An Overview of Smart Grid Standards

Erich W. Gunther erich@enernex.com February 2009

Why Use Standards?

• • • • • •

Avoid re-inventing the wheel Learn from industry best practices Specify requirements more easily Reduce integration costs Prevent single vendor “lock-in” Vendors share a much larger market


2

Application Notes • Mature spec Standards Test Procedures.Making Standards Work Items critical to a Utilities And successful Vendors Direct Lessons Learned. • Involved user group Revised more Implementation Rapidly Guidelines • Certification process • Revision process Users’ Standards Access to Working Groups Organizations Drafts • Marketing. labeling • Implementations Errors Detected • Tool sets Consensus Acheived 3 . standard: Participation Innovations.

g. OpenHAN.Why International Standards? • Several Advantages – Time-tested process – Proven fair and open – Can be accelerated if needed • Other alternatives: – “de Facto” needs a market-maker – Industry consortia can work well • E. ZigBee. HomePlug. AMI-SEC. AMI-Enterprise – Work even better if endorsed by a standards org 4 . Cable Labs – User groups can create requirements specifications • E.g.

Standards in the Smart Grid Real-time Simulation Wide-Area Reliability Network Optimization Customer Participation Participation in Energy Markets • EPRI IntelliGrid Architecture. Standards. http://www.intelligrid. Technologies 5 .info • Catalog of Use Cases.

Smart Grid Comm Standards Domains 6 .

XSD. mostly single-vendor Mostly still in development In use. IEC 60870-6 IEC 62325 IEC 61970 Description Inter-Control Center Protocol ebXML for Power Systems Common Information Model / Generic Interface Definitions (CIM/GID) Interfaces for Distribution Management NRECA Enterprise web services Status Widespread In development In use. OWL. but… A variety of underlying technologies: UML. XML. OPC • Working on agreement on a design framework 7 . not flexible IEC 61968 Multispeak • • • • There is a culture of manual integration Very labour-intensive and costly Object models and services defined. RDF.Enterprise and Control Center Name / No.

one broadcast channel. used in geographically difficult areas Satellite Trunked Radio IP Radio Various proprietary technologies. one return Like trunked radio but with IP addressing Spread-Spectrum Unlicensed frequencies.T&D Wide-Area Networks Name Notes Frame Relay SONET Packet-switched. costly Licensed. more efficient • Many of these are considered obsolete or aging in the general IT world • Still in common use in the power system 8 . no reliability guarantee Campus or city backbones WDM Microwave Wavelength Division Multiplexing – follows SONET Proprietary.

T&D Substations Name / No. IEC 61850 DNP3 Modbus Description Object models. highspeed relaying. beginning here Most popular in NA Close second Widespread COMTRADE Fault Capture file format PQDIF IEC 62351 Power Quality file format Security for power systems In use Recently released • • • • Automation common in transmission Business case tough in distribution Well-known problems and solutions Moving to the next level 9 . process bus Distributed Network Protocol Evolved from process automation Status Widespread in Europe. self-describing.

leased lines Digital Subscriber Line . cellular-type coverage Various technologies e. GSM/GPRS or CDMA/EVDO Fiber to the Home. Passive Optical Networks (PONs) Narrowband Power Line Carrier – the “old stuff” Broadband over power line to the home Various proprietary systems.Access Wide-Area Networks Name PSTN DSL Cable WiMAX Cellular FTTH PLC Access BPL Paging Notes Public Switched Telephone Network – dial-up. POCSAG • Used to reach the Collector or Substation • Too expensive.g.Telco IP-based home access DOCSIS standard for coax IP-based home access WiFi with a backbone. too unreliable or too slow for actual access to home 10 .

not enough interoperability – Need guidelines.22 – Too flexible. narrowband or broadband – New standard activity just started in 2008 A B • Open standards not useful yet – Cellular. FITL – Not economical or not reliable or both – Mostly only reach the Collector level Metering Network Network A Metering Network Network B • Interop solution: common upper layer – Network layer preferred: IP suite – Most don’t have bandwidth • Application layer instead: ANSI C12.Field Area Networks – Distribution and AMI • Offerings mostly proprietary – Wireless mesh. WiMAX. ADSL. profile from users A B • More bandwidth the main solution! 11 . Cable. licensed or unlicensed – Power line carrier.

11 IEEE 802.04-2008 • ZigBee and HomePlug alliance – Popular open specifications • LONWorks.Home Area Networks Name Ethernet Number IEEE 802. AV.15. X10 – popular proprietary networks • Challenges coming in Electric Vehicles 12 . Insteon.0. in and outside premises The “approved” IPv6 wireless interface Power Industry requirements definition! HomePlug 1. Z-Wave. neighborhood AMI net Customer premises automation network Powerline comms.4 OpenHAN HAN SRS v1.4 Access by field tool. BPL 6LowPAN IEEE 802. usually fiber optic WiFi ZigBee IEEE 802.3 Notes Substation LANs.15.

