May 4, 2012

JNTUH, Hyderabad


What is Air Pollution?
• Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. • One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air.
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• Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain. • Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking.
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animal or plant life. 2012 JNTUH. to human health or welfare. or tends to be injurious. Hyderabad 4 .Definition • One of the formal definitions of air pollution is as follows – ‗The presence in the atmosphere of one or more contaminants in such quality and for such duration as is injurious.‘ May 4.

Hyderabad 5 . 2012 JNTUH.Also defined as ―any atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations that they can produce undesirable effects on man and his environment‖ May 4.

within which most of the pollutants have a fairly limited life span before they get washed out by rain. removed by reaction or deposited on the ground‖ May 4. Hyderabad 6 .Also defined as ―pollution referred to troposphere. 2012 JNTUH.

16 0.49 0.500 202. 2012 JNTUH.900 31.200 9.08 ca.4 5.02 May 4.UNPOLLUTED AIR The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nitrogen Oxygen Water Argon Carbon Dioxide Neon Helium Methane Krypton Nitrous oxide Hydrogen Xenon Organic vapours Parts per million (vol) 756.000 305 17.97 0.0 0. Hyderabad 7 .0.49 0.97-1.

Hyderabad 8 .History of Air Pollution May 4. 2012 JNTUH.

2012 JNTUH.Richard II restricts use of coal 1413 – 1422 . or the Inconvenience of the Air and Smoke dissipated. ships: coal (and oil) burning = smoke.By royal command of Charles II.Henry V regulates/restricts use of coal 1661 . together with Some Remedies Humbly Proposed‖ 1784—Watt‘s steam engine.King Edward I of England bans use of ―sea coal‖ 1377 – 1399 .Air Pollution Episodes May 4. John Evelyn of the Royal Society publishes ―Fumifugium.• • • • • • • • 1272 . Hyderabad 9 . boilers to burn fossil fuels (coal) to make steam to pump water and move machinery Smoke and ash from fossil fuels by power plants. trains.Formation of the predecessor to the Air & Waste Management Association 1930 . ash 1907 .1950‘s .

Hyderabad 10 .funds for research (USA) • 1963 Clean Air Act (USA) -Three stage enforcement -Funds for state and local agencies • 1965 Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act (USA) -Emission regulations for cars to begin in 1968 • 1967 Air Quality Act (USA) -Criteria documents -Control technique documents • 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments (USA) -National Ambient Air Quality Standards -New Source Performance Standards May 4.funds for research (USA) • 1960 Motor Vehicle Exhaust Act .• 1955 First Federal Air Pollution Control Act . 2012 JNTUH.

or Europe transported long distances. up to several days. Hyderabad 11 . reacting with each other in sunlight to produce high levels of ozone.Air Pollution Episodes • Period of poor air quality. 2012 JNTUH. stable weather conditions trap pollutants close to sources and prevent dispersion. May 4. Pollutants emitted within the U. Elevated concentrations of range of pollutants build up over several days Summer: hot and sunny weather.K. often extending over large geographical area. Winter: cold. & other photochemical pollutants.

nausea. 1930 • 63 died (mostly elderly) • Sore throats. sulfur dioxide • H2O • SO4 sulfuric acid mist • Cattle. birds and rats died • Got little news coverage • Fumigation of a valley floor caused by an inversion layer that restricts diffusion from a stack May 4.Meuse Valley-Belgium. 2012 JNTUH. phlegm. vomiting • SO2. Hyderabad 12 . cough. shortness of breath.

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Horseshoe curve of Monongahela River is surrounded by mountains.Donora. sulfuric acid plant. Low-lying stretch of Monongahela valley between railroad and river is natural trap for pollutants.5 days • Environs of Donora. 1948 • Monongahela River Valley • Industrial town—steel mill. lasted 4. May 4. • Population—14. Hyderabad 15 . 2012 JNTUH. Pennsylvania. Railroad tracks are located on both sides of the river.000 • Steep hills surrounding the valley • Oct 26—temperature inversion (warm air trapping cold air near the ground) • Stable air. etc. Pennsylvania—Oct. fog. freight yard.

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Hyderabad 17 .Poza Rico. Mexico 1950 • • • • • • Single source– high sulfur crude oil Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) Flare went out Inversion in valley 22 sudden deaths. 2012 JNTUH. 320 hospitalized All ages Forerunner of Bhopal May 4.

Hyderabad 18 . 1952. etc • Weekly death registered from diseases of the lungs and heart in the London Administrative County around the time of the severe fog in December. • Total death in Greater London and air pollutants levels measured during the fog of December 1952 May 4. 2012 JNTUH. power plants Temperature inversion 5 days of worst smog city had ever seen Public transportation stopped • Indoor concerts had to be cancelled because no one could see the stage.December 1952 Great London Smog • • • • Cold front. Londoners burned soft coal Factories.

