Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

629 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Exercises Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks
- Exercise Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient
- A Study on Effectiveness of Employees Safety and Health
- exercise and answer Kendall’s Tau
- Spearman Rank Correlation
- Kendall’s Tau
- t2 Assessment Different Softwares
- Regression Analysis
- Run test
- Exercises - Run Test
- Notes 3
- Median Test
- Example Median Test
- Assignment 1
- Bio Statistics
- Correlation.pdf
- Relation Between General Throwing Tests With a.....
- Autocorrelation s
- JApplHematol44137-8138261_223622
- Modelling of Measurement for Uncertanty Evaluation (1)

You are on page 1of 25

SMALL SAMPLE

SMALL SAMPLE

Learning Outcome

Student should be able to make a relationship between two variable by using Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

Assumptions

b)Each pair of observations represents two measurements taken on the same object or individual, called the unit of association.

Procedures

1)If the data consist of observations from a bivariate population, we designate the n pairs of observations (X1,Y1), (X2,Y2),, (Xn,Yn). 2)Each X is ranked relative to all other observed values of X, from smallest to largest in order of magnitude. The rank of the ith value of X is denoted by R(Xi )=1 if Xi is the smallest observed value of X. 3) Each Y is ranked relative to all other observed values of Y, from smallest to largest in order of magnitude. The rank of the ith value of Y is denoted by R(Yi )=1 if Yi is the smallest observed value of Y. 4)If ties occur among the Xs or among the Ys, each tied value is assigned the mean of the rank positions for which it is tied. 5)If the data consist of nonnumeric observations, they must be capable of being ranked as described.

Hypotheses

Case A (two-sided) H0 : X and Y are independent. Case B (one-sided) H0 : X and Y are independent. Case C (one-sided) H0 : X and Y are independent.

H : = 0

0 s

H : = 0

0 s

H : 0

1 s

H 1 : s > 0

H : = 0 H 1 : s < 0

0 s

Test Statistic

1) Rank all sample observations from smallest to largest. 2)Find di and di2 where di=R(Xi) R(Yi), and di is the difference in the ranks given to the variables Xi and Yi. 3)Sum the square of the difference in the ranks observations from population Xi and Yi, di2 4)The test statistic is, rs 1

n(n 1)

2

6 di 2

5) rs is to measure the strength of the relationship between the sample X and Y values and as an estimate of the strength of the relationship between X and Y in the sampled population. 6) When the rank of X is the same as the rank of Y for every pair of observations (perfect direct relationship), all the differences di will be equal to zero, and rs will be equal to +1. 7) Kendall(T3)* has shown that in general rs = -1 when the rank of one variable within each pair of observations (Xi, Yi) is the reverse of the other (perfect inverse relationship).

*Kendall, M.G., Rank Correlation Methods, fourth edition, London: Griffin, 1970.

Thus if [R(X) = 1, R(Y) = n] [R(X) = 2, R(Y) = n-1],.,[R(X) = n, R(Y) = 1] for n pairs of observations, rs = -1. This may be illustrated by means of a simple example. Suppose have the following pairs of observations of (Xi, Yi) : (0,10),(8,3),(2,9),(5,6). The ranks are

Xi R(Xi) Yi R(Yi) 0 1 10 4 8 4 3 1 2 2 9 3 5 3 6 2

So, the di2 =(-3) 2 +(3) 2 + (-1) 2 + (1) 2 = 20. Then rs = 1 [6(20)/4(16-1) = -1 8) Kendall also shows that rs can never be greater than +1 or less than -1.

Decision Rule

Case A (Two-sided) Reject H0 if

rs r

2 2

rs r

B (One-sided positive) C (One-sided negative)

rs r

rs r

Pincherle and Robinson(E1)* note a marked interobserver variation in blood pressure. They found that doctors who read high on systolic tended to read high on diastolic. Table 9.1 shows mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings by 14 doctors. We wish to compute a measure of the strength of the relationship between the two variables. Under the consumption that these 14 doctors constitute a random sample from a population of doctors, we wish to know whether we may conclude from the data that there is a direct relationship between systolic and diastolic readings. Suppose we let = 0.05

*G.Pincherle and D.Robinson, Mean Blood Pressure and its Relation to Other Factors Determined at a Routine Executive Health Examination, J.Choronic Dis.,27 (1974),245-260; used with permission of Pergamon Press.

