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Performance And Capacity Planning Basics For Storage Networks
A Computer Measurement Group (CMG) Session
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10/27/08

Performance And Capacity Planning Basics For Storage Networking

Greg Schulz Director Storage Networking Solutions INRANGE Technologies

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What Is CMG?
This Presentation Is Being Delivered On Behalf Of The Computer Measurement Group (CMG) For Educational Purposes

For more information about CMG, membership, conferences, and publications please see www.cmg.org
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What Is CMG?
• Computer Measurement Group (CMG) is an International Organization with groups located throughout the United States and the World pursuing computer measurement, performance, and capacity planning activities. CMG looks at Capacity Planning and Performance Engineering and related tasks across all platforms (Mainframe, Open Systems, Servers, Workstations, Internet) and applications. CMG is a non denominational organization meaning it is not tied to any one vendor (hardware, software, network, etc) and is multi-disciplined providing a vehicle for learning about and sharing information on performance and capacity planning activities. CMG by its nature is also concerned with management software that lends itself to the overall computer measurement and performance engineering process. • CMG activities include:
– Annual international symposium (Dallas Texas, December 7-12, 2003) – Regional and international conferences, symposiums, and meetings – Online newsletter (MeasureIT), Journal, Conference Proceedings and papers
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Why The Concern For Capacity Planning and Performance

Customer Survey, 2001

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Can You Or Do You Need To Answer Any Of These?
• • • • • • • Do you know how many Gbyte/Tbyte/Pbyte of storage you have? Do you know how many disk storage devices and/or sub-systems you have? Do you know where the storage is located? Do you know how much of it is free, allocated, actually in use? Do you know how many switch ports you have, how many are used, ISL, un-used? Do you know when you will need to add more storage, tape, cache, ports, HBAs, etc? Do you know how utilized your storage network is in terms of:
– – – – – – – –
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Bandwidth and throughput of servers, storage devices, switches I/Os, transactions, frames and packets being sent/received end-to-end and by component Channel delays and queuing for devices, adapters, and switches/gateways Response time and latency for the network and for storage Where the bottlenecks are, what is normal, what is abnormal? Workload profiles (reads, writes, I/O size, random, sequential, response time) How long tape mounts (real or virtual) take under different conciliations? much of it is disk, how much is tape, how many devices?
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Getting Started - What Is It?
• Performance and Capacity Planning activities have occurred in the enterprise environments for S/390 Mainframes and Open Systems platforms for many years. • These activities have for the most part focused on large (expensive) components including processors, memory, storage and network interconnects, and storage subsystems (disk and tape). • Performance and Capacity Planning are independent yet related functions in that you can institute capacity planning in your environment without having to worry about performance engineering or vise versa not that it is a recommended practice. • With the advent of lower cost processors (CPUs), memory, and storage, there is a tendency to go out and buy more. For some environments this may be applicable, however it brings with it an added management burden of more resources to see over. • More recently Performance and Capacity Planning activities have focused on Internet related activities particularly response time and workload balancing. • Capacity Planning, Performance, and Storage Resource Management (SRM) are related and depend upon each other. • With storage and storage networking taking on a more prominent and lead role in many IT environments, more disciplined management activities are being employed to more effectively utilize IT resources particularly in tough business climates.
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Why Bother With Performance and Capacity Planning?
• Hardware is cheap, people are not, why tie someone up doing tuning?
– While hardware is becoming less expensive, management (people and software is not)

• Your staff is already busy if not overworked, why give them more to do?
– With planning, you can utilize your resources (people, hardware, software) better

• Why not buy more and have the vendor management it for you?
– This may be an alternative if you can afford it from a dollar and business perspective

• Your environment is not growing so why be concerned with planning?
– If your environment is stable, now is a good time to institute a plan for the future

• Your environment is dynamic so why do tuning and capacity planning?
– During the dot-com bubble this was a common practice that lead to wild purchases and the vendors absolutely loved it! – Many sites over bought at what turned out to be higher prices than now available and have excess capacity that is consuming power, cooling, and management.

