Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 121
EGM 5653
CHAPTER 12
Elastic and Inelastic Stability of Columns
EGM 5653
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 122
EGM 5653
Introduction
Columns are subjected to axial compressive
loads
At critical compressive stress columns fail
by buckling rather than crushing or yielding
For very slender columns of
elastic perfectly plastic material, critical load
(P
cr
) depends on modulus of elasticity and is
independent of yield stress and ultimate
strength
For moderately slender columns P
cr
depends
on inelastic stress strain behavior and on E
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 123
EGM 5653
Basic Assumptions
Assumptions of the ideal column (used in all analysis)
Elastic
Perfectly straight
Compressive load along central longitudinal axis
No bending or lateral forces
Weightless
Free of residual stresses
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 124
EGM 5653
Chapter overview
12.1 Column Buckling Basic concepts
12.2 Elastic columns (ideal and imperfect slender)
for several lateral deflections A Physical description
12.3 Euler Formula for critical load for elastic columns
with pinned ends
12.4 Effect of general end constraints on elastic
buckling load of columns
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 125
EGM 5653
12.1 Concept of column buckling
For an IDEAL Slender column with pinned ends
subjected to large compressive loads P
cr
theoretically failure may occur by elastic
buckling when
2
2
cr
EI
P
L
t
=
E is the modulus of elasticity
I is the Moment of Inertia of the cross
section about
the axis of bending
L is the length of the pinned end column
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 126
EGM 5653
12.1 Concept of column buckling Contd.
For REAL columns, the line of action of force P might not coincide
with the central axis of the column and so will produce a bending
moment . Therefore failure occurs at a load P P
cr
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 127
EGM 5653
12.2 Deflection response of columns to
compressive loads
Elastic Buckling of an Ideal Slender column
2 2
2 2
,
cr
cr cr
P EI E
P
L A
L
r
t t
o = = =
 

\ .
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 128
EGM 5653
12.2 Deflection response of columns to
compressive loads
.
Large Deflections, Imperfect slender columns & Intermediate
slender columns:
Slender columns can withstand loads greater than P
cr
in a bent
position provided the average stress lesser than the yield stress
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 129
EGM 5653
12.3 The Euler Formula for Columns with
Pinned ends
The Equilibrium Method
( )
( )
( )
M x Py
EI
M x
R x
=
=
2
2
2
0
d y
k y
dx
+ =
Assuming the slope of the displaced
position is small and by combining the
equations, we get
where,
2
P
k
EI
=
The boundary conditions associated are y = 0 for x = 0, L
The buckled shape of the column is given by
1
sin
x
y A
L
t
=
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1210
EGM 5653
12.3 The Euler Formula for Columns with
Pinned ends
The Equilibrium Method
For higher buckling loads; n>1
2 2
2 2
( )
2 2
,
cr cr n
EI P E
P n n P n
L A
L
r
t t
o = = = =
 

\ .
Where L / r is the slenderness ratio
Solving, we get the Euler formula for buckling for pinned
ends as
2
2
cr
EI
P P
L
t
= =
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1211
EGM 5653
12.3 The Euler Formula for Columns with
Pinned ends
The Imperfection Method
Loading in real columns occurs eccentrically
Solving the ODE we get the solution
sin
sin
kx x
y e
kL L
 
=

\ .
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1212
EGM 5653
12.3 The Euler Formula for Columns with
Pinned ends
.
The Energy Method
Based on first law of thermodynamics
For a conservative (elastic) system, the increase in internal
energy is equal to the change in strain energy
For a conservative system, the first law of thermodynamics
is,
The load is calculated using the formula
W H U K o o o o + = +
4 2
2
1
2
2 2
1
n
n
n
n
n a
EI
P
L
n a
t
=
=
 


=


\ .
2 4 2 4 2 2
1 2 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3
2 3
2 3
a a a EI
P
L a a a
t + + +
=
+ + +
or
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1213
EGM 5653
12.4 Euler Buckling of Columns with Linearly
Elastic End Constraints
The potential energy of the column spring
system is
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
2 2
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 1
( ) ( )
2 2
L L
V K y k y K y k y
EI y dx P y dx
' ' = + + +
'' ' +
} }
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1214
EGM 5653
12.4 Euler Buckling of Columns with Linearly
Elastic End Constraints
The necessary and sufficient conditions for
V = 0 are
0 EIy Py
'''' ''
+ =
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
K y EIy y
K y EIy y
k y EIy Py y
k y EIy Py y
o
o
o
o
' '' '
+ =
' '' '
=
''' '
=
''' '
=
Eulers equation of the column
Natural and forced Boundary conditions
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1215
EGM 5653
Comparison of BoundaryCondition Effects
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1216
EGM 5653
Some Worked out problems
Problem 12.6
Problem 12.6
We have the same cross sectional area, but
different type of sections, solid square, solid round
and hollow round.
Which will have the largest critical load?
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1217
EGM 5653
Some Worked out problems
Problem 12.8
Problem 12.8
Given a structural problem with applied
loads, some members are in
compression. How would you
determine which will be subjected to
buckling load?
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1218
EGM 5653
Example 12.2
Column with clamped (fixed) ends
Problem:
Consider a column with clamped ends. The specified (forced)
boundary conditions are
1 1 2 2
0, 0; , 0 At x y y for x L y y
' '
= = = = = =
Solution:
1 2 1 2
0 y y y y o o o o ' ' = = = =
Since,
No natural boundary conditions there are only forced boundary
conditions
0, 0
(sin ) (cos 1) 0
(cos ) sin 0
B D kA C
A kL kL B kL
A kL kL B kL
+ = + =
+ =
=
Namas Chandra
Advanced Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1219
EGM 5653
Example 12.2
Column with clamped (fixed) ends contd.
For a Non trivial result the determinants of the coefficients of the
last two of equations in A and B must vanish identically.
Hence,
sin( ) 2(1 cos ) kL kL kL =
The minimum buckling load for n=1 is
( )
2 2
2
2 2
4
2
cr
eff
EI EI
P k EI P
L
L
t t
= = = =
 

\ .