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1 : Computer Networking Fundamentals

Networking It means the communication between more than two intelligent devices(Networked computers). Communication - Sharing resources between each other. Computer Networking Technology is generally based on different computing models As follows: 1. Centralized computing, 2. Distributed computing, and 3. Collaborative computing. The Following computing models are used to categorize the way networking services are provided: * Client/Server * Peer to Peer

1.Centralized Computing : In the centralized

computing model,large centralized computers called mainframes are used for all the processes and storing by using the local devices called as Terminals.
Terminals: Terminals are simply a remote input/output device. Which do not have any processing and storing capability and are depended upon the mainframe server.

2.Distributed computing : In Distributed

computing the computers have their own processing and storing capability, The applications are divided into tasks and are 5/5/12

1.Centralized computing

2. Distributed Computing


3. Collaborative Computing: It is also known

as cooperative processing and is a type of Distributed computing. In this computing model the networked computers collaborate to share their processing abilities. In this kind of computing two or more computers can share the same task.

*Client /Server Model: In this model several

clients are connected to a server. Client: Those computers who always ask/request for services from others known as client. Server: Those computers who always Provide services to their clients called as Server.

Client/Server Diagram


*Peer to Peer Model: In this model no client

and server is defined all the computers are connected to each other and also independent from each other. Any computer can act as client and server at one time. The communication will be One to One/End to End.


Network Types
There are generally three types of Network types we see are as follows: 1. LAN(Local Area Network), 2. WAN(Wide Area Network), and 3. MAN(Metropolitan Area Network)etc.

1.Local Area Network: The collection of

computers in a limited geographical area(it does not exceed 10 KMs), such as an office building, school campus etc. Characteristics of LAN: *High speed data transfer(Measured in Mbps.) *Less expensive *Limited geographical area. 5/5/12

2.Wide Area Network: A wide area network

inter connect multiple LAN, it can be also said as collection of multiple LAN and is not restricted to any geographical area. It covers the entire globe. Characteristics of WAN: *Exist in any geographical area *Slower than LAN(measured in Kbps).


A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area 5/5/12 network (WAN).



The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network).

Basics Requirements for a Network

There are three basic requirement for a network. 1. Something to share (services) 2. Transmission media 3. Protocols
Services: It is the capability that a computer can share in the network. example: File services , Print services. 2. Transmission Media: It is the Pathway that is used by the computers in the network to contact each other. example: wire or wireless. 3. Protocol: It is the set of rules which is followed by computers in the 5/5/12 network to understand each other.

Basics Requirements for a Network

There are three basic requirement for a network. 1. Something to share (services) 2. Transmission media 3. Protocols
Services: It is the capability that a computer can share in the network. example: File services , Print services. 2. Transmission Media: It is the Pathway that is used by the computers in the network to contact each other. example: wire or wireless. 3. Protocol: It is the set of rules which is followed by computers in the network to understand each other.


FTP : File Transfer Protocol, SMTP : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, TFTP : Trivial File Transfer protocol, DNS : Domain Naming Service, DHCP : Dynamic Host configuration, IP : Internet Protocol, TCP : Transmission control protocol, and UDP : User datagram protocol. Etc.


Services are the resources which the computers have to offer in the network. There are five most common services in the network we use are: *File Services, *Print Services, *Message Services, *Application Services,

*Database Services.

File services
It Include the network applications designed to store, retrieve, or move data files with the help of this service we can rapidly move files from place to place, take backup, etc. File service include: *File Transfer, *File Storage and Data Migration,* File Update Synchronization. *File Transfer: It means the movement of files from one place to another in a network . *File Storage and Data Migration: Computers store data on variety of Magnetic and Optic disks. Using file storage and data migration functions, all the networked computers can take advantage of the data storage device that is appropriate for their access time, reliability, and longevity needs. As the data ages and become less used, it can be moved from online hard disk to longer-life offline storage media. This is called as file archiving, data migration or backup.

File update synchronization

File update synchronization is one way to identify changes and manage the process of updating the file. It compares the time and date of the file created to check which file is most current.

*Print Services: Network print services allow

numerous clients to be serviced by a single printer. *Message services: It include storing, accessing, and delivering text, graphics, digitized video, and audio data between computers. Example- E-mail (E-mail is the technology for transferring messages between networked computers.)

