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A DC to DC converter is a conversion device or an electronic circuit which converts a source of direct current from one voltage to other. Offer a method of generating multiple controlled voltages from a single battery voltage. Maintain a stable voltage when battery voltage declines as its stored power is drained. Saving space instead of using multiple batteries.
Power supplies for personal computers. 170v or 340v are regulated to 5v or 3.3v required by the processor ICs. Portable electronic devices such as Cell phone laptops etc. To convert the single supply voltage to multiple dc voltages required on the same chip.
DC to DC basics .
They are inefficient. unlike DC-DC converters. reliable. DC to DC converters features Voltage Regulator Linear regulators drop the input voltage to a lower output voltage. . and much simpler than DC-DC Converter.Voltage regulator vs. Linear regulators are inexpensive. Linear regulators also can provide a very quiet output voltage. linear regulators cannot generate: Higher voltages than their input. and are much more suited to powering sensitive analog circuits. However. as they convert the dropped voltage into heat dissipation. Large currents (due to excess heat).
DC to DC converters DC to DC converter features Electronic switch-mode DC to DC converters convert one DC voltage level to another. The storage may be in either magnetic components (inductors. this is done to control the output voltage. . Usually.Voltage regulator vs. This efficiency is beneficial to increasing the running time of battery operated devices. or maintaining a constant power This conversion method is more power efficient (often 80% to 98%) than linear voltage regulation. transformers or capacitors) for a period of time. the output current. Drawbacks of DC-DC converter converters include cost. the amount of power transferred can be controlled. though it could be done to control the input current. by storing the input energy temporarily and then releasing that energy to the output at a different voltage. By adjusting the PWM Duty Cycle (the ratio of on/off time). complexity and electronic noise.
Basic block diagram of DC to DC Converter Magnetic field storage element Voltage source Switch control Switching element Output rectifier And filter .
. Switch position varies Periodically. vs(t) is a rectangular waveform having period Ts and duty cycle D.DC to DC Basics vs(t) = Vg when the switch is in position 1. vs(t) = 0 when the switch is in position 2.
) D = fraction of time that the switch is connected to 1 hence 0 < D < 1 Switching frequency fs = 1/Ts .DC to DC basics (Contd.
) DC component of vs(t) is given by Fourier analysis .DC to DC basics (Contd.
DC to DC basics (Contd.)
Power Consumption = 0 (Ideal) Switch contacts are closed, the voltage across the contacts is equal to zero and hence the power dissipation is zero Switch contacts are open, zero current and the power dissipation is again equal to zero.
DC to DC basics (Contd.)
To remove undesired harmonics of switching frequency, LC Low pass filter is used :
Corner frequency is set much less than switching frequency.
DC to DC basics (Contd.)
conversion ratio M(d) is the ratio of dc output voltage to the dc input voltage under steady state conditions:
DC to DC Converter Topologies .
DC to DC converter Topologies Non transformer isolated converter topologies. Buck converter Boost Converter Buck-Boost Converter Cuk converter .
) Transformer isolated converter topologies Fly back converter Push-pull converter. Full bridge converter. .DC to DC converter Topologies (contd. Forward converter Half bridge converter.
.Buck Converter (Step-down converter) •Takes unregulated input voltage and produce a lower regulated output voltage. •Used as 3 terminal regulator in applications where low cost high efficiency are critical.
When the switch is turned on With a voltage (Vs . C1 is big enough such that Vo doesn't change significantly during one switching cycle . The rise (in amps per second) is determined by ΔI / ΔT = ( Vs . Diode is reverse biased. current rises linearly in the inductor.Vo) / L . . C1 smoothes out L1's current changes into a stable voltage at Vo.Vo) across L. Also.
ΔI / ΔT = ( Vo + VD) / L1 . .When the switch is turned off As L's magnetic field collapses. current falls linearly through L. Diode turns ON providing a path for L1's current to flow . L’s voltage is reversed. The fall (amps per second) is again determined by the voltage across L1 and its inductance. Although L1's current direction is the same. That's L is maintaining current flow by reversing its voltage when the applied voltage is removed.
Buck converter waveforms .
Inductor current is equal to zero. the amount of energy required by the load is small enough to be transferred in a time lower than the whole commutation period.Discontinued Mode In some cases. .
Boost-Converter (Step up converter) •It takes an unregulated input voltage and produces higher regulated output voltage. . •Typically used in low power applications where a low voltage bus must be stepped up for a local circuitry.
