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Introduction to Modulation

Definitions
Analog modulation
Both the message signal and the transmitted signal are
analog signals
Two classes: amplitude modulation, angle modulation
Three signals:
Message signal: the information signal to be modulated
and transmitted
Carrier signal c(t) : high frequency sinusoidal signal

Modulated signal: the signal to be transmitted, or the
signal obtained after modulation
( ) cos(2 )
c c c
c t A f t t | = +
Modulation
It is the process of facilitating the
transfer of information over a medium.

This is done by changing one or more
the parameters of a signal including
power, frequency, phase and amplitude
depending on the requirement of the
transmission system.

Baseband, Passband
Baseband: refers to the signals and systems before
modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth much lower
than the carrier frequency
Passband: refers to the signals and systems after (including)
modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth around the
carrier frequency
Baseband signal: is usually the message signal
Passband signal: is usually the modulated signal, or
transmitted signal

Base band and band pass signals
Base band and band pass signals
- Base band signal is the original signal having the original
frequencies when delivered by transmitters.

- In base band communication, signals are transmitted without
modulation.

- Band pass signal is a signal which is modulated by one of the
modulation schemes.

- Demodulation is the process of extracting the
baseband message from the carrier so that it may be
processed and interpreted by the intended receiver

What is modulation?
Change baseband signal into passband signal (shift
frequency of message signal from low to high)
Change some characteristics of a carrier according
to a message signal
Add the message information into the carrier
General form of modulated signal:

where cos(2 ) : carrier
: carrier frequency
( ) : carrier ampl
( ) ( ) cos[2 (
itude
( ) : modulate
)]
c
c
c
f t
f
A
s t A t f t t
t
u t
t
t
| = +
d signal
Message signal m(t)
embedded in
amplitude A(t) or
phase
( ) t |
But, why do we
need modulation
transmission?
Message signal m(t) modifies:
amplitude : AM linear modulation
phase : PM
Frequency : FM
Example Compare signal waveforms
( ) A t
( ) t |
( ) ( ) f t d t dt | =
Non-linear modulation
Message signal: ( ) cos(2 ). Carrier: ( ) cos(2 10 ). m t t c t t t t = =
Concept of Modulation

The length of antenna is: ( /2)
Where

Simultaneous transmission of several
signals (Multiplexing)

Efficient exchange of SNR with BW.

f
C
=
Voice signals
Sound transmission in air has limited
range for the amount of power your
lungs can generate.
To extend the range, we transmit
through a medium other than air like
phone line.
The process of converting voice so that
it is possible to be transmitted through
channel is called modulation.
Voice Spectrum
Usually, all modulated schemes
depending on the change in one of the
signal parameters, includes frequency
conversion.

- Modulation is a process that causes a
shift in the range of frequencies in a
baseband signal.

List of modulation methods we will learn

Amplitude modulation methods and applications
2. DSBSC (double sideband suppressed carrier AM): data
modem, Color TVs color signals
3. SSB (single sideband AM): telephone
4. VSB (vestigial sideband AM): TV picture signal

Angle modulation methods and applications
signal, analog cellular phone
2. PM (phase modulation): not widely used, except in digital
communication systems (but that is different)
Components of Modulators
Baseband signal is called modulating signal.

Carrier signal is used to modulate the signal
(carry the signal through a channel on
different frequencies and changed
parameters depending on the modulation
scheme)

The bandpass signal is called modulated
signal which is a combination of baseband
and carrier signal
Checkpoints for studying each modulation

1. Modulated signal (time-domain)
2. Spectrum (frequency-domain)
3. Parameters: bandwidth, power, etc
4. Modulator and demodulator (Principles, block
diagrams or circuits)
other modulations)
History and photos of AM radio
Reginald Fessenden
First commercial AM radio service: 1920, KDKA in
Pittsburgh, PA.
1020 kHz carrier, 50 KWatts.
There are 16265 AM stations worldwide
AM Modulation
AM (conventional amplitude modulation)
The amplitude of carrier wave is varied about a
mean value, linearly with message signal
Modulated signal
Carrier:
Message signal:
AM modulated signal
( ) cos(2 )
c c
c t A f t t =
( ) m t
( ) [1 ( )]cos(2 )
c c
u t A am t f t t = +
Block diagram of AM modulator
Two inputs:
Output:
| |
( ) 1 ( ) cos(2 )
c c
u t A am t f t t = +
( ), ( ) m t c t
Important!
We often use block
diagram to describe
modulator.
Block diagram of AM demodulator (envelope
detector)