*Application Services:
Application services are the network services that run software for network clients.


Network database services provide server-based (data or information) storage and retrieval that allows to control and manage the network clients and present data. Database services functions include: *Optimize the computers that store, search, and retrieve database records, *Provide data security, Etc. Aspects of Database services: a> Distributed Data, 5/5/12 b> Replication.


a> Distributed Data: In this process the

database is actually divided into smaller parts that can be managed by the departments that owns the data.

b> Replication: It means the updating of

data between two or more computers connected to each other, such as if we are having two computers having the same data but after some time first computer made some changes, the first computer will update the another computer. Through the process called as replication.

Transmission Media
The medium through which computers communicate with each other is called as transmission medium and it is also called as pathway. Transmission Media is divided in two forms: 1.Cable Media, and 2.Wireless Media.


Computers uses physical medium for connection such as wires that conduct electricity or light called as cable media. 2.Wireless Media: Computers using logical medium for connection. Wireless uses radio 5/5/12 frequencies for transmission.


It is a set of rules that defines the computers how to communicate. It is also said as the language of the computers. Such as: HTTP, DHCP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and NNTP etc. The Basics of Network Management Network management is an area of information technology in which many tools, applications and devices are used to monitor and maintain a network. The five areas of the network management model are:

Performance Management: This is to measure the various aspects of the network performance. Some of the performance parameters that are measured are network throughout, user response times. The data of the performance variables are gathered and then analyzed with a reference data. If the received data is above the threshold value, it indicates that the network needs attention and appropriate corrective actions are taken. Configuration Management: This is to monitor the system configuration of the network computers and the various hardware and software that are used in the network. The systems for configuration management store this information in a database for later retrieval. Accounting Management: this is used to measure the network utilization parameters in such way that the users of the network are regulated properly. Such regulations 5/5/12 lead to optimal utilization of the network resources which

OSI Reference Model


OSI Reference Model

Open System Interconnection was developed by ISO in 1984. This model is used for giving a common standard of communication in a network. It also provides a framework for creating and implementing networking standards, devices. The OSI has seven different layers, divided into two groups- Upper Layer and Lower Layers. The upper layers are responsible for data creation, representation etc. and the lower layer is actually responsible for communication.


Application Layer
Application layer is the top layer of the OSI (Open System Interconnectivity) server layer model. The application layer provides the interface to the communications environment which is used by the application process. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. There can be different types of application such as: # computer applications # Network applications # Internetwork applications Some protocols working under application layer are: FTP, TFTP, DHCP, DNS, TELNET etc.

Presentation Layer
Presentation layer is responsible for how data is presented to the user. The presentation layer is responsible for the following services: # Data Representation, # Data Security, and # Data Compression. # Data Representation: In data representation presentation layer define the type of data. # Data Security : The security at this layer is provided in the form of data encryption, in which the data format is converted and made in unreadable form for the unauthorized users. The data can be read by only that user who has the encryption key. # Data Compression: The data compression and decompression is done before transmitting the data in the network. 5/5/12 Protocols working under presentation layer are ASCII,

Session Layer
The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications as they interact on different hosts on a network. Session: It can be defined as time of communication occurring between two intelligent devices. Communication Modes in Session layer # Simplex: In this communication mode only one-way data transfers. E.g. Only one computer can send data while the other will only receive.


# Half duplex: In this communication mode two way data transfers but only one at a time. When first stops sending other starts transmitting.

# Full duplex: In this mode two way data communication is possible at a same time.


Transport layer role is to establish end-to-end connections from one computer to another in the network and provide reliable transport of data between devices.Transport layer lies between upper layer that deals mainly with data representation, and the lower layer responsible for actual data flow and the transport layer is also the first layer responsible for transmission. Basic Transport layer services: # Multiplexing, # Connection Management # Flow control(Buffering/Windowing) #Reliable Transport(positive acknowledgement/error checking) # Multiplexing: It allows multiple applications to share single transport medium to communicate with other computers. # Connection Management: The transport layer is responsible to establish, maintain and terminate connections between networked devices. Connection oriented service has three 5/5/12 phases:

