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Shell and tube heat exchanger Overall Heat Exchanger Value, U value

Assignment 1
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Types of Heat Exchanger


Plate Heat Exchanger Double Tube Shell and tube.
U tube Straight tube

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Shell and tube HEX


Large area of heat transfer area to volume

and weight.

Easy to be constructing in wide range of sizes. Mechanically rugged enough to withstand

normal fabrication stress, shipping and normal operating conditions


Many write standards and design guides.

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1 Shell Pass and 2 Tube Pass, Counter current

Introduction to Case Study of HEX

flow.

202 tubes. 13 Baffles to encourage better efficiency. As a

support for the tubes and ensure turbulent.

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Straight Tube Heat

BPO is the main product that is needed. Triangular tube pitch layout, with an angel of

30 degrees.

Stainless Steel Tube side. SA 213 TP 304 Carbon Steal Shell side.

SA 516 Gr 70

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Cooling Process
Medium Capacity, m kg/hr Shell - Cool Water 65,638 Tube - Hot Bleach Palm Oil 83,024

Temperature Density, Specific Heat, Cp Conductivity, k Viscosity, Allowed Pressure drop Materials

C kg/m3

t1 - Inlet 32 994.57

t2 - Outlet 42

MEAN

T1 - Inlet 105

T2 - Outlet 90

MEAN

37 992.99
991.4 849.4 856.2

97.5 852.8 2.1805


2.203 2.158

kJ/kg.K
4.1798 4.1788

4.1793 0.626
0.6187 0.6333 0.6291 0.1657 0.1669 8.087 0.7646

W/mK cP Bar

0.1663
6.18

0.6969

7.1335

< 1.5 CS SA 516 Gr 70

< 1.5 SS304 , seamless SA 213 TP 304 2

Number of Passes 1

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Cooling Process
T2 = t1 LTD = 58 C = 32 C Cooling Counterflow Temperature Diagram GTD = 63 90 C t2 = 42 C T1 = 105 C C

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Heating Process
Medium Capacity, m kg/hr Shell - Hot Steam 1,272 Tube - Cold Bleach Palm Oil 83,024

Temperature, Density Specific Heat Conductivity Viscosity Allowed Pressure drop Materials

C kg/m3

t1 - Inlet 143.6 2.1627

t2 - Outlet 143.6

MEAN

T1 - Inlet 90

T2 - Outlet 105

MEAN

143.6 462.52
922.885 856.2 849.4

97.5 852.8 2.1805


2.158 2.203

kJ/kg.K
2.3403 4.2944

3.3174 0.3568
0.03065 0.6829 0.19125 0.1669 0.1657 6.18

W/mK cP Bar

0.1663 7.1335

0.01377

0.1025

8.087

< 1.5 Carbon Steel SA 516 Gr 70

< 1.5 SS304 , seamless SA 213 TP 304

Number of Passes 1 2

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Heating Process
T2 = t1 = LTD = 38.6 C 90 C 143.6 C GTD = 53.6 T1= 143.6 t2 = 105 C C C

Heating Counterflow Temperature Diagram

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Heat Transfer Diagram

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There will be 3 different heat transfer taking

place. Conduction, Convection and Radiation. a small amount is produced.

We can assume radiation as negligible as only Addition of all the resistances.

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Calculations

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Calculating UReq
Thermodynamic Method.
Ureq = Q / A F Tlm

where: Q U A F
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= Rate heat of transfer = The Overall Heat transfer coefficient = Cross-sectional area for heat transfer = Correction Factor

Tlm = Overall temperature difference

A = nt do L

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Cooling Process
T2 = t1 LTD = 58 C = 32 C Cooling Counterflow Temperature Diagram GTD = 63 90 C t2 = 42 C T1 = 105 C C

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Cooling Process

Ureq = Q / A F Tlm = 2743528 / 33.16 x 0.998 x 60.466 = 380.77 W /m2 C


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Heating Process

Ureq = Q / A F Tlm = 2743528 / 33.16 x 1 x 45.69 = 497.76 W /m2 C

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Bell Delaware Method


Calculate Heat Transfer Coefficient and

Pressure drop. US.