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north of Milan • A valve broke at the Industrie Chimiche Meda Societa Azionaria chemical plant • Cloud of 2. Italy --Dioxin • July 10.3.7. Hyderabad 22 . 1976.Seveso.8 tetrachlorodibenzo-paradioxin (TCDD) traveled southwest through Seveso toward Milan • Contaminant of herbicide May 4. 2012 JNTUH.

Bhopal, India Dec. 3, 1984
• Union Carbide pesticide plant leak kills up to 2,000 with up to 350,000 injured and 100,000 with permanent disabilities • Methyl isocyanate (MIC)—used as an intermediary in manufacture of Sevin (Carbaryl) • CO + Cl = phosgene • Phosgene + methylamine = MIC • MIC—irritant to the lungs---edema, fluid (cause of death, bronchospasms, corneal opacity • Hydrogen cyanide? • Sabotage or industrial accident?
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May 4, 2012

JNTUH, Hyderabad


World-wide Air Pollution Episode
• November 27-December 10, 1962 • Thousands of excess deaths in many cities including NYC, London, Boston, Paris • New Orleans Oct-Nov 1958 asthma deaths.

May 4, 2012

JNTUH, Hyderabad


2012 JNTUH.Hundreds Troubled by 'World Trade Center Cough‗ NYC fire fighters. school workers have 9/11 breathing problems. new studies say May 4. Hyderabad 26 .

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and gases in their working environment. May 4.Types of Air Pollution • Personal air exposure • -It refers to exposure to dust. Hyderabad 33 . 2012 JNTUH. vapors. fumes and gases to which an individual exposes himself • Occupational air exposure • -It represents the type of exposure of individuals to potentially harmful concentration of aerosols.

meteorological factors. 2012 JNTUH. Hyderabad 34 . and health effects. complex. consists of varieties of assortment of pollution sources.• Community air exposure • -This is most serious. economical. May 4. and wide variety of adverse social.

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Anthropogenic: From Manmade sources Ex: Industrial. May 4.Sources of Air Pollution A. Hyderabad 37 . 2012 JNTUH. Storms etc B. Natural: From natural sources Ex: Volcanoes. Mobile etc.

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Secondary Pollutants: Pollutants which are formed in the atmosphere by chemical or photochemical reactions involving primary pollutants. Ozone (O3). Ex. Peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) etc. Hyderabad 40 . May 4. Hydrogen Carbon (HC) etc. Sulfur oxides (SOX). Ex. Based origin 1.Classification of Air Pollutants A. Nitrogen oxides (NOX). 2012 JNTUH. 2.Primary Pollutants: Pollutants which are directly emitted in to the atmosphere and found there in the form in which they were emitted.

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2012 JNTUH. -Carbon monoxide -Sulfur dioxide -Nitrogen oxides -Hydrocarbons -Particulate matter May 4. Hyderabad 42 .Primary Air Pollutants  Five major materials released directly into the atmosphere in unmodified forms.

etc.Carbon Monoxide • Produced by burning of organic material (coal. reduces oxygen in blood Not a persistent pollutant. gas. wood. trash.) Automobiles biggest source (80%) Cigarette smoke another major source Toxic because binds to hemoglobin. but rush hour traffic can produce high CO levels May 4. Hyderabad 43 • • • • • . 2012 JNTUH. combines with oxygen to form CO2 Most communities now meet EPA standards.

000 people died in 4 weeks – tied to sulfur compounds in smog • • • • • May 4. can be very corrosive to lung tissue London -1306 banned burning of sea coal -1952 ―killer fog‖: 4. 2012 JNTUH. Hyderabad 44 . oil) Coal-burning power plants major source Reacts in atmosphere to produce acids One of the major components of acid rain When inhaled.Sulphur Dioxide • Produced by burning sulfur containing fossil fuels (coal.

but many more cars May 4. 2012 JNTUH. smog • Automobile engine main source Nitrogen Oxides • New engine technology has helped reduce. Hyderabad 45 .• Produced from burning of fossil fuels • Contributes to acid rain.

but some from industry • Contribute to smog • Improvements in engine design have helped reduce May compounds with hydrogen. Hyderabad 46 . 2012 JNTUH.Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons . carbon • From incomplete burning or evaporated from fuel supplies • Major source is automobiles.

smokestacks • Can accumulate in lungs and interfere with the ability of lungs to exchange gases. dust • Easily noticed: e. 2012 JNTUH.small pieces of solid materials and liquid droplets (2. Hyderabad 47 .Particulates • Particulates . May 4.5 mm and 10 mm) • Examples: ash from fires.g. asbestos from brakes and insulation.