• You have your vendors take care of it all so why worry about this?
– As part of the vendor community, can we talk…. 
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Getting Started - What Is It?
• Capacity Planning
– Monitor how resources are being used including trends – Provides insight on how resources are being used including:
• Memory, CPU/Processors, I/O interfaces, Networks, Storage Devices • What the past looks like, what is normal, what is expected, what is planned • What is needed to support service level agreements (SLAs)

– Provides a view into the future as to when resources will be needed – Can help facilitate purchasing and upgrade decisions – Can help business decisions including do you have enough resources to support growth, new functions, consolidation, and mergers/acquisitions. – Provides effective measurements to help manage resources better – Facilitate timely decision making to support dynamic and changing environments – Can be simple as tracking what you have, how it is used using a spreadsheet – Can be intermediate using a combination of tools and metrics – Can be advanced including modeling, sophisticated packages tightly integrated into your environment.
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Getting Started - What Is It?
• Performance Tuning and Engineering
– Looks at how resources and application are performing – Looks at applications and underlying infrastructure items including processors, memory, file systems, operating systems, I/O interfaces, networks,and storage. – Looks at how resources are being used including activity, bottlenecks, slowdowns, and availability of resources that impact performance. – Hardware, application, operating & file system, database, and network focused – Can be simple or advanced depending on your needs and requirements – Can support and drive Service Level Agreements (SLAs) – Can range from simple maintenance like defragging the disk on your laptop to advanced configuration and tuning of the entire I/O sub-system to application optimization activities.

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Some Storage and Storage Networking Challenges…
TB/Capacity

 Planning for Growth
• Capacity doubling every 18 months (Rich Media) • SANs getting more complex (Similar to early Lans) • Consolidation of servers, storage, SANs

Availability

 Data Availability Network Planning
• More copies of data are needed (Regulatory) • Increased pressure for 100% uptime • DR networking costs expensive (Telco)

$/Budgets

 Shrinking Budgets and Cost Reductions
• Lower management costs (Capital & Operating) • Optimize purchasing/Maximize Investment • Reduced Headcount/Improved efficient

Ultimately, how do you support growth, improve resiliency, while reducing costs?
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Servers

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A Unified Storage Networking Environment
S/390 and Open Systems Servers NFS Client Servers NAS & SAN

NAS

SAN/DAS

NAS

SAN/DAS

Capacity Security Performance
Block / File Replication Backup Data Sharing Consolidation

SAN/DAS

Archive

Scalable Management

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Capacity Planning – Part Of The SNIA Shared Storage Model

The SNIA storage model
with Services subsystem
Application
File/record layer File/record layer

   

Interconnect Usage Interconnect Capacity Storage Usage Storage Capacity

Storage domain

Database (dbms)

File system (fs)

Block aggregation Block aggregation

Storage devices (disks, …) Storage devices (disks, …)

Block layer layer

53 Copyright © 2001, Storage Networking Industry Association [draft SNIA TC Proposal]

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Performance And Capacity Planning Basics For Storage Networking

Discovery, monitoring Discovery, monitoring Resource mgmt, configuration Resource mgmt, configuration Security, billing Security, billing Redundancy mgmt (backup, …) Redundancy mgmt (backup, …) High availability (fail-over, …) High availability (fail-over, …) Capacity planning Capacity planning

Services

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Managing Storage And Storage Networks
Monitor Data Inputs Make Adjustments Collect Data Assess And Analyze

Track Progress

It Should Not Have To Be Complex!

Monitor Resources

Have A Plan, Manage And Monitor Your IT Resource Capacity And Performance With That Plan
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Capacity Planning And Performance Lifecycle Model
Asset Management Regulatory Compliance New Development Application Changes Business Growth Consolidation Collect, Assess, What Changed? Positive Impact? Report, Analyze,
Data Collection

SRM

Model, Trend, Track

Data Reporting

How Are Resources Being Utilized and How Effective?

