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Original Title: Beginning Calculus

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CHAPTER 6

AREAS AND VOLUMES

PREPARED BY:

SANDRA MERU (D20091035087)

NG SENG WEI (D20091035105)

RAIHANAH BINTI ABDUL JALALL (D20101037339)

SALWANI BINTI ALI (D20101037352)

NURUL LIYANA MADIHAH BINTI KHALID (D20101037325)

Area between the curve and the x-axis

0

0 y = f(x)

y = f(x)

y

y

x

x

a

a

b

b

area

area

}

=

b

a

dx x f area ) (

}

=

b

a

dx x f area ) (

(area under the x-axis is negative)

6.1: AREA OF A REGION

Find the area between the curve and the x-axis between x = 0 and x

= 3.

2

) ( x x f =

0 3

y

x

2

3

0

3

3

0

2

3

0

9

0

3

27

3

) (

units

x

dx x

dx x f

=

(

=

(

=

=

=

}

} area

2

) ( x x f =

Area between the curve and the y-axis

0

x = g(y)

y

x 0

x = g(y)

y

x

c

c

d

d

area

area

}

=

d

c

dy y g area ) (

}

=

d

c

dy y g area ) (

(area at the left side of y-axis is negative)

Find the area bounded by the curve and the y-axis between y = 0

and y = 4.

3 = x y

3 = x y

x

y

0 3

4

| |

2

4

0

3

4

0

2

4

0

3

1

33

12

3

64

3

3

3

) (

unit

y

y

dy y

dy y g

=

+ =

(

+ =

+ =

=

}

} area

Area bounded by two curves

0

y = f(x)

y

x

a b

area

y = g(x)

| |dx x g x f area

b

a

}

= ) ( ) (

Find the area bounded by the curves of and .

2

y x =

2

8 y x =

2

y x =

2

8 y x =

x

y

0 8

8

8

0

0

8

8

2

2

=

=

=

=

=

y

2 = y 2 = y

y

2

y

2

2y

4

2

y

( )( ) 2 2 + y y

or

Boundaries with Changing Formulas

Find the area of the region which is bounded by the curve , the x-axis

and the line in the first quadrant.

x y 2 =

3 = x y

A

B

x y 2 =

3 = x y

y

x

3

6

9 0

dx x x area ) 3 2 (

9

3

}

+ =

}

=

3

0

2 dx x area

2

3

0

2

3

3

0

2

3

3

0

3

0

3 4

3

) 3 ( 4

3

4

2

) 0 2 (

units

x

dx x

dx x

=

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

=

=

}

}

The are of region A

| |

( )

2

2

2

3

2

2

3

9

3

2

2

3

9

3

9

3

3 4 18

) 9

2

9

3 4 ( ) 27

2

81

36 (

) 3 ( 3

2

3

3

) 9 ( 4

) 9 ( 3

2

9

3

) 9 ( 4

3

2 3

4

3 2

) 3 ( 2

units

x

x x

dx x x

dx x x

=

+ + =

(

(

(

+

(

(

(

+ =

(

(

(

+ =

+ =

=

}

}

2

18

) 3 4 18 ( 3 4

units

areaB areaA

=

+ =

+ = Total area of the region

The area of region B

Before calculus, one way of approximating the volume would be

to slice the watermelon (say in 2 cm thick slices) and add up the

volumes of each slice using V = r

2

h.

Interestingly, Archimedes (the "Eureka! I've got it" dude) used this

approach to find volumes of spheres around 200 BC. The

technique was almost forgotten until the early 1700s when

calculus was developed by Newton and Leibniz.

We see how to do the problem using both approaches.

6.2 VOLUMES

A method that finds the volume of a revolution about an axis

by summing cylinders of infinitesimal width about the axis.

To find this volume, we could take slices (the yellow disk

shown above), each dx wide and radius y

6.2 .1 DISK METHOD FOR FINDING VOLUMES

The volume of a cylinder is given by:

V = r

2

h

Because radius = r = y and each disk is dx high,

we notice that the volume of each slice is:

V = y

2

dx

Adding the volumes of the disks (with infinitely

small dx), we obtain the formula:

which means where:

y = f(x) is the equation of the curve whose area is

being rotated

a and b are the limits of the area being rotated

dx shows that the area is being rotated about

the x-axis

Determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the region bounded

by from 1 to 4 and the x-axis about the x-axis.

sketch of the bounding region and the solid obtained by rotating the region about

the x-axis and get a cross section we cut the solid at any x

DISKS METHOD IN TERMS OF X

2

0

3

2

0

2

3

16

16

4

(

=

=

=

}

}

y

dy y

ydy

d

c

t

t

5 4

2

+ = x x y

The cross-sectional area is then,

Next , determine the limits of integration.:

The volume of this solid is then,

6.2.2 DISK METHOD IN TERMS OF Y

Determine the volume of the solid obtained by

rotating the portion of the region bounded by

that lies in the first quadrant about the y-axis.

Here are the functions written in the correct form

The cross-sectional area is then,

The volume is then,

3

128

3

16

16

4

2

0

3

2

0

2

t

t

t

=

(

=

=

=

}

}

y

dy y

ydy

d

c

V

6.2.3 Volume by

Rotating The Area Enclosed Between Two

Curves

Area of cross section:

Volume Of Solid,V:

FIND THE VOLUME OF THE SOLID REVOLUTION BY

REVOLVED ABOUT THE X-AXIS WHICH THE REGION

BOUNDED BY THE GRAPH OF F(X)=X AND G(X)=X

Step 1: Find the intersection of the two graph to

get the point.

So, we could see the two graphs intersect at point

x=0 and x=1

STEP 2 : TAKE THE AREA OF THE REGION BOUNDED BY THE

GRAPH OF F(X)=X AND G(X)= X AND ROTATE IT ABOUT

THE X-AXIS TO FIND THE VOLUME.

WE WANT TO FIND THE VOLUME OF THE RESULTING SOLID.

Then, by seeing the graph of the two function, we could see

that f(x)g(x) on [0,1].

So, we could find the volume of the region bounded on interval

[0,1].

Next, by checking of the two functions, we could see that f(x)

g(x) on .

A typical cross section is

Hence, the area is

So, the volume of the solid is integral :

6.2.4 ROTATION AROUND THE Y-AXIS

Formula used:

Area of the region bounded, A(y)

Volume of the solid, V

Finding volume of a solid

Example: Given f(y)

Find the volume of a solid of revolution generated by rotating the

curve between y=0 and y=4 about the y-axis.

Step 2: Find volume

Step 1: Express x in term of y

Solution

Formula of volume, V=

REMEMBER!!!

The formula only works for the revolution about the

x-axis (y-axis)

Simply subtract from that axis each formula to

rotate about any horizontal (vertical) axis:

If h is the value of a horizontal (vertical) axis, then

the volume is

or

FINDING AREA OF THE REGION AND VOLUME OF A

SOLID

EXAMPLE: GIVEN F(X)

FIND THE AREA OF THE REGION BOUNDED BY THE

GRAPH AND THE VOLUME OF THE RESULTING

SOLID OF F(X)=X AND G(X)=X AND ROTATE

ABOUT THE LINE Y=2

Step 1: Find the intersection point

The intersection occur

x=0 and x=1

Step 2: Find the area of the graphs that rotate at line y=2.

A typical cross-section

looks like:

Solution

Solution of intersections

Area of the region bounded, A

Step 3 : Find the volume of the solid

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