Some particulates are known carcinogens Those working in dusty conditions at highest risk (e. Hyderabad 48 . 2012 JNTUH.g.5µm: effects trachea -PM10 having size <= 10µm: effects in nasal part only< May 4.5 having size <= 2.. miners) Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) PM1 having size <= 1µm: effects in alveoli -PM2.

2012 JNTUH.Secondary Pollutants • • • • Ozone PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate) Photochemical smog Aerosols and mists (H2SO4) May 4. Hyderabad 49 .

May 4.• Ozone Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive gas composed of three oxygen formed primarily from photochemical reactions between two major classes of air pollutants. • It is both a natural and a man-made product that occurs in the Earth's upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) and lower atmosphere (the troposphere). 2012 JNTUH. • Tropospheric ozone – what we breathe -. Hyderabad 50 . volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX).

May 4. 2012 JNTUH.PAN • Smog is caused by the interaction of some hydrocarbons and oxidants under the influence of sunlight giving rise to dangerous peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN). Hyderabad 51 .

May 4. The smog often has a brown haze due to the presence of nitrogen dioxide. unreacted hydrocarbons. peroxyethanoyl nitrate (PAN).Photochemical smog • Photochemical smog is a mixture of pollutants which includes particulates. 2012 JNTUH. etc. Hyderabad 52 . It causes painful eyes. aldehydes. ozone. nitrogen oxides.

HBr). May 4. and phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5). Hyderabad 53 .Aerosols and mists (H2SO4) • Aerosols and mists are very fine liquid droplets that cannot be effectively removed using traditional packed scrubbers. metal halides. These droplets can be formed from gas phase hydrolysis of halogenated acids (HCl. sulfur trioxide (SO3). organohalides. 2012 JNTUH. HF.

2012 JNTUH. Metal. Hyderabad 54 . Hydrogen Chloride. Amines. Ethers. Ozone (O3) etc. Carbolic Acids. Nitrogen Oxides.Organic Pollutants: Pollutants which are organic by nature Ex. Alcohols. Sulphur Oxides. Hydrogen Carbon (HC) etc. Metalloids.Inorganic: Pollutants which are inorganic by nature. May 4. Ex. Based on Chemical Composition 1. 2. Carbon monoxide(CO). Hydrogen Fluoride.B.

May 4.Particulates: Pollutants which are finely divided solids and liquids Ex. Ex. Hyderabad 55 . Mist.C. Fly ash. Ozone (O3) etc. Sulphur Oxides. 2012 JNTUH. 2. Spray etc. Smoke. Nitrogen Oxides.Gases: Pollutants which are gases by nature. Hydrogen Chloride. Hydrogen Fluoride. Based on State of Matter 1. Dust. Carbon monoxide(CO).

Health impacts of air pollution Regional air pollution Urban air pollution Indoor air pollution May 4. Hyderabad 56 . 2012 JNTUH.

China2 • Environmental and health costs of air pollution in China is about 7 % of GDP [budget deficit in 2003 = 3.Health Costs of Air Pollution Asia1 • An estimated 487.000 premature deaths occur each year due to outdoor air pollution. Hyderabad 57 .) Economic Implications of Health Impacts4 200 Mortality 150 Morbidity 100 50 0 Mumbai Metro Manila Jakarta Kathmandu Valley Exposed to diesel exhaust6 Exposed to clean air6 May 4. 2012 JNTUH.a.3% of GDP]5 • Estimates shows that these costs could rise to 13% of China’s GDP by 2020 Bangkok • Health cost of air pollution • $640 million • $800 million by 2020 US$ millions (p.

547 persons were killed in international terrorist attacks in 2001”2 May 4. Hyderabad 58 . 2012 JNTUH.Costs of Air Pollution “An estimated 487.000 premature deaths in Asia occur each year due to outdoor air pollution”1 “ A total of 3.

Hyderabad 59 .979 Kg of CO2 /year May 4.Emissions from residential areas  Average home emit more than twice as much carbon dioxide as the average car1 4. 2012 JNTUH.535 Kg of CO2 / year 9.

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Modern concerns relate more to the lung than the respiratory tract May 4. 2012 JNTUH. Hyderabad 62 .

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html http://classes.htm http://www.html May /popups/ currents/vol2issue4/1lungimagingfi g1. Hyderabad 64 .PARTICULATE MATTER • Size matters – particles need to be <3 μm to get deep in lung http://www.uihealthcare. 2012 tospanel/ orama/Biology/Physiology/Physiolo gy.html http://www.

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