When switch is ON When Switch is closed rectifier D1 is reverse biased and energy is stored in the inductor L1. . Current to the output load is supplied by the output capacitor.
When the switch is turned off •The energy field L1 begins to collapse reversing the voltage polarity on the inductor and forward biasing D1. . •Current now flows through the D1 to the output supplying the load and boosting the charge in c1 to a value higher than the input.
Boost converter waveforms .
Discontinuous mode .
The power output of boost topology is limited to about 150watt due to high peak currents which stress the power switch and the diode .
Both step up and step down conversion Vout is adjustable based on the duty cycle. Inverts the polarity of the voltage. .Buck-Boost Converter.
C is discharged into output load RL and the Vout is falling. .When switch is on Energy from the source is transferred to L and diode is reverse biased.
Vout increases.When the switch is Off Inductor maintains current forward biasing the diode. Inductor transfers energy to the capacitor. .
Buck-boost converter waveforms .
•Switch is grounded Comparing with Buckboost converter. •Uses capacitor as energy storage element instead of load inductor.Cuk converter •Both step up and step down conversion. . •Inverts the polarity of the voltage.
Current then flows from input source.and S Storing energy in L1 magnetic field. Then when S is turned on again . .charging up c1.c1 discharges through L2 into the load with L2 and C2 acting as a smoothing filter. Meanwhile energy is being stored again in L1. When S is turned off.ready for the next cycle. the voltage across L1 reverses to maintain current flow. When switch is turned on.current flows from input source through L1. through L1 and D1. Uses two capacitors and two inductors instead of one.
Cuk converter waveforms .
•Used for low power applications. .Forward converter •This is transformer version of buck converter.
to the inductor L and the load.When the switch is turned on Diode D1 conducts and D2 is off. The energy is transferred from the input through the transformer. The output capacitor provides the required Vo. . Energy flows through the transformer in only one direction hence an additional winding with D3 is needed to bring the magnetizing current of the transformer to zero this prevents transformer saturation.
During both the half cycles the output inductor provide current to the load similar to the buck converter. . Current now flows through the output capacitor and the inductor L energizing L.When the switch is turned off The voltage across the primary winding reverses its polarity and D2 is forward biased.
Push-Pull Converter •Transformer isolated buck topology. •Suitable for low voltage applications only. •Provides good regulation. .moderate efficiency and easily adoptable to multiple outputs.
. The secondary voltage is full wave rectified and applied to the buck –style LC section. The input is applied to the center tap of the primary of the transformer and the power switches are connected across each section of the primary winding. The two switches share the switching function by alternately turning on and off .
When each switch turns on. but output current is drawn when either switch is on .one half of the center tapped secondary begins to conduct. forward biasing its respective diode and letting the current in to the load. Simultaneously . Unlike the fly back topology .the transformer does not store energy.current flows through its side of primary.
. This voltage in the upper half secondary forward biases diode D1. The output voltage V0=α * vs.When S1 is turned on Vs is applied to lower half of the transformer primary as a result voltage is induced in both the secondary windings.
A voltage of –vs. .When S2 is turned on -Vs is applied across the upper half of the primary winding . Diode D2 gets forward biased and V0=α * vs.*N2/N1 is induced in both transformer secondaries.
Half bridge converter •Transformer isolated buck topology •Not suitable for high power applications •Peak current in this topology is twice as the push-pull technology with identical power output. .
Half bridge topology has only one primary winding which is connected between a pull-up/pull down configuration of power switches and center node between two series capacitors. . Only half the input voltage vs/2 appears across the primary winding at any time. The capacitor center node voltage is fixed approximately at the half the input voltage and ground by the two power switches.
.*N2/(2*N1) D1 is forward biased.When s1 is turned on Voltage of c1 comes across the transformer primary and v1=vs/2 Voltage induced in the secondary is v2=vs.
When s2 is turned on -vs/2 is applied across transformer primary from c2 i.*N2/(2*N1). v1=-vs/2. (α= N2/N1) .5*α * vs. Average output voltage v0=0. Voltage induced in the secondary is v2=-vs.e.
Suitable for higher power applications. Power handling capacity is the double the half bridge converter. .Full-bridge converter Transformer isolated buck topology.
Sw1 and s4or sw2 and s3. Two of the 4 power switches are turned on simultaneously during each conduction cycle i. Operates with minimum voltage and current stress on power mosfets. This places full input voltage across the primary winding which reduces peak currents flowing through it compared to half-bridge converter.e. . Balancing capacitors in half bridge are replaced by switches.
