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Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka.

Faculty of Social Sciences and Languages.

CEL 122
Grammar for Reading and Teaching.

R. Elanthiraiyan. 08/SL/008. Devaka Rajamuni. 08/SL/032. A.M.S. Attanayake 08/SL/039.

From the students exercise books. Rationale for selection. How to make PPT. Examples. How do we use PPT. PPT for experience. PPT for change. PPT for continuing situation. For and since with PPT. Exercises. Quiz.

From the students exercise books.

From the students exercise books.

From the students exercise books.

Rationale for the selection

The Present Perfect Tense in an important grammar element in English but mainly due to lack of understanding of this tense the second language learner makes grammatically unacceptable mistakes.

Rationale for the Selection.

1. Present Perfect Tense (PPT), is an important tense in English, but it puts the second language learner into a complexity. 2. It is because the PPT employs concepts or ideas that are not existing in the First Language (L1).

Rationale for the Selection

3. The structure of this tense is very simple but problem arises in using this tense. 4. Second Language ( L2), learner always tries to acquire the language through translation method. Hence, they always try to form PPT with the influence of the L1.

Rationale for the selection

1. The first reason for this is that the second language learner compare the sentence structures with the mother tongue equivalents. As a result of this comparative approach they make mistakes. Eg. He written a letter. For He has written a letter.

Rationale for the selection

3. Difficulties in using the past participle form of the verb in Present Perfect Tense. This is mainly due to the lack of understanding about the structure of this tense and overgeneralization. Eg- They have clean the garden. For They have cleaned the garden. He has breaked the chair. For He has broken the chair.

Rationale for the selection

4. In making questions in Present Perfect Tense, the second language learner get it confused with the past tense question forms. Eg. Did you washed your clothes? For Have you washed your clothes?

Rationale for the selection

2. Some students confuse the present perfect tense with the sentences that express the possession. They have a preconception that the verbs has and have is used to express the idea of possession. Therefore, they try to understand the Present Perfect Tense as a way of expressing possession.

Rationale for the selection

The concept of Present Perfect Tense does not exist in Sinhala or Tamil Languages, and it is not easy for a non-native learner to master this tense, mainly because the difference between Present Perfect and Past Simple is confusing for the second language learner.

How do we make PPT?

The structure of the present perfect tense is:

Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb

has/have past participle

Here are some examples of the Present Perfect Tense:

Subject Auxiliary verb have have Has have you they not not Main verb

+ I + You - She - We ? Have ? Have

seen eaten been played finished? done

Dunhinda a mango to Jaffna football


How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?

This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense: 1.Experience 2.Change 3.Continuing situation

1. Present perfect tense for experience

We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it.

1. Present perfect tense for experience

I have seen Dunhinda . He has lived in Jaffna. Have you been there? We have never eaten pork.
Past Present Future


The action or state In my head, I have a memory was in the past. now.
Connection with past: the event was in the past. Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something about the event; I have experience of it.

2. Present perfect tense for change

We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:

2. Present perfect tense for change

I have bought a car Past Present Future

Last week I didnt have a car.

Now I have a car.

Ravi has broken his leg.

Past Present Future

Yesterday Ravi had a good leg.

Now Ravi has a bad leg.

Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present. Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past.

2. Present perfect tense for change

Has the price gone up? Past Present Future

Was the price 150 Rupees yesterday?

Is the price 170 rupees today?

The police have arrested the killer.

Past Present Future

Yesterday the killer was free.

Now he is in prison.

Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present. Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past.

3. Present perfect tense for continuing situation

We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.

I have worked here since June. He has been ill for 2 days. How long have you known Ravi? Past Present Future

The situation started in the past It continues up to now ( it probably will continue into future)

Connection with past: the situation started in the past. Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.

For & Since with Present Perfect Tense

We often use for and since with the present perfect tense. We use for to talk about a period of time 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years. We use since to talk about a point in past time 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.

For A period of time 20 minutes 3 days 6 months 4 years

Since A point in past time X-----------6.15 pm Monday January 1994

Here are some examples:

I have been here for 20 minutes. I have been here since 9 o'clock.

2 centuries
A long time ago Ever Etc..

I left school The beginning of a time Etc..

Saman hasn't called for 6 months. Saman hasn't called since February.

He has worked in Colombo for a long time. He has worked in Colombo since he left school

Exercises in P.P.T.
Positive Negative Question ________________ ________________ Has she got a pencil? ________________ ________________ He has washed clothes. ________________ ________________ She has not slept. ________________ Mala has missed the bus. ________________ ________________ ________________ They have not helped us.

Present Perfect Tense Quiz

click on the correct answer.

1. Ravi has 2. 3. They has 4. 5. We

has have has have have

have is have is has

not been to France. you finished your home work? gone to a party. is you been to India? are never eaten Chinese food.

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