OPC IEC 61400-25 DRBizNet BACNet OpenADR IEEE 1547 IEC 61850-7-420 Description Application interface Wind Power California initiative Building automation Automated Demand Response Basic principles of DER Information models for DER Status Widespread in industry In use.Distributed Resources and Commercial Name / No. many profiles In development In use Just released • Rapidly growing. turf war In development In use. but tend to be “islands of automation” • Concerns over integration with power utilities • Need to get people talking 13 .

WDM.Another Look at Smart Grid Standards Example Members Retailers Aggregators Regulators Customers Providers MDMS CIS/Billing OMS WMS EMS/DMS Routers Towers Ground Stations Repeaters Rings Example Technologies Internet Protocols World-Wide Web ebXML IEC 60870-6 ICCP External Portal Enterprise Metering System IEC 61970 IEC 61968 Web Services Multispeak Message Buses SONET. ATM MPLS Frame Relay Satellite Microwave IEC 61850 DNP3 WiMAX BPL / PLC Wireless Mesh ADSL Cellular Cable (DOCSIS) ZigBee WiFi LonWorks BACnet HomePlug OpenHAN WAN Collector Field LAN Meter / Gateway Normal NOR Critical PEND EmergencyACTI Program MAL RID ING Emergency VE Peak Event OVStage 1 ER E Stage 2 Relays Modems Bridges Access Points Insertion Points Thermostats In-Home Displays Smart Appliances Field Tools PCs Building Automation $ ! Current Temp 03/03/2007 8:48am HAN Stat us Progr AW am: AY 14 .

in the home • Merging power and industry • Merging meters and distribution automation • Holistic security $ ! Normal NOR Critical PEND EmergencyACTI Program MAL RID ING Emergency VE Peak Event OVStage 1 ER E Stage 2 Current Temp 03/03/2007 8:48am Stat us Progr AW am: AY 15 .Standards Challenges for Smart Grids • Need Common Object Models • Wishy-washy standards • More bandwidth in the field • Proprietary field networks • Too many stds.

PHEV We have the technology. We have the lessons learned. C12. We just have to apply it! 16 . DER.Summary Essential IP-based networks IEC 61970 CIM/GID IEC 61968 Distribution IEC 61850 Substations IEC 62351 Security DNP3 ANSI C12.22 AMI-SEC OpenHAN Promising WiMAX ZigBee / HomePlug OpenADR 6LowPAN BACNet OPC/UA NERC CIPs Needed Standard Field LANs Modems for Field LANs More field bandwidth! CIM Design Framework CIM Application Security CIM/61850 Harmonization IEC 61850 Outside Sub ANSI C12 Guidelines Finish AMI-SEC Asset Mgmt.19.

Address design in breadth and depth 17 .

. not allways possible to have an appropriate connection that facilitates openness and competition (e. meter under-glass interface for communications boards. must continue transparent operation (with some configuration) • At the physical level. multi-vendor interface inside of relays) 18 .g. must be upgradable and extensible – If hardware is exchanged.Address design in breadth and depth • A software application is evident to users only at one level – Must operate transparently to the appropriate depth to interact with other systems – May be tied to key hardware elements of the system – If tied.

Recommended focus areas • Standard field LANs (FANs) – Innovation drived by vendor tension • More field bandwidth – Eliminate single-purpose networks and facilitate innovation • CIM design framework – Tighten allowable choices and develop implementation guide • CIM application security – Guidelines needed for verifiable security • CIM / IEC 61850 harmonization – Motivate users group to eliminate identified gaps • IEC 61850 outside of the substation – Incentivize vendors to extend reach of products and systems 19 .

standards. regulations.Recommended focus areas. 2 • ANSI C12 guidelines – Demand demonstrations of interoperable products • Finish AMI-SEC work products – Component catalog and implementation guide • Asset Management – Incentivize utilities to leverage infrastructure to better manage business • Distributed Energy Resources – Re-think and re-design hardware and software to account for two-way energy flow • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles – Need policies. pt. etc. business model. 20 .

environment. • Apply systems engineering and third-party metrics to avoid single-entity rate-or-return projects 21 . communications.Key Strategies • Drive stakeholders from standards development to interoperability demonstrations • Holistic targets eliminate single-purpose design and incompatibilities – Technical. regulation. etc.

rules and regulations • Desired outcomes and important characteristics (e.g. interoperability) should be specified by policy makers rather than specific standards (where possible) • Research needed to accelerate development and fill the gaps in security. device management. smart grid networks.Key recommendations • DOE GridWise Architecture Interoperability Checklist should be used by policy makers to evaluate utility proposals • Smart Grid News technology/product/project checklist or equivalent should be used to validate “smartgridness” • Standards-based solutions should be favored over proprietary solutions via legislation. information privacy and field network interoperability 22 ..