Researched by Bell at University of Delaware, This method was derived by Bell after being

sponsored by the industry leaders to study shell and tube heat exchangers.

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Can be used to design a basic heat exchanger

as most dimensional calculation is included.

Example:
Number of Baffle
Nb = (Lti / Lbc) -

Shell side Crossflow area, Sm Number of Tube Rows in Crossflow. Dw


Note: All calculation for numbers should be rounded up, to 5/4/12 prevent efficiency lost..

Cooling Process for Bell Delaware Method

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Shell side Heat Transfer Coefficient


Mass Velocity Reynolds Number Prandtl Number Wall temperature Viscosity at Wall Temperature Viscosity Correction Factor Coulburn j Factor Gs Res Prs Gs = Ms / Sm Res = d Gs /
16.97043286 23477.61408 Turbulent Flow 1.051416998 120.55 0.001296 1.4 0.053760402 0.006488468 C cP kg / m2 s

Idea heat exchanger coeffcient Heat Transfer Coefficient with Fouling factor

Prs = Cps / ks Tw = 0.5((Ta+Tb /2)Tw (ta+ tb /2)) w sn sn = (s / w)0.14 a = a3 / (1+ 0.14 Res ) a a4 1.33 ]a ji ji = a1[ PT / Resa2 Do Ji Cps Gs sn hi = hi Prs 2/3 hi Jc J1 Jb hs hs = Jt Js

346.96

W / m2 C

232.7490843

W / m2 C

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Shell side Correction Factors


hs = hi Jc J1 Jb Jt hs

Js

Heat Transfer Coefficient with Fouling factor

Jc Correction Factor for Baffle cut and spacing J1 Correction Factor for Baffle Leakage Effect Jb Correction Factor for Bundle Bypass Flow Jt Correction Factor for Adverse Temperature
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Gradient in Laminar

Tube side Heat Transfer Coefficient

Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient


Tube Area Mass Velocity
At Gt

At = ( PI Di2 Nt ) / 4 Gt = Mt / ( At / Np ) Ret = Di Gt /

0.043507278 1060.154674 2170.911513 Turbulent Flow

m2 kg / m2 s

Reynolds Number Prandtl Number Wall temperature Viscosity at Wall Temperature Viscosity Correction Factor Heat Transfer Coefficient 5/4/12

Ret

Prt Tw

Prt = Cpt / kt Tw = 0.5((Ta+Tb /2)-(ta+ tb / 2)) tn = (t / w)0.14 ht = 0.023 Ret0.8 Prt 0.4 (t/w)0.14(k / Di)

104.5640863 120.55

7.1335

cP

sn

1.017718968

ht

68517.80553

W / m2 C

Choosing Tube Heat Transfer Coefficient


Heating

Cooling 2840 Turbulent Flow

Reynolds Number

Res = d Gs /

2170 Turbulent Flow

Reynolds number falls on the straight line use top. Reynolds number falls on nit the straight line use bottom.

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U value
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Thermal Conductivity of SS304 at Tw

Rfo Rfi Ao/ Ai Ao/ Am R

Ao / Ai = ro / ri

16.16 0.000 088 0.000 53

Resistivity Factor for Steam Resistivity Factor for BPO Area Ratio Area Ratio Resistivity
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W/ m.K m2 K/ w m2 K/ w

1.150 36232

Ao / Am = ro / rp + ri 0.535 t A A ( m2 1 Rf w o 1 o 0.005 R= + + + Rf + ) C/ h o k A 05 i W s wm hi Ai

Conclusion
Calculation obtained is 197.93 W /m2 C

from Delaware Method.


When compared with Ureq which was

380.77 W /m2 C .
This shows that with correction factors the

value is more precise.


If we followed the Ureq calculations then

the heat exchanger would be less efficient.


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