visited ISP Multihomed ISP Proxy ISP The APN is built up like an Internet domain name (i.mcc<MCC>. whereas the Operator ID often is added by the SGSN.label3) and contains two parts. the same ISP as in the home network or a new ISP.Traffic Cases Basic Roaming Scenarios ISP Roaming: GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases When accessing a visited GGSN the external network could be the user‟s world wide Intranet. “<network id>. label1. the Network Identifier and the Operator Identifier. either inputted by the user or from a pre-configuration in the terminal.label2.mnc<MNC>.

Traffic Cases Basic Roaming Scenarios GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases The InterPLMN backbone is a private network. not visible to the rest of the Internet. If it is assumed that the internal backbone within an operator is considered secure. the part of the network between the Boarder Gateways needs to have an appropriate security level as well . Only nodes that needs to communicate with nodes in other PLMNs needs to have public addresses and by that be visible on the InterPLMN backbone.

. An IP carrier fulfilling these requirements is called a GRX (GPRS Roaming eXchange) operator. Some advantages with the GRX approach are: A GPRS operator does not have to create dedicated connections to every roaming partner. Instead of tens or hundreds of separate connections. A GPRS operator may choose to start with low quality and low capacity connection to GRX and upgrade the level of connectivity when it is economically feasible and there are traffic volumes and type of traffic that require more bandwidth and better quality. The carrier makes Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with their customers and other carriers as well. the operator can start offering the GPRS roaming service with number of roaming partners with only one connection to a GRX operator.Traffic Cases Basic Roaming Scenarios GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases Several international carriers exist and carry traffic from their clients (a GPRS operator) but they are also exchanging traffic between themselves (peering) so that a customer in one carrier‟s network could reach a customer in another carrier‟s network.

Traffic Cases Basic Roaming Scenarios GPRS System Survey Traffic Cases .

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