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GROUP 11

CHAPTER 6
AREAS AND VOLUMES
PREPARED BY:
SANDRA MERU (D20091035087)
NG SENG WEI (D20091035105)
RAIHANAH BINTI ABDUL JALALL (D20101037339)
SALWANI BINTI ALI (D20101037352)
NURUL LIYANA MADIHAH BINTI KHALID (D20101037325)

Area between the curve and the x-axis
0
0 y = f(x)
y = f(x)
y
y
x
x
a
a
b
b
area
area
}
=
b
a
dx x f area ) (
}
=
b
a
dx x f area ) (
(area under the x-axis is negative)
6.1: AREA OF A REGION
Find the area between the curve and the x-axis between x = 0 and x
= 3.
2
) ( x x f =
0 3
y
x
2
3
0
3
3
0
2
3
0
9
0
3
27
3
) (
units
x
dx x
dx x f
=
(

=
(

=
=
=
}
} area
2
) ( x x f =
Area between the curve and the y-axis
0
x = g(y)
y
x 0
x = g(y)
y
x
c
c
d
d
area
area
}
=
d
c
dy y g area ) (
}
=
d
c
dy y g area ) (
(area at the left side of y-axis is negative)
Find the area bounded by the curve and the y-axis between y = 0
and y = 4.
3 = x y
3 = x y
x
y
0 3
4
| |
2
4
0
3
4
0
2
4
0
3
1
33
12
3
64
3
3
3
) (
unit
y
y
dy y
dy y g
=
+ =
(

+ =
+ =
=
}
} area
Area bounded by two curves
0
y = f(x)
y
x
a b
area
y = g(x)
| |dx x g x f area
b
a
}
= ) ( ) (
Find the area bounded by the curves of and .
2
y x =
2
8 y x =
2
y x =
2
8 y x =
x
y
0 8
8
8
0
0
8
8
2
2
=
=
=
=
=
y
2 = y 2 = y
y
2
y
2
2y
4
2
y
( )( ) 2 2 + y y
or
Boundaries with Changing Formulas
Find the area of the region which is bounded by the curve , the x-axis
and the line in the first quadrant.
x y 2 =
3 = x y
A
B
x y 2 =
3 = x y
y
x
3
6
9 0
dx x x area ) 3 2 (
9
3
}
+ =
}
=
3
0
2 dx x area
2
3
0
2
3
3
0
2
3
3
0
3
0
3 4
3
) 3 ( 4
3
4
2
) 0 2 (
units
x
dx x
dx x
=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
=
=
}
}
The are of region A
| |
( )
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
9
3
2
2
3
9
3
9
3
3 4 18
) 9
2
9
3 4 ( ) 27
2
81
36 (
) 3 ( 3
2
3
3
) 9 ( 4
) 9 ( 3
2
9
3
) 9 ( 4
3
2 3
4
3 2
) 3 ( 2
units
x
x x
dx x x
dx x x
=
+ + =
(
(
(

+
(
(
(

+ =
(
(
(

+ =
+ =
=
}
}
2
18
) 3 4 18 ( 3 4
units
areaB areaA
=
+ =
+ = Total area of the region
The area of region B





Before calculus, one way of approximating the volume would be
to slice the watermelon (say in 2 cm thick slices) and add up the
volumes of each slice using V = r
2
h.
Interestingly, Archimedes (the "Eureka! I've got it" dude) used this
approach to find volumes of spheres around 200 BC. The
technique was almost forgotten until the early 1700s when
calculus was developed by Newton and Leibniz.
We see how to do the problem using both approaches.

6.2 VOLUMES
A method that finds the volume of a revolution about an axis
by summing cylinders of infinitesimal width about the axis.








To find this volume, we could take slices (the yellow disk
shown above), each dx wide and radius y





6.2 .1 DISK METHOD FOR FINDING VOLUMES

The volume of a cylinder is given by:
V = r
2
h
Because radius = r = y and each disk is dx high,
we notice that the volume of each slice is:
V = y
2
dx
Adding the volumes of the disks (with infinitely
small dx), we obtain the formula:
which means where:
y = f(x) is the equation of the curve whose area is
being rotated
a and b are the limits of the area being rotated
dx shows that the area is being rotated about
the x-axis









Determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the region bounded
by from 1 to 4 and the x-axis about the x-axis.

sketch of the bounding region and the solid obtained by rotating the region about
the x-axis and get a cross section we cut the solid at any x

DISKS METHOD IN TERMS OF X

2
0
3
2
0
2
3
16
16
4
(

=
=
=
}
}
y
dy y
ydy
d
c
t
t
5 4
2
+ = x x y
The cross-sectional area is then,

Next , determine the limits of integration.:


The volume of this solid is then,




6.2.2 DISK METHOD IN TERMS OF Y

Determine the volume of the solid obtained by
rotating the portion of the region bounded by
that lies in the first quadrant about the y-axis.



Here are the functions written in the correct form


The cross-sectional area is then,


The volume is then,




3
128
3
16
16
4
2
0
3
2
0
2
t
t
t
=
(

=
=
=
}
}
y
dy y
ydy
d
c
V



6.2.3 Volume by
Rotating The Area Enclosed Between Two
Curves

Area of cross section:




Volume Of Solid,V:













FIND THE VOLUME OF THE SOLID REVOLUTION BY
REVOLVED ABOUT THE X-AXIS WHICH THE REGION
BOUNDED BY THE GRAPH OF F(X)=X AND G(X)=X











Step 1: Find the intersection of the two graph to
get the point.












So, we could see the two graphs intersect at point
x=0 and x=1

STEP 2 : TAKE THE AREA OF THE REGION BOUNDED BY THE
GRAPH OF F(X)=X AND G(X)= X AND ROTATE IT ABOUT
THE X-AXIS TO FIND THE VOLUME.
WE WANT TO FIND THE VOLUME OF THE RESULTING SOLID.
Then, by seeing the graph of the two function, we could see
that f(x)g(x) on [0,1].
So, we could find the volume of the region bounded on interval
[0,1].
Next, by checking of the two functions, we could see that f(x)
g(x) on .
A typical cross section is



Hence, the area is


So, the volume of the solid is integral :
6.2.4 ROTATION AROUND THE Y-AXIS
Formula used:
Area of the region bounded, A(y)




Volume of the solid, V















Finding volume of a solid
Example: Given f(y)
Find the volume of a solid of revolution generated by rotating the
curve between y=0 and y=4 about the y-axis.
Step 2: Find volume

Step 1: Express x in term of y

Solution

Formula of volume, V=
REMEMBER!!!
The formula only works for the revolution about the
x-axis (y-axis)
Simply subtract from that axis each formula to
rotate about any horizontal (vertical) axis:
If h is the value of a horizontal (vertical) axis, then
the volume is

or


FINDING AREA OF THE REGION AND VOLUME OF A
SOLID
EXAMPLE: GIVEN F(X)
FIND THE AREA OF THE REGION BOUNDED BY THE
GRAPH AND THE VOLUME OF THE RESULTING
SOLID OF F(X)=X AND G(X)=X AND ROTATE
ABOUT THE LINE Y=2



Step 1: Find the intersection point
The intersection occur
x=0 and x=1
Step 2: Find the area of the graphs that rotate at line y=2.




A typical cross-section
looks like:
Solution
Solution of intersections











Area of the region bounded, A

Step 3 : Find the volume of the solid

Thank You (^_^)