797/$9.9$2.3490744.3/.7/8  .

797/8 W 00/42243 -0.7/8.7/8 W 470-.3/.3/3/:897 W 073209078.3//939010/ W !745709.710/309478 W %442.889.:79  .:942.389/8 390420 W 0735407.9 4/08 W 8 .0308147$2.80.3/.3/ /897-:943.$9.943 W 489.

7 88039. ! -.80/309478  .$:22.

9438 $0. 897-:943  $:-89.:79 ! $     $ 503 !74283  00.

420!: 503# 4! 09 !.

.:79 .2047 55.3//9 0837.7/0/8 4/0281470/8 47010/-.3/.& #!8 00/0/ $9.943$0.

 .559  .09090..094.7243.943   :98/0$:$:/0308 38 $ 880929 # !' 0..0900884380.730/ 0:89..344 0.

..30 !40730.//7088/0833-70.02039 0- !708039.3/ /059    $  &9939075780$89028 %7/ !.7908  !$% . 40.943 !.9.943  .9.3./9.

943 S 55.9.943 #0:.90 70088 !.947 08# !7.385479 0947 .943 $08843 %7. $ 3907309 $ $ :894207 !439 94 !439 %005430.  .3 !8.943 !708039. 40.943 !:-.0.9.9. 70088 &8..3.. 40. 40.9.! #09.9.07 ! $# 70088..

55.3/ /059 W 8419.943 98420.7/.70399490.7/82:9 .7080.70..4393:097.8839071..0.//7088/0833-70.0147 .9./03994:807843.94380.9438-4.....85488-094.4330.30/ 2:89..70394507.3/09038-0 1.9097..03/4739071.3 .557457.91.385.0 349.0..422:3.9430 0.0 :894507.9439.431:7.90/059943907.700020398419088902 190/ 2:89-0:57./.3/ .385..-0.7/.90845033088.42509943 0  20907:3/07 .557457.-090/940.8  .038/041 70.9 94907889028 .943 W 99058./9.90.

2047 %903.-0.:79 :/0308300/0/147.-080.943 W /08317.#0..3/1.3//0.70.55.4..08.3//9 23.94380.071.:8.90334.4.42203/0/14.0452502039.943:/0 W .03/47903843 W 47010/-.9...90830 5:75480309478.0/-.943/7.:79 W .8 W $9.7/10/8 8 334.3/.

58 W  4:98/041908:-89.98.039..90:807874:594023.90/03910/.0.03/478940903/70.41574/:.7243. .943 3..943 49.3/889028  .

'0.70.02039 3.943:/0 W 8809.897:.3//0243897.3/2502039.0317.:8.4.8 59  W $:/0308 02.3/70 /083.42203/0/14.94384139074507..0 -:83088 W 897-:90/307#084:7.3.039.98 W 38 $47574/:.3/.07.4:39147 94 .030714 W !: 3-7/0.97.3/8419.7/.08 #0 93.#0..7094.7/8 09.70.08 00/54.3.  .9:7094-099072.9.9438 -:8308824/0 89.08 70:.98 42543039.0:9908940..-0574/:.

.7098023.9438 W 489.0$97.9008 W 7.3/.4/830 03997..045203994 39074507. W 558890280330073.3/97/ 5.7432039 70:.90 47 709:735740.3/ 3. .9.-9/0243897.9-908 %0.04/078174289.90830 5:75480/083.792097.089.3.894 .9438 03.7/8/0.425.422:3.98  .943 09..

8 W $2.89 84:/-0:80/-54.:.344.90.2.797/0890..9:7039074507.9438 W  7/807.42203/.90:99 574548.-90.070.078940.

574/:.9.

1.3/70:...7/8 0705488-0 W #080.3/.:79 82..0452039.2.797/309478 /0.3/25479.300/0/94.89.8947 06:..8 0   39074507.4208.08..9438 W 0870/4:9.03984:/-0:80/94.470/4./.90/0.7/8 -.0 2.007.07 5745709.3/10/30947 39074507.3/190 .10/-54.078 7.3.784:9438.90 82.943 7:08..58380.0..797/3088 W $9.80/84:943884:/-01....94357.-9 84:/-0850.02039 31472..3850.39.-9  .9.9079.3/.90789.7.7..5740.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful