BY: SHIVAKUMAR V.

BHAT USN NO: 1DA06CV050 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPT

Nanotechnology is not a new science and it is not a new technology. “Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that allows us to develop materials with improved or totally new properties” It is rather an extension of the sciences and technologies already developed for many years, to examine the nature of our world at an ever smaller scale. Nanotechnology is the use of very small particles of material. A nanometre is a billionth of a meter. The size of the particles, is very important because at the length scale of the nanometre, 10-9m, the properties of the material actually become affected

The construction business will inevitably be a beneficiary of this nanotechnology. In fact it already is in the fields of concrete, steel and glass, and many more. Concrete is stronger, more durable and more easily placed; steel is made tougher ; glass is self-cleaning. Paints are made more insulating and water repelling.

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Nano particle: It is defined as a particle with at least one dimension less than 200nm.It is quantum dots if they are small enough (typically sub 10nm) such that jumps in energy levels occur. Nano composite : It is produced by adding Nano particle to a bulk material in order to improve the bulk material’s properties.

• They can be several millimetres in length • They have 5 times the Young’s modulus and 8 times (theoretically 100 times) the strength of steel whilst being 1/6th the density.• They are cylindrical with nanometres diameter. • Thermal conduction is also very high along the tube axis .

it becomes increasingly hydrophilic .  It can oxidize oxygen or organic materials. tiles.   . Titanium dioxide is a widely used white pigment. Additionally. or other products for sterilizing. cements. deodorizing and anti-fouling properties When incorporated into outdoor building materials can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants. and so added to paints. windows. as TiO2 is exposed to UV light.thus it can be used for anti-fogging coatings or self-cleaning windows.

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. a material that reduces the need for heavy maintenance.The ceramic tile used on the exterior contains titanium dioxide. withstands mold in a tropical environment and is believed to reduce smog and pollutants in the air of urban environments.

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The mechanical behaviour of concrete materials depends on phenomena that occur on a micro and a nano scale. coarse aggregate and water.   . Concrete is a mixture of cement. sand(fine aggregate). As concrete is most usable material in construction industry it’s been require to improve its quality.

Nano-concrete is defined as “A concrete made with Portland cement particles that are less than 500 Nano-meters as the cementing agent”. Nanotechnology can: modify the molecular structure of concrete material to improve the material’s properties as shown in the chart.  .

. • Related to improved particle packing. high energy milling of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) clinker and standard sand. produces a greater particle size diminution with respect to conventional OPC and. after all. • Nano-silica addition to cement based materials can also control the degradation of the fundamental C-S-H (calcium-silicate hydrate) reaction of concrete caused by calcium leaching in water as well as block water penetration and therefore lead to improvements in durability. • NANO-SILICA: particle packing in concrete can be improved by using nano-silica which leads to a densifying of the micro and nanostructure resulting in improved mechanical properties. as a result.• Concrete is. the compressive strength of the refined material is also 3 to 6 times higher. a macro-material strongly influenced by its nano-properties.

Hydration tests indicated that the Nano-cement had a more rapid hydration rate than Portland cement   . micro cement with a maximum particle size of about 5 microns is being used. tough and room temperature processed ceramics can be developed both for electronic applications and coatings. conductive. But for thinner products and faster setting. strong. Average size of Portland cement particle is about 50 microns. If these Nano-cement particles can be processed with Nano tubes and reactive Nano-size silica particles.

   . It is hydrophilic and therefore gives self cleaning properties to surfaces to which it is applied. already used in projects around the world. TiO2 is a white pigment and can be used as an excellent reflective coating. has a white colour that retains its whiteness very effectively unlike the stained buildings of the material’s pioneering past. The process by which this occurs is that rain water is attracted to the surface and forms sheets which collect the pollutants and dirt particles and later broken down and wash themselves off. The resulting concrete.

. Oxidized multi-walled Nano tubes (MWNT’s) show the best improvements both in compressive strength (+ 25 N/mm2) and flexural strength (+ 8 N/mm2) compared to the samples without the reinforcement.   A number of investigations have been carried out for developing smart concrete using carbon fibres. The addition of small amounts (1% wt) of CNT’s can improve the mechanical properties of samples consisting of the main Portland cement phase and water.

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Designed By Gret Wingardh .

Constructed by Swedish construction giant Skanska .

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 Fatigue is a significant issue that can lead to the structural failure of steel subject to cyclic loading. Stress risers are responsible for initiating cracks from which fatigue failure results and research has shown that the addition of copper Nano-particle reduces the surface unevenness of steel which then limits the number of stress risers and hence fatigue cracking. less need for monitoring and more efficient materials use in construction prone to fatigue issues. such as in bridges or towers. This can happen at stresses significantly lower than the yield stress of the material and lead to a significant shortening of useful life of the structure.   . Advancements in this technology would lead to increased safety.

A new formula infuses steel with nanoscale copper particles. Above 750 F. and at 1100 F. corrosion resistance and a good surface finish. steel loses 50 percent of its strength. this formula could maintain structural integrity at temperatures up to 1000 F. regular steel starts to lose its structural integrity.   . The new steel allows ultra-high strength to be combined with good formability.