Transport Layer

# Connection-Establishment # Data-Transfer # Connection-Termination Flow Control: It is to control the flow of data according to the destination capacity to receive. The transport layer is provides flow control in two ways: # Buffering # Windowing # Buffering: It is responsible for ensuring that sufficient buffers are available in the destination for the processing of data and that the data is transmitted at a rate does not exceed what the destination computer can handle. # Windowing: It is a flow control scheme in which the source computer monitors and make adjustments to the amount of information successfully sent to the destination computer. The source computer waits for the acknowledgement after sending data, for next 5/5/12 transmission it waits until then the first data is received

Network Layer
The Network layer is the third layer in the OSI model and it is responsible for identifying computers in the network as well as to define a best route through which the network computers will communicate. Some of the specific jobs normally performed by the network layer include: Logical Addressing: Every device that communicates over a network has associated with it a logical address, sometimes called a layer three address. For example, on the internet, the Internet Protocol (IP) is the network layer protocol and every machine has an IP address. Note that addressing is done at the data link layer as well, but those addresses refer to local physical devices. In contrast, logical addresses are independent of particular hardware and must be unique across an entire internetwork.

Connectionless: Itdoes not require a session connection between sender and receiver. The sender simply starts sending packets (called datagrams) to the destination. This service does not have the reliability of the connection-oriented method, but it is useful for periodic burst transfers. Neither system must maintain state information for the systems that they send transmission to or receive transmission from. A connectionless network provides minimal services. Delivering Packets: The Network layer is responsible for determining the paths and deliver packet across the network. The technique used to route packet is as follows: #Circuit Switching #Message Switching #Packet Switching

Circuit Switching: A type of communications in which a dedicated channel(or circuit) is established for the duration of a transmission. The most ubiquitous circuitswitching network is the telephone system, which links together wire segments to create a single unbroken line for each telephone call. Message Switching: A data-switching strategy that requires no physical path to exist between sender and receiver before communication can take place. Message switching passes messages via relays, called switching offices, in a store-and-forward network. Each switching office receives a message, checks it for errors, and retransmits it to the next switching office on the route to the destination. Packet Switching: The packet switching, divides messages into packets and sends each packet individually. The Internet is based on a packet-switching 5/5/12 protocol.

Datalink Layer
The second-lowest layer (layer 2) in the OSI Reference Model stack is the data link layer and it looks after the transmission of blocks of data over the physical link. Two sub layers work under Data link Layer is as follows: # LLC(Logical link control) # MAC(Media access control) # LLC(Logical link control): Logical link control refers to the functions required for the establishment and control of logical links between local devices on a network. # Media Access Control (MAC): This refers to the procedures used by devices to control access to the network medium. Since many networks use a shared medium (such as a single network cable, or a series of cables that are electrically connected into a single virtual medium) it is necessary to have rules for managing the medium to avoid conflicts. For example. Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD method of media access control, while Token Ring uses token passing. 5/5/12

Physical layer
The physical layer is the lowest and the first layer in the OSI model. Physical layer is responsible for determining the transmission medium and transmitting the data according to the signals supported by the transmission medium. It is responsible for defining the mechanical and electrical specifications for the transmission medium within a connection, as well as the transformation or encoding of data into bits. Example: EIA/TIA-232, V.35, EIA/TIA-449, RJ-45, Ethernet, 802.3


Network devices



devices are components used to connect computers or other electronic devices together so that they can share files or resources like printers or fax machines. Devices used to setup a Local Area Network (LAN) are the most common type of network devices used by the public. A LAN requires a hub, router, cabling or radio technology, network cards, and if online access is desired, a high-speed modem.

Devices: Network



Modem, short for modulatordemodulator is an electronic device that converts a computers digital signals into specific frequencies to travel over telephone or cable television lines. At the destination, the receiving modem demodulates the frequencies back into digital data. Computers use modems to communicate with one another over a network. There are two types of Modem: 1. Asynchronous Modem ,and 2. synchronous modem.


Synchronous Transmission: When data is

to be sent from one computer to another, it is broken up into individual characters and sent in sequence. Such transmission is called an synchronous transmission. Data transmission in which a relatively large set of data is organized into a frame or block, with one or more synchronization bits or bit patterns used to identify the beginning and end of a logical block of data.T1 transmission, for example, is synchronized through framing bits that occur at the beginning of each frame. E-1 transmission is synchronized through the use of a separate time slot zero (0).