When Sw1 and s4 are turned on Vs appears across transformer primary and secondary voltage v2=vs.*N2/N1=α * vs. Diode D1 gets forward biased and output voltage V0=α * vs. (α =N2/N1) .
*N2/N1.e. and v2=-vs.v1=-vs. D2 begins to conduct and the output voltage is V0=α * vs. (α =N2/N1) .When sw2 and s3 are turned on The primary voltage is reversed i.
Fly back converter •Isolated or transformer version of buck-boost converter. •Its versatile uses less components reducing overall cost. .
Output voltage is supplied by capacitor C .When the switch is On Current flows through the primary circuit and energy is stored in the primary winding of the transformer. The longer the on time more energy is stored in the primary windings This energy is not allowed to pass through the outputs stage because the diode D is reverse biased. .
reversing the voltage polarity of the winding. Diode D is forward biased and starts conducting a current id. Energy stored in the transformer secondary is delivered partly to load and partly to charge the capacitor C. .When the switch is off The field in the primary winding begins to collapse.
Comparison of converter Topology topologies Power ratings Typical Buck Boost Buck-Boost Fly back Push-pull Half-bridge Full Bridge <100 watt <100watt <100 watt <150 watt >150watt 100-400watt >400watt 78 80 80 80 75 75 73 efficiency(%) .
CONTROL TECHNIQUES .
PWM MODULATED DC TO DC CONVERTERS .
The control of output voltage must be provided in a closed loop using principles of negative feedback. .Control principle A dc to dc converter must provide regulated dc output voltage under varying load and input voltage conditions. The two common closed loop control methods for dc to dc converters are Voltage mode control Current mode control.
. This is a key concept governing all inductor based switching circuits.PWM DC to DC converter • From the derivations for the boost. buck and buckboost converter it can be seen that changing the duty cycle controls the steady-state output with respect to the input voltage.
The most common switching control method. . thus completing the control loop. the output pulse width (PWM) also changes. This duty cycle change then moves the output voltage to reduce to error signal to zero. This error signal is compared to an oscillator ramp signal. When the circuit output voltage changes. This method takes a sample of the output voltage and subtracts this from a reference voltage to establish a small error signal (VERROR). The comparator outputs a digital output (PWM) that operates the power switch. VERROR also changes and thus causes the comparator threshold to change. used in DC-DC converters is pulse-width modulation (PWM). Consequently.
Voltage mode control .
reacts fast to changes in the converter output voltage. the converter output voltage is sensed and subtracted from an external reference voltage in an error amplifier. In the voltage-mode control scheme shown in the fig. Thus. regulation against variations in the load. The comparator produces a PWM signal which is fed to drivers of controllable switches in the dc–dc converter. that is. the voltage-mode control provides good load regulation. . . The duty ratio of the PWM signal depends on the value of the control voltage. An important advantage of the voltage-mode control is its simple hardware implementation and flexibility. The error amplifier in Fig. The error amplifier produces a control voltage that is compared to a constant-amplitude saw tooth waveform.
Current mode control .
is compared to the control voltage. The output current in PWM dc–dc converters is either equal to the average value of the output inductor current or is a product of an average inductor current and a function of the duty ratio. This current signal. An additional inner control loop feeds back an inductor current signal. . converted into its voltage analog. This modification of replacing the saw tooth waveform of the voltage-mode control scheme by a converter current signal significantly alters the dynamic behavior of the converter. The converter takes on some characteristics of a current source.
The main disadvantage of the current-mode control is its complicated hardware which includes a need to compensate the control voltage by ramp signals. . In practical implementations of the current-mode control. it is feasible to sense the peak inductor current instead of the average value. Since the peak inductor current is equal to the peak switch current. the latter can be used in the inner loop which often simplifies the current sensor.
Resonant and soft switching DC-DC converters .
The resonant principle is used in power converters by incorporating a resonant LC circuit with the power switch . During the turn-on and turn-off processes. The power switch is on and off in the same manner as in PWM converter. resulting in high switching losses and stress. A soft-switching DC to DC power converter minimizes switching losses from a no load condition to a full load condition while operating at fixed frequency. but the tank circuit forces the current through the switch into a sinusoidal form. the power device has to withstand high voltage and current simultaneously. Hard switching refers to the stressful switching behavior of the power electronic devices. .