Research, Adjust, Test, Implement
Technology Options Configuration Management Test, Simulation, Modeling Engineer Changes Change Control/Management
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Capacity Planning Basics
Assessment – What Do You Currently Have, How Is It Being Used
• • • • Do you have detailed configurations and topology information for your environment Do you have an inventory or list of what equipment and software you have Do you have profiles or information about your workloads and what is normal Do you have any metrics or can you obtain them (sar, df, iostat, MXG, SAS, etc)
– Performance related includes bandwidth, I/O activity, MB/sec, I/Osec, response time – Capacity related includes disk and tape space consumption, ports and HBAs used

• Do you have any reporting and trending capabilities (paper, excel, web, SAS, etc) • Do you have any knowledge of business plans, growth, and activity to map to plan • Do you have any business tie back information to IT resources and consumption
– A business transaction requires “x” Mbyte and “y” I/Os at “z” response time – A device address can correspond to a branch office, bank teller machine, or terminal

• Do you have any Quality of Service (QoS), Rules of Thumb, or SLAs?
– – – –
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A port can support “x” Tbyte of storage at “y” Mbyte/sec A server to storage port ratio is 6:1 assuming servers are doing 10-15MB/sec at 1Gb You need to keep “x” ports free, “y” amount of storage free for growth on demand You run servers at “x”% and interconnects at “y”% utilization, and storage “z” allocated
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Capacity Planning Basics
Analyze, Model, Forecast – Interpret Data and Information
• • • • • • • Identify trends and patterns based upon history, present activity, and projections Understand business, applications, hardware and software activity Create supporting reports and charts showing trends and activities Track resource consumption (ports, memory, processor, storage) Track resource activity (frames/packets/Ios, queuing, delay, bandwidth) Model and forecast using tools or pencil, paper, and calculator Identify options and various alternatives to support business needs
– Upgrades and expansion – Tuning and conservation – Combination of above

• Develop plans and strategies to support business needs and available resources • This is part science, part art, part intuitive (you need to understand your environment) • The better the data, the better the information, the better the plan!
– Your chances of success are as at least as good as your local weather forecaster .

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Storage Networking Focus Items
• Processor/Server (CPU)
– CPU and Memory – Usage, paging, busy vs overhead vs. idle – I/O bus and back plane – Is there enough capacity to support the adapters – I/O Adapters and channels including HBAs and NICs – Are adapters busy or idle

• I/O interconnect/Channel
– I/O path activity – How busy is the path, any congestion or queuing or channel busy – I/O interconnect (switches and directors) – How many ports, blocking/congestion – Gateways, front end processors (FEP), bridges, and routers – Usage and profile – Metropolitan and Wide Area Network interfaces – Bandwidth, Droop, Latency

• Storage Sub-System (Disk & Tape)
– – – –
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Cache capacity and usage – Cache hits, effectiveness and utilization Device capacity and allocation –How much allocated vs. used vs. available Number and type of devices – How many devices, what type, size, etc Control Unit usage and activity – How busy is controllers vs. devices
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Capacity Planning And Performance Focal Points
• CPU Processing Resource • Number Connection Ports • Amount Of Capacity • Memory Capacity • Non Blocking Bandwidth • Number Of Devices • I/O Channel (Adapters) • I/Os and Frames/ Second • Type Of Devices Switch Interconnect

LAN

CPU Host Processor

CPU, Memory, I/O, And Storage
• Activity (Idle, Overhead, Real Work) • Usage Patterns, Response Time • Allocation, Free, Used, Compression • Busy Channels, Blocking, Queuing • I/Os and Bandwidth, Reads, Writes • Tape and Volume Mounts and Delays