Doctor

1 2 3 4 5 6

Systolic

141.8 140.2 131.8 132.5 135.7 141.2

Diastolic

89.7 74.4 83.5 77.8 85.8 86.5

7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14

143.9 140.2

140.8 131.7 130.8 135.6 143.6 133.2

89.4 89.3

88.0 82.2 84.6 84.4 86.3 85.9

1) HYPOTHESES

H 0 : Systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings by doctors are independent.

H 1 : There is a direct relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings by doctors (claim).

2) TEST STATISTIC

SYSTOLIC (Xi ) DIASTOLIC ( Yi )

R(X i )

12 8.5 3 4 7 11 14 8.5 10 2 1 6 13 5

R( Yi )

14 1 4 2 7 10 13 12 11 3 6 5 9 8

d i= R ( x i ) R( Yi)

-2 7.5 -1 2 0 1 1 - 3.5 -1 -1 -5 1 4 -3

di2

4 56.25 1 4 0 1 1 12.25 1 1 25 1 16 9

2 di = 132.50

141.8 140.2 131.8 132.5 135.7 141.2 143.9 140.2 140.8 131.7 130.8 135.8 143.6 133.2

89.7 74.4 83.5 77.8 85.8 86.5 89.4 89.3 88.0 82.2 84.6 84.4 86.3 85.9

6 d i rs 1 2 n(n 1)

From the table, we get the value of i 132.50 d and n = 14. Then, substitute the values into the equation above.

2

0.7088

3) CRITICAL VALUE

Table A.21 reveals that, for n = 14 and (1) = 0.05, the critical value of rs is 0.464.

4) DECISION

Since 0.7088 > 0.464, we reject H 0 .

5) CONCLUSION

There is enough evidence to support the claim that the doctors who read high on systolic tend to read high on diastolic blood pressure.

Exercise 1

Table 9.4 shows the serum and bone magnesium levels of 14 patients are reported by Alfrey et al.*. Can we conclude from these data that a relationship exist between serum magnesium and bone magnesium in the sample population?

Serum Mg ( m Eq./L.) 3.60 2.85 2.80 2.70 2.60 2.55 2.55 2.45 2.25 1.80 1.45 1.35 1.40 0.90 Bone Mg ( m Eq./kg ash ) 672 610 621 567 570 638 612 552 524 400 277 294 338 230

*Alfrey, Allen C.,Nancy L. Miller, and Donald Butkus, Evaluation Of Body Magnesium Stores,J. Lab. Clin. Med.,84 (1974), 153-1

Exercise 2

Ten seventh-grade children randomly selected from a certain public school system were ranked according to the quality of their home environment and the quality of their performance in school. The result are shown in table 9.45. compute rs and determine whether one can conclude that the two variable are directly related. Ten seventh-grade children ranked according to quality of home environment and quality of performance in school. Child 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Home environment 3 7 10 9 2 1 6 4 8 5 Performance in school 1 9 8 10 3 4 5 2 6 7

Exercise 3

The Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient is used to discover the strength of a link between two sets of data. This example looks at the strength of the link between the price of a convenience item (a 50cl bottle of water) and distance from the Contemporary Art Museum (CAM ) in El Raval, Barcelona. compute rs and determine whether one can conclude that the two variable are inversly related. Convinence store 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Distance from CAM ( m) 50 175 270 375 425 580 710 790 Price of 50cl bottle () 1.80 1.20 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.20 0.80 0.60

9 10

890 980

1.00 0.85

Large-Sample Approximation

When the sample size is greater than 100, we cannot use Table A.21 to test the significance of rs. Then we may compute

z rs n 1

which is distributed approximately as the standard normal.

LINK OF YOUTUBE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eu_XOoF NfR4&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL

Thank You

- Exercises Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranksUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercise Spearman Rank Correlation CoefficientUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- A Study on Effectiveness of Employees Safety and HealthUploaded byRoyal Projects
- exercise and answer Kendall’s TauUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Spearman Rank CorrelationUploaded byJohn Edward Villacorta
- Kendall’s TauUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- t2 Assessment Different SoftwaresUploaded bySergio San
- Regression AnalysisUploaded by1234567895r
- Run testUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercises - Run TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Notes 3Uploaded byDeena Lizarazu
- Median TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Example Median TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Assignment 1Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Bio StatisticsUploaded byKumaran Jothiram
- Correlation.pdfUploaded bySharad Patel Lodhi
- Relation Between General Throwing Tests With a.....Uploaded byWan Suhaimi Wan Setapa
- Autocorrelation sUploaded byknmitra
- JApplHematol44137-8138261_223622Uploaded bywillmed
- Modelling of Measurement for Uncertanty Evaluation (1)Uploaded byDiego Henrique
- SSTD11Uploaded bydiana hertanti
- Output Spss 2Uploaded byPurwa Annisa Diah Ramadhan
- Dynamics of Extremism in Jammu and KashmirUploaded bySunny Chohan
- Week5Assignment_Lima-Gonzalez,C. (extension).docxUploaded byConstance Lima-gonzalez
- Beaver Pond ReportUploaded byMichael Kazi
- ReportUploaded byimran5705074
- This section of.docUploaded byEden Grace Sumacot
- Sustainable strategic management and market effectiveness of enterprisesUploaded byAlejandro Ample Jr.
- Spearman Rho AnalysisUploaded byHaley Xherie Cobrado

- Large Sample Size Run TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercises - Run TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Run testUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Sign test for two related samples.Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercise Multiple comparison procedure for use with Friedman test (only Computing all treatments with a control)Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Large Sample Ansari-Bradley TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Friedman Test-Comparing All Treatments With a ControlUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Kendall’s TauUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Friedman Two Way Analysis of Variance by RanksUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Multiple Comparisons (Only Computing All Treatments With a Control)Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Answers Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranksUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Assignment 1Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Answer 6.27-Multiple Comparison TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Median TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Multiple Comparisons (Exclude Computing All Treatments With a Control) new!Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Multiple Comparisons (Only Computing All Treatments With a Control)Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercise 6.13- Multiple ComparisonsUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Example Median TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercise-Friedman Two Way Analysis of Variance by RanksUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercise Multiple Comparisons (Only Computing All Treatments With a Control)Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercise Wicoxon Matched Pairs Sign-Ranked TestUploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Multiple Comparisons (Only Computing All Treatments With a Control)Uploaded byRohaila Rohani
- Exercise 6.12-Multiple ComparisonsUploaded byRohaila Rohani

- tom blake - sweetwater - salvation in the great lakesUploaded byapi-139176371
- Interactivity in Contemporary ArtUploaded byLoh Jian Hui
- Guide-Turnkey-Residential-Streetlight-Design.pdfUploaded bysahil
- Bigant_UserManualUploaded byMuhammad Aquilur Rahman
- Ethiopian Higher Education Proclamation PDFUploaded byEva
- Chapter 4 Database Application Development_updated (1)Uploaded byDawit Getcho
- 24-Maintenance - Upgrading of Hydraulic Piping SystemUploaded bypapaki2
- Hara WayUploaded byCarol DAlmeida
- iptspUploaded byMD ABUL KHAYER
- Catalog Wire Wizard 2012Uploaded byharan2000
- 2017Uploaded byAnonymous Z490F2o2N
- Analysis of Tension MembersUploaded byCivilEngClub
- WMMSC Servicer GuideUploaded byKaren Pooley
- EaES455-12.pptUploaded bycatarac19
- Roaring Dragon Hotel Case AnalysisUploaded byKabir Jain
- 9 ELECTRONIC REINFORCEMENT OF SOUND.pptUploaded byMadeRadit
- Health and Safety Lo1Uploaded byMd Rizvee
- Sunrise SunSetSDHUploaded byVan Quang Dung
- TOPdesk Magazine December 2016Uploaded byTOPdesk
- SQL Integrity ConstraintsUploaded byVaishnavi Ramanujan
- ES-5.2.0-Install (1)Uploaded byAlexandru Caracostea
- Chap 014Uploaded byMohammad Adzliazamin Baderi
- Persistence 1Uploaded byPatricia Cortez
- 227-5-Failure in Materials.pptxUploaded byFurkan Arıöz
- Belgrade Gambit MarinUploaded byVictor Ciocaltea
- Application of an Optical Temperature MeasurementUploaded byadriasiq3068
- FaultKin Help.pdfUploaded byGonzaloLopez
- 4 Ps RahimafrozeUploaded byMahmuda Swarna
- amanda dunphy- literacy portfolioUploaded byapi-340158983
- ppt labour welfareUploaded byManasa Mankhala

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.