Hub: Hubs connect all computer LAN connections into

one device. They are nothing more than multiport repeaters. Hubs cannot determine destinations; they merely transmit to every line attached in a half-duplex mode.


Need of HUB: Generally when we build a network using two or more computers, we need a hub. However, it is possible to connect two computers to each other directly without the need of hub but when we add a third computer in the network, we need a hub to allow a proper data communication within the network Types of Hub: There are mainly three types of Hub as follows: 1.Active hub, 2.Passive hub, and 3. intelligent hub.

PassiveHubs: Passive hubs are the ones, which

does not provide any additional feature except for working just as an interface between the topology. These types of hubs do not help in rectifying/enhancing the signals they pass on in the network, in terms they do not help in enhancing the performance of the network/LAN. It is very hard to get any help from the passive hubs while troubleshooting in case if there is any fault in the hardware or the network. A passive hub simply receives signal(s) on input port(s) and broadcasts it (them) on the output port(s) without even rectifying it (them).

participation in data communication within the network/LAN. Active hubs come with various features, such as receiving the signal (data) from the input port and storing it for sometime before forwarding it, this feature allows the hub to monitor the data it is forwarding, some hubs come with a feature that helps in transmitting data that has high priority before the data that has lower priority (this feature is very important for some applications and some type of networks), some hubs help in synchronizing data communication (by retransmitting the packets, which are not properly received at the receiving computer or by adjusting re-transmission of the data packets to compensate 5/5/12 timing)

Active Active hub is a type of hub that take active Hubs:

Intelligent Hubs: Intelligent hubs add some more

features to that provided by the active hubs. An intelligent hub provides all the features of a passive and an active hub; it also provides some features, which help in managing the network resources effectively and efficiently. Intelligent hubs help in improving the performance of the network/LAN that you are using. As an active hub helps in finding out where the problem persists, an intelligent hub itself finds out the problem in the network, diagnoses it and tries to rectify it without letting the problem hamper the performance of the network. Intelligent hubs provides feature that helps in determining the exact cause and exact place of the fault, this saves lot of time and energy which otherwise would have been required for finding out the exact place of fault and identifying the solution for it. Another feature of intelligent hub is that they can decide which packet goes in which output line, this helps in controlling and minimizing data traffic in the network, 5/5/12 which results in improved performance of the

Repeater: Repeaters, located within the physical layer of a network, regenerate and propagate signals from one to another. They do not change any information being transmitted, and they cannot filter any information. Repeaters help to extend the distances of networks by boosting weak signals. With physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi, data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades. Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel. Actual network devices that serve as repeaters usually have some other name. Active hubs, for example, are repeaters. Active hubs are sometimes also 5/5/12 called "multiport repeaters.



Switching: Switching is a technology that alleviates

congestion in Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) LANs by reducing traffic and increasing bandwidth. Such switches, known as LAN switches, are designed to work with existing cable infrastructures so that they can be installed with minimal disruption of existing networks. Often, they replace shared hubs. This case study describes how LAN switching works, how virtual LANs work, and how to configure virtual LANs (VLANs) in a topology. Types of Switches: 1.ATM Switch, 2. LAN Switch etc. # ATM Switch: ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) is a dedicated-connection switching technology that organizes digital data into 53-byte cell units and transmits them over a physical medium using digital signal technology. Individually, a cell is processed asynchronously relative to other related cells and is 5/5/12 queued before being multiplexed over the transmission

Switch Properties: Switches may learn about

topologies at many layers, and forward at one or more layers, they do tend to have common features . Modern commercial switches use primarily Ethernet interfaces, which can have different input and output speeds of 10, 100, 1000 or 10000 megabits per second.

Segment switching: A Whole segment is connected to

the port of the you can either connect the workstation directly on the switches port or use segments to connect...Its is more effective switching compared to Port Switching. PORT SWITCHING:- A Machine is directly Connected to the Switch's port. so that you can run parallel full speed between machines. Its an expensive solution since the unit price of switch per port is high.

There are three forwarding methods a switch can use: Store and forward : The switch buffers and, typically, performs
a checksum on each frame before forwarding it on.

Cut through : The switch reads only up to the frame's hardware

address before starting to forward it. There is no error checking with this method.