Storage Device Disk & Tape

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Storage Networking Focus Items
• • • • • • • • • • How busy are your ports (server, storage, ISLs) and effective are they? Do you need to upgrade your storage devices (e.g. cache) for faster ports? When will you need to add more ports? Will you need to upgrade or change your infrastructure to add ports? How utilized are your ISLs and Trunks? How busy and effective are your wide area interfaces? Are you incurring any blocking or congestion due to poor locality? Which of your systems benefit from 1Gb, 2Gb, 10Gb technology? Is the back plane on your servers over utilized or under utilized? Asset management (What do you have)
– Servers, HBAs, cabling, switches/directors, gateways, metropolitan and WAN interfaces, network links, disk, tape, software, and their configuration. – What is owned, what is leased, who ones it, what is due for replacement
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Storage Networking Design Process
– Determine requirements and objectives
• • • • Why are you building a storage network and what do you want it to support What are you success criteria, how will you know when it is done and works Do you have a strategy to align with business, or technology What are the growth plans, performance criteria, any SLAs or QoS?

– Assess what you have, what you need
• Take inventory of what you have, where, and what shape it is in (Note: nothing is for Free) • Do you have components (software, hardware, networks, people) to factor in • What will you need to add, what will you need to remove

– Design based upon requirements and objectives
• Develop a design that is scalable and stable to support growth and your objectives • Solicit multiple ideas from different vendors and have them explain pro’s and con’s • Determine what’s best for you, as opposed to what’s best for your vendor

– Implement and document the plan
• Implement the plan yourself or have someone implement it for you • Training and documentation are important activities as well as software configuration

– Validate the plan, make adjustments and repeat steps above as needed…
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Some Networks For Storage Networking
S/390 Linux CCW On zSeries

Block
SCSI

Open Systems DAFS NFS CIFS

File

Message
IP
Sockets

MSFT FC-SB (ESCON) FC-SB-2 (FICON) pSCSI SCSI (Copper) FCP iSCSI SRP VIA IP MSDA RDMA SDP

Fibre Channel 1Gb/2Gb/[10Gb]

Fiber Optics At The Core

InfiniBand 1x/4x/[8x] 2.5Gb/10Gb/[30Gb] Optics xWDM/TDM & SONET/SDH & WANs

Gb Ethernet 1Gb/[10Gb]

xWDM
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SONET/SDH

Local, Metro Wide Area Storage Networking
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CIM/SMIS Heterogeneous Simplified Storage Management
S/390 NAS Server AS400 FICON Head NT Unix (p/Series)

SAN Management and SRM Tools SMIS - CIM Clients

ISVn CIM SMIS (CIM/XML via HTTP)

Backup and Archive Applications SMIS - CIM Clients

CIM Server CIMOM CIM Provider

CIM Server CIMOM CIM Provider
INRANGE FC/9000

IHVn Server CIM

CIMOM CIM Provider

Disk Storage

Switches & Directors

Tape Storage

Storage Devices Including Block and Object Based Storage
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Switching and Storage Virtualization along with Local, Metro, and Global Connectivity

Tape Devices and Libraries Including virtual Tape
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Collecting and Reporting On Storage Networking Activity
Correlates Performance across Devices, Hosts, and LUNs Across Heterogeneous Storage Networks

Port and Session Statistics MB/sec Frame/Sec I/O Size Read/Write Response Time Monitors SAN Performance (Trend/Real-time)
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End-to-End (Delivering Service Levels)
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Some Storage Networking Metrics
Utilization:
• Frames (In/Out) • FC-2 MB/Sec (In, Out) • FC-4 MB/Sec (In, Out by ULP – SCSI, IP, VI, FICON, and others) • Errors MB/Sec (In, Out) • SCSI IO/Sec (Read, Write, Other) • SCSI Read (avg, min, max, read percentage) • SCSI Write (avg, min, max, write percentage) • SCSI Other (other percentage) • SCSI Read/Write Payload Size Ranges (percentage) Availability: • Link Resets (In/Out) • OLS (In/Out) • LOGIs (Port, Fabric) • %Available Link Integrity: • Sync Loss • Sig Loss Capacity: • %capacity for all frames • FC-4 %capacity (SCSI,IP,VI,FICON, other) • % capacity link control • % capacity link services Latency: • SCSI Read/Write Duration (ms)