Principle
Nonlinear device can be diode (remove negative value),
square (u
2
(t)), absolute value (|u(t)|), etc
Function of nonlinear device is to obtain the multiple-order
harmonies of u(t) and m(t)
Proper low pass filter is used to remove high frequency
harmonies, but retain low frequency components
m(t) can be obtained after d.c. bias removing

| |
| |
| |
positive positi
0
ve
2
( ) ( ) 1 ( )
1 ( )
High frequency components
cos(2 )
1 ( )
c
c
j nf t
n
c
c
n c
f t
x
v t u t A am t
A e am
m
t
A a t x
t
t

=
+
= = +
= +
= +

| |
lowpass filter
0
( ) ( ) |
1 ( )
c
x A a
y t v t
m t +
=
=

Important Parameters

A good AM requires:

If (2) is violated: over modulation
Modulation index >=1
causes envelope distortion
( ) [1 ( )]cos(2 )
c c
u t A am t f t t = +
i)
ii) m
ampli
odulat
tude sensiti
ion index:
vity:
max

( )
a
am t
1) carrier frequency: (message signal bandwdith)
2) modulation inde ( ) 1 x: , for any .
c
am t
f
t
W
<
Note: if ( ) 1, then [1 ( )] 0. am t am t < + >
This is
important for
an envelope
(magnitude)
Example AM signals. Modulate a 1 Hz single-
tone sinusoidal message signal onto a 10 Hz
carrier. Examine the over-modulation case.

ka=1.5; % amplitude sensitivity
fc=10; % carrier frequency
fm=1; % message signal frequency

t=0:0.01:1.99; % time

mt=cos(2*pi*fm*t); % message signal m(t)
ut=(1+ka*mt).*cos(2*pi*fc*t); % modulated wave

subplot(221); plot(t,st,t,(1+a*mt),'--',t,-(1+a*mt),'-.');
Compare carrier
frequencies, and over-
modulation

1. Where you can see the
carrier signal?
2. Where you can detect
the message signal?
3. Which plot shows
over-modulation case?
4. Is over-
modulation case
Why?
5. How to
avoid over-
modulation?
The blue high
frequency curve
The green/red
envelope
This one Reduce K
a
Over-modulation is no good

Good modulation
Over modulation
Example 4.4: tone modulation
using AM
Spectrum of conventional AM signal

| | | |
( ) FT[ cos(2 )] FT[ ( ) cos(2 )]
( ) ( ( ) )
2
( )
2

c
c c c c
c c c
c
c
U f A f
aA
M f f M f f
t A am
f f
t
A
f
t f
f o
t
o
t
+ + + + +
= +
=
where ( ) FT[ ( )] M f m t =
What happens if
Requirement #1
(f
c
>>W) is not
satisfied?
Bandwidth of AM signal
AM signals bandwidth is twice message bandwidth
This is also transmitted signal bandwidth, or required
minimum channel bandwidth Bc
Negative frequency contents of m(t) becomes visible
in positive frequency
Upper sideband (USB):
Lower sideband (LSB):
Transmission power:
c c
f f f W s s +
c c
f W f f s s
2
T
B W =
carrier
USB carrier LSB

T M
P
P
P P
P P = +
= + +
USB, LSB
have same
infor?
Exercise
For the AM signal spectrum pictured in the figure
below, calculate
The message signal frequency f
m
The magnitude of the upper sideband
The bandwidth
Modulation index
| |
(4) ( ) 1 sin
(1) 813
(2 ) cos(2 )
20 40.
4 5
5 0.5
modulation ind
810 kHz 3 kHz
(2) magnitude: 5
(3) Transmission bandwidth:
ex:
2 6

Hz
2
k
4
c m m c
c m
m
c
m
m
c
c
u t A aA f t f t
aA
A
aA
A
a
A
f
A
f
t t = +
= =

= =
=
=
=

=
0.5
m
A =
For the AM signal spectrum pictured in the figure below, calculate the
message signal frequency f
m
, the magnitude of the upper sideband, the
bandwidth, modulation index.
Exercise An AM modulation with carrier frequency f
c
=540 kHz,
carrier amplitude A
c
=20. Message signal is single tone with
f
m
=10kHz, whose amplitude A
m
can make the carrier amplitude
changing +/-7.5 around A
c
=20. What is modulation index? Find the
modulated signal.

| |
| |
| | | |
3
maximum envelop is: max 20 1 sin(2 ) 20
( ) 1 sin(2 ) cos(2 )
20 1 sin(2 ) cos(2 )
7.5
(1) 0.375.
20
(2) ( ) 20 1 0.375sin(2 10 10
modulation index: 0
2
.37
1
0 7
5
.5
c m m c
m m
m
m
m
m
m c
aA f t aA
u t A aA f t f t
aA f t f t
aA
u t t
aA
t t
t t
t
t
= +
= +

= =
= +
=
+ = +
3
3 3 3
) cos(2 540 10 )
20cos(2 540 10 ) 7.5sin(2 10 10 ) cos(2 540 10 )
t
t t t
t
t t t
(

= +
AM Demodulator
Explanation
Diode D1 cut the negative
portion of AM signal s(t)
When signal after D1 is positive,
C is charged.
When signal after D2 is 0,
C is discharged.
| |
( ) 1 ( ) cos(2 )
c c
u t A am t f t t = +
| |
( ) 1 ( )
D D
y t A k m t = +
Overall effect:
y(t) remains approximately
as the envelope of s(t)
m(t) can be detected from y(t)
using capacitor to remove d.c.1.
Very important: this is
Envelope Detector.
Envelope Detector
In envelope detection, the output envelope of the demodulator is
the same as the original signal.

During the positive cycle of the sinusoid signal, the diode
conducts till positive peak voltage at which the capacitor is fully
charged with peak positive voltage.

Now during the negative cycle, the diode is open because the
capacitor voltage is greater than the AM signals voltage. This
voltage discharge continues for the next positive cycle till a point
when the voltage of the AM signal is greater than that of the
capacitor. The same process repeats periodically.

The capacitor discharges at a very low rate depending on the
RC constant.
The signal generated by the capacitor approximates the
envelope of the AM signal. This signal is a ripple signal.

Increasing the value of the constant RC results in a
better approximation. Too large value of RC makes the
envelope detection impossible because the discharge
rate becomes too slow.

The output signal is a ripple signal.
This ripple can be removed using further LPF(RC). Of
course the DC component is blocked using further
HPF(RC).

| | ) ( ) ( t m A t v
c
+ =

Major Properties of AM
The major reason that AM was the first & most popular
Waste power and bandwidth
Carrier components wastes a major portion power, but
carrier does not have message information
Both USB and LSB are transmitted, which carry the
same message information
Ways for improvement
To enhance power efficiency
Reduce/remove carrier: DSB-SC
Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB
To enhance bandwidth efficiency
Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB
Multiplex two message signals together: QAM
Cost for the improvement
More expensive implementation
The simple envelope detector is no longer applicable
Exercise
A single-tone modulated signal is shown below. The
envelope has maxima 18 and minima 2.
What is the carrier amplitude A
c
?
What is the modulation index?
max ( ) am t
A single-tone modulated signal is shown below. The envelope has maxima
18 and minima 2. What is the carrier amplitude A
c
? What is the modulation
index?
| |
| |
Modulated signal is:
( ) 1 ( ) cos(2 )
1 sin(2 ) cos(2 )
c c
c m m c
u t A am t f t
A aA f t f t
t
t t
= +
= +
The first channel in AM broadcast has carrier f
c
=540 kHz. FCC
standards admit maximum message signal frequency f
m
=W=5 kHz.
Determine frequency limits for the upper and lower sidebands,
transmission bandwidth. Sketch the spectrum of AM signal.