A resonant circuit keep the pulse width constant and vary the frequency where as all pwm control circuits. keep the frequency constant by varying the pulse width. The actual conduction period of the switch is governed by the resonant frequency of the tank circuit. The major application of resonant technology is in aircraft. . The switching losses are reduced. satellite and audio/video equipment where low EMI levels are required. leading to a higher efficiency and EMI is greatly reduced.
zero current switches (ZCS) zero voltage switches(ZVS).Resonant switch The resonant switch consists of semiconductor element and resonant LC elements. As resonant circuits generate sinusoidal waveforms we can operate the power switches either at zero current or zero voltage points in the resonant waveform. . Because of this there are two types of resonant switches .
the switch can be commutated at the next zero current duration. Finally. the switch current is allowed to resonate in the positive half cycle only. because of the resonance between Lr and Cr. . the switch current will rise slowly from zero. It will then oscillate. an inductor Lr is connected in series with a power switch S in order to achieve zerocurrent switching (ZCS).ZC Resonant Switch In a ZC resonant switch. If the switch S is a unidirectional switch. The objective of this type of switch is to shape the switch current waveform during conduction time in order to create a zero-current condition for the switch to turn off. At turn-on.
Period 1" The power switch is off, and the diode D is conducting the load current. Period 2: The power switch turns on. The voltage across the switch makes a step change. The resonant capacitor appears to be short circuited at this time because of the conducting diode. Therefore, the power switch sees only the inductor on turning on. Therefore, the switch current cannot change instantaneously, and hence increases linearly from zero. This continues until all the load current is taken up by the current through the switch and the resonant inductor, displacing the current through the diode.
Period 3: As the diode current is displaced, it turns off in a zerocurrent fashion, and the resonant capacitor is released into the circuit. Now, the current waveform assumes a sinusoidal shape as the circuit resonates. During this period, the capacitor voltage lags the current waveform by 90 °. The switch current proceeds over its crest, and passes through zero. The resonant inductor's current then starts to flow in the opposite direction through the antiparallel diode D . Period 4: When the inductor current passes through zero, the resonant capacitor begins to dump its charge into the load, thus reducing its voltage in a linear ramp. The diode begins to conduct. When the capacitor voltage reaches zero, the diode takes up the entire current, and the circuit awaits the next conduction period of the power switch. As the power switch and diode operate at zero current on both edges, switching losses in the power semiconductors are greatly reduced.
ZV Resonant Switch
In a ZV resonant switch, a capacitor Cr is connected in parallel with the switch S for achieving zero-voltage switching . If the switch S is a unidirectional switch, the voltage across the capacitor Cr can oscillate freely in both positive and negative half-cycle. Thus, the resonant switch can operate in full-wave mode. If a diode is connected in anti-parallel with the unidirectional switch, the resonant capacitor voltage is clamped by the diode to zero during the negative half-cycle. The resonant switch will then operate in half-wave mode. The objective of a ZV switch is to use the resonant circuit to shape the switch voltage waveform during the off time in order to create a zero-voltage condition for the switch to turn on.
Period 2: The resonant period is initiated by the power switch turning off. As the voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously. The resonant inductor is saturated and is effectively short circuited. The input voltage appears across the resonant capacitor. the power switch voltage remains constant while the current reduces to zero . The switch current is determined by the converter stage configuration. and the diode D is off.Operation Of ZV switch Period 1" The power switch is on.
and the capacitor is shunted out of the circuit. Then the resonant inductor can enter saturation and await the next cycle. The diode D is also on at this time. at which point the current is conducted by the antiparallel diode. Period 3: The capacitor voltage starts falling together with the inductor current. The tank circuit begins to resonate. Therefore the switch current increases linearly through the resonant inductor When this current exceeds the load current being conducted through the diode. Period 4: The power switch turns on. The diode starts to conduct. the diode turns off. taking over the load current being from the resonant inductor which gradually falls out of saturation. . The capacitor voltage tings back above the input voltage.
Resonant mode control .
The VCO output triggers the one-shot whose pulse duration is fixed as required by the converter. a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a temperaturestable one-shot timer. The output voltage is compared with the reference. The fundamental blocks are a wide-band error amplifier. . These control techniques are based on the voltage-mode of control. Either the on-time is fixed and the off time is variable or vice-versa. and the error voltage is used to drive the VCO.Resonant mode control Control methods for resonant converters are variable frequency ones.
A sample Application .
Block Diagram of Satellite Power system: .
regulates and distributes the electrical energy to loads mainly comprising analog and digital semiconductors. stores. Solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy. From there the power