Throughput Errors:
• • • • • • • • • • Invalid CRC Errors Primitive Sequence Protocol Errors Frames Too Long Frames Truncated Address ID Errors Delimiter Errors Disparity Errors Discarded Frames Invalid Transmission Words

Storage Networking metrics (statistics) have been rudimentary and limited to what’s available from a given vendors switch, HBA, application, or storage device. The collection and flow of statistics has been either intrusive or proprietary formats. New capabilities now exist to collect in an non-intrusive manor complete statistics including detailed session level information not available from switches and directors across all platforms and storage devices. An example of this new capability is INRANGE PerformanceVSN Storage Networking probe and server with APIs. 24

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Performance, Workload Analysis, Capacity Planning
Dashboard, Visualization Of Storage Networking Activity

Summary of total Mbytes/sec For 24 selected across multiple switches

Performance

Real-time Summary showing read exchanges by size from storage Device “RAID_A” to all host.

Utilization

Summary of top five LUNs (Storage Devices) being Read From “Server_A”

Traffic Analysis

Capacity Planning

Workload Analysis

Diagnostics

Trend over past 8 hours of total Summary of Traffic by Protocol Real-time error statistics Mbytes/se (In and Out) for a summary of a selected port selected port 10/27/08 Performance And Capacity Planning Basics For Storage Networking 25

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Storage Networking Planning Items
• When Planning For Storage Networking Devices (Disk/Tape)
– Account for impact to cache with 1Gb, 2Gb, 10Gb – Account for impact of mixed protocols (FCP, ESCON, FICON, Parallel SCSI) – Account for device performance and configuration (e.g. RAID level etc.) – Proper cache size for VTS devices depending on SLAs and requirements – Single, Dual, and Quad pathing of storage interfaces for resiliency

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Storage Networking Planning Items
• Server and Processors
– Account for any dual, quad HBA server port needs – Account for adequate bandwidth on busses and back planes – Software license of volume managers, path managers, fail over managers – Some dual/quad HBAs share common bus and may not operate at full speed

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Storage Networking Planning Items
• When Planning For Storage Networking Ports
– Account for any dual, quad HBA server port needs – Account for storage ports (primary and secondary) – Account for ISL and trunk ports for local and metro – Account for connectivity ports to expand to other switches for growth – Account for ports for diagnostics, test, and analyses – Account for any spare and on-demand ports – Account for ports for hardware mirroring – Account for any SAN appliances including NAS heads and Virtualization devices

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Performance, Distance, and Latency Considerations
Droop
• • • • • •

Phenomenon of performance degradation over distance Performance drops before theoretical limit Not to be confused with speed of light (5microsec/km latency) Function of Network Protocol vs. Physical medium Synchronous access can be more impacted then Async. Results from lack of Buffer Credits with flow control networks
Commonly found with Storage and Deterministic Interfaces

20
Data Rate MB/sec

17

9

Lack of Buffer Credits and Flow Control

Data Rate MB/sec

100 65 45 25 0 0 80 10 90 20 30 40 50 60 70

Sufficient Buffer Credits And Flow Control

3.5 0 60 10 20 30 40 50

Data Droop Rate

Distance in Km

Data Droop Rate

Distance in Km

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• Locality – The root of SAN performance bottlenecks
– Locality describes where ports are located in a SAN with the higher locality, the better performance will be with fewer or no hops to incur increased latency, simplified security and management. In the example below on the left, all ports are 100% local however this is determined by the number of available local ports. On a sixteen port switch, there would be 16 local ports, on a 64, 128, or 256 port director, there would 64, 128, or 256 local ports. Thus vertical scaling and locality go hand in hand. In the center example below, more ports are needed than what is available with vertical scaling so horizontal scaling is used to increase the number of ports however locality is reduced. On the right, is an example of vertical scaling to use a large port count device to improve locality to improve performance.
100% Locality