San Diego. Florida .U. Navy .Hybrid Modular Piers .S. California High-rise Condominiums in Aventura.

S. Army Corps of Engineers .Millennium Park renovation Airport Control Tower – east central coast of Florida . Oklahoma Spillway .Channel bridge Sacramento Regional Transit Authority .Bridge deck New Castle County . Kentucky.Church St Extension .    U. Sacramento County . Connecticut . Louisville. plant reconstruction City of Chicago .Delaware-State Route 82 over    Dupont . New bridge structure New Haven. Phase II .

 Current research into the refinement of the cementite phase of steel to a Nano-size has produced stronger cables. especially in suspension bridges . A stronger cable material would reduce the costs and period of construction. High rise structures require high strength joints and this in turn leads to the need for high strength bolts    . Sustainability is also enhanced by the use of higher cable strength as this leads to a more efficient use of materials.

improving the steel micro-structure.200 MPa even a very small amount of hydrogen embrittles the grain boundaries and the steel material may fail during use.  When the tensile strength of tempered martensite steel exceeds 1. The capacity of high strength bolts is realized generally through quenching and tempering and the microstructures of such products consist of tempered martensite. vanadium and molybdenum Nanoparticle has shown that they improve the delayed fracture problems associated with high strength bolts.  .

but at a lower cost.Sandvik Nanoflex  MMFX2 steel  Produced by Sandvik Materials Technology(Sweden) Desirable qualities of a high Young’s Modulus and high strength Produced by MMFX Steel Corp (America) has the mechanical properties of conventional steel Has a modified nanostructure that makes it corrosion resistant    Resistant to corrosion due to the presence of very hard nanometre-sized particles The use of stainless steel reinforcement in concrete structures is limited as it is cost prohibitive    It is an alternative to conventional stainless steel. .

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Research into nano technological solutions to this centres around four different strategies to block light& heat coming through windows. wind and rain in order to control the building environment and contribute to sustainability Consequently.    . The current state of the art in cladding is an active system which tracks sun. on the exterior surface of buildings and the control of light and heat entering through glazing is a major issue. there is a lot of research being carried out on the application of nanotechnology to glass Most of glass in construction is.

volatile organic compounds and bacterial membranes. Glass incorporating this self cleaning technology is available on the market today    . Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in Nano-particle form to coat glazing since it has sterilizing and anti-fouling properties. TiO2 is hydrophilic and this attraction to water forms sheets out of rain drops which then wash off the dirt particles broken down in the previous process. The particles catalyze powerful reactions which breakdown organic pollutants.

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Macquarie Bank building In Sydney .

these are effectively a passive solution. Fire-protective glass is another application of nanotechnology.    . As an active solution. however. For heat protection thin film coatings are being developed which are spectrally sensitive surface applications for window glass and filter out unwanted infrared frequencies of light (which heat up a room) and reduce the heat gain in buildings. thermo chromic technologies are being studied which react to temperature and provide insulation to give protection from heating whilst maintaining adequate lighting. This is achieved by using a clear in tumescent layer sandwiched between glass panels (an interlayer) formed of fumed silica (SiO2) Nanoparticle which turns into a rigid and opaque fire shield when heated.

  . All these applications are intended to reduce energy use in cooling buildings. thereby becoming more opaque at the touch of a button. Electro chromic coatings are being developed that react to changes in applied voltage by using tungsten oxide layer. A third strategy. that produces a similar outcome by a different process. involves photo chromic technologies which react to changes in light intensity.

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Researchers have developed a highly water repellent coating based on the actions of the lotus leaf as a result of the incorporation of silica and alumina Nano-particle and hydrophobic polymers. internal self-repair. research in these areas appears limited. however. lignocelluloses are twice as strong as steel. Nano-fibrils would lead to a new paradigm in sustainable construction Functionality onto lignocelluloses surfaces at the nanoscale could open new opportunities for such things as self-sterilizing surfaces. Wood is also composed of nanotubes or “nanofibrils”. and electronic lignocelluloses devices. Currently.     .

This type of paint is used. produced by the addition of nano-sized cells. are currently available. Nanotechnology is being applied to paints and insulating properties.  . giving very limited paths for thermal conduction (R values are double those for insulating foam). for corrosion protection under insulation since it is hydrophobic and repels water from the metal pipe and can also protect metal from salt water attack. pores and particles.

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Lotus effect on external wall by Nano particles .

i. Carbon Monolithic Aero gels..e.   . Adsorption capacity measurements show that modified hydrophobic Carbon aero gels are excellent adsorbents for different toxic organic compounds from water. Production of Aero gels is done by sol-gel process. The absorption of carbon monoxide is done by using cuprous salt and adsorption of hydrocarbons is done by using a complex nanomaterial.

at best. nanotechnology offers the possibility of great advances whereas conventional approaches. Also concerns with the environmental effects” The waves of change being propagated by progress at the nanoscale will therefore be felt far and wide and nowhere more so than in construction due its large economic and social presence. In conclusion.   . offer only incremental improvements. “At this moment the main limitation is the high costs of nanotechnology.

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