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Advanced Computer Architecture

CS 704

Lecture 1
VU-Advanced Computer Architecture

Lecture 1-Introduction

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Advanced Computer Architecture

Introduction
Prof. Dr. M. Ashraf Chughtai
VU-Advanced Computer Architecture

Lecture 1-Introduction

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Advanced Computer Architecture

Prerequisites
VU-Advanced Computer Architecture

Lecture 1-Introduction

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Computer System

VU-Advanced Computer Architecture

Lecture 1-Introduction

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Computer Architecture Verses Organization VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 5 .

Academic History 1944 Stored program concept VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 6 .

Academic History 1945 ENIAC the World’s First operational calculator VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 7 .

Academic History 1946 ISA machine 10 times faster than ENIAC VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 8 .

Commercial History 1949 – 51 UNIVAC-I $1 Million VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 9 .

63 IBM-701 CDC 6600 PDP-8 Lecture 1-Introduction 10 .Commercial History … Cont’d VU-Advanced Computer Architecture 1952 .

Microprocessors 1971 .2006 Mainframe Workstation PC Server Supercomputer Minisupercomputer Massively Parallel Processors VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 11 .

Course Focus Quantitative principle of computer design VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 12 .

Course Focus Instruction set Architectures VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 13 .

Course Focus Datapath and control VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 14 .

Course Focus Memory Hierarchy Design Main memory Cache Hard drives VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 15 .

Course Focus Multiprocessor Architectures VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 16 .

Course Focus Storage and I/O Systems VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 17 .

Course Focus Computer Clusters VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 18 .

Text Book Computer Architecture: A quantitative approach Hennessy J. 2006 VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 19 . 4th Ed. A. 2003. 3rd Ed. L and Petterson D.

References Computer Organization and Design: The hardware/software interface Hennessy and Petterson VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 20 .

References Computer Organization and Architecture th 6 Stalling W. Edition Prentice Hall. 2003 Lecture 1-Introduction 21 VU-Advanced Computer Architecture .

References Research papers on Computer Design and Architecture IEEE and ACM conferences. transactions and journals VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 22 .

7 Ch. A) Ch. Level Parallelism (Dynamic Approach) Inst. Level Parallelism (Software approach) Memory Hierarchy Design I/O and Storage System Interconnection Networks and multiprocessors Ch.Topic Coverage Fundamentals of Computer Design Instruction Set Principles Computer H/W Design (Review) Inst. 8 and Ch.6 VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 23 . 4 Ch. 1 Ch. Notes/ App. 5 Ch. 2 (Lec. 3 Ch.

Course Style Research in the small VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 24 .

Four Perspective of Computer Architecture Input/Output and Storage Multiprocessor and Network Interconnection Memory Hierarchy Processor Design VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 25 .

DSP VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 26 . Superscalar. Instruction Level Parallelism. Cont’d Multiprocessor and Network Interconnection Memory Hierarchy L1 Cache Processor Design Cache design. Reordering.Processor Design: Input/Output and Storage Computer Architecture Perspective . Prediction. Speculation. Hazard Resolution. Vector.. block size and associativity Addressing modes and Protection VLSI Instruction Set Architecture Pipelining.

Cont’d Virtual Memory DRAM Memory Hierarchy L2 Cache Emerging Technologies Interleaving Bus protocols Coherence..Memory Hierarchy: Input/Output and Storage Multiprocessor and Network Interconnection Computer Architecture Perspective . ILP etc. Latency Processor Design VU-Advanced Computer Architecture L1 Cache Instruction Set Arch. Pipelining. Bandwidth. Lecture 1-Introduction 27 .

Pipelining. ILP etc. Lecture 1-Introduction 28 VU-Advanced Computer Architecture .I/O and Storage: Disks and Tape Input/Output and Storage RAID Computer Architecture Perspective Multiprocessor and Network Interconnection DRAM Memory Hierarchy L2 Cache Processor Design L1 Cache Instruction Set Arch.

P P P L2 Cache Interconnecting network Network switches Routing. Lecture 1-Introduction 29 VU-Advanced Computer Architecture . latency Processor Design L1 Cache Instruction Set Arch. WORM. Tape Input/Output and Storage RAID Multiprocessor and Network Interconnection Shared memory DRAM Memory Hierarchy P M …. bandwidth.Multiprocessor and Networks: Computer Architecture Perspective Disks. Pipelining.. ILP etc.

Computer Design Cycle Performance Technology and Cost VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 30 .

VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Technology and cost Lecture 1-Introduction 31 .Computer Design Cycle Evaluate Existing Systems for Bottlenecks Benchmarks 1 Performance The computer design is evaluated for bottlenecks using certain benchmarks to achieve the optimum performance..

Throughput: The number of results per second. MFLOPS. VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 32 .Performance (Metric) ….Design cycle cont’d Time/Latency: The wall clock or CPU elapsed time. Other measures such as MIPS. clock frequency (MHz). cache size do not make any sense.

Gate.ISA. RT. area. delay.Performance (Measuring Tools) … Design Cycle Cont’d Benchmarks: Hardware: Cost. power consumption Simulation (at levels . Circuit) Queuing Theory Rules of Thumb Fundamental “Laws”/Principles VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 33 .

These designs are simulated to evaluate the performance for different levels of workloads. Simulation helps in keeping the result verification VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 34 .Computer Design Cycle 1: Performance Evaluate Existing Systems for Bottlenecks using Benchmarks 2: Technology Workloads Simulate New Designs and Organizations The Technology Trends motivate new designs.

Technology Trends: Computer Generations Vacuum tube Transistor Small scale integration – Up to 100 devices/chip 1946-1957 1st Gen.000 devices/chip Very large scale integration – 100.000 devices/chip Large scale integration – 3. 1972-1977 1978 on. 1958-1964 2nd Gen.100.000. Medium scale integration – 100-3. 1965-1968 1969-1971 3rd Gen.000.000 devices/chip VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 35 . 4th Gen.000 .000 ..000 devices/chip Ultra large scale integration – Over 100.100.

Technology Trends: 100.2 – 15 Million transistors in PowerPC and Pentium Pro I Pentium 10.000 Moor’s Law I 80386 I 80286 I 80486 Transistors 100.000 I 8086 10.000.000 1970 1975 1980 1985 Year 1990 1995 2000 VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 36 .000.000 I 8080 I 4004 1.000.000 Processor Transistor density Graduating Window 5.000 1.

Technology Trends: Processor Performance Performance of Microprocessor is more than supercomputer Mainframes 1000 Supercomputers 100 10 Minicomputers Microprocessors 1 0.1 1965 VU-Advanced Computer Architecture 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Lecture 1-Introduction 37 .

high performance solution .the implementation complexities are given due consideration Implement Next Generation System VU-Advanced Computer Architecture 2: Technology 38 Lecture 1-Introduction .Computer Design Cycle 3: Cost Implementation Complexity 1: Performance The systems are implemented using the latest technology to obtain cost effective.

Price Verses Cost The relationship between cost and price is complex one The cost is the total amount spends to produce a product The price is the amount for which a finished good is sold. A small change in cost may have a big impact on price VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 39 . The cost passes through different stages before it becomes price.

Thank You and Aslamu-a-Lacum VU-Advanced Computer Architecture Lecture 1-Introduction 40 .

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