Hops = Latency
100% Locality

0% Locality

100% Locality

Vertical Scaling

8

Horizontal Scaling
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Capacity Plan For Storage Networking Ports (All Fabrics)
256

Ports

128 96 64 48 32 16 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Time Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Trend
31

Used/Allocated Ports
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Available Ports

Performance And Capacity Planning Basics For Storage Networking

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Storage Usage Information
Device GB % Used Free I/Os MBs

Dev1 Dev2 Dev3 Dev4 Dev5 5 Devices

36 36 36 36 25 180

50 25 50 75 9 46%

18 9 18 27 30 81

80 50 90 40 50 290

45 50 30 20 50 195

Depending on device type, additional capacity may be needed for example to support RAID-5, mirroring RAID-1, striping RAID-0. These devices should appear in total capacity however may be hidden in terms of usable capacity and storage. Some devices may be used for capacity indicting a low I/O or throughput (MB/sec) rate. Others may be high I/O with low utilization (possible candidate for SSD).
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Some Storage Networking Performance and Capacity Planning Tips
 The best topology is the one that works for you as opposed to one you work for  Establish availability, performance, response time and other objectives  Create scripts that can check end-to-end response time and know what is normal  Capacity Planning concerns capacity, bandwidth, utilization, and activity  When migrating from 1Gb to 2Gb assess cache impact on your storage  ESCON to FICON migration can be done in phases using multi and quad paths  Poor metrics and information can lead to poor decisions and management  Understand what your storage network is doing and how it is being used  Understand what resources you have (servers, HBAs, disk/tape, ports, etc.)  Utilize capacity planning tools for reporting and monitoring  Simple homegrown tools can be used including sar, iostat,df, and excel  Be practical as it can be easy to get wrapped around the “axle”! 
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Some Additional Material and Reading
 “The Resilent Enterprise – Veritas Press  “Storage Networking Essentials” – Barker/Massiglia (Wiley)  “Blueprints for High Availability” – Marcus (Wiley)  “Leveraging MAN and WAN Connectivity” – SNWOnline – August 2002  InfoStor (www.infostor.com)
• June 2001, Introduction To Storage Networking, • May 2002, Protocol options lead to “Storage Agnostic Networks” • August 2000, Storage Virtualization explained

 Industry Associations (SNIA, FCIA, IETF, T11, SCTA) and their websites  SNIA Web Site and Education Committee Tutorials
• www.snia.org • SNIA Dictionary and Tutorials (Metro Storage Networks, Infrastructures)

 CMG Proceedings and handouts on CD’s (www.cmg.org)
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“Storage Networking Primer and Update” & “Scaling Resilent Storage networks”

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INRANGE Overview
History – Enterprise Networking Solutions Since 1967 Thousands of World Wide Enterprise Customers
• Telecommunications, Financial, Services, Transportation, Government, Manufacturing, Retail, Insurance, Life Sciences and Medical • Direct touch exposure and experience with end users for consultive sales and solutions

Technology Leadership
• • • • Scalability and Reliability Flexibility and Interoperability Network Management Simplicity Investment Protection

 Multi-Protocol Switching
(Fibre Channel and FICON)

 Connection and Extension
(FC and ESCON over xWDM, SONET/SDH, and IP)

Balanced Business Model

• 67% Product and 33% Services • Domestic and International presence • Core Storage (Switching)/Network Provisioning/Data Center Infrastructure

 Monitoring & Management  Fiber and Cabling Infrastructure  Professional Services

Addressing Overall Storage and Storage Networking Functionality and Benefits
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Questions?
Greg.schulz@inrange.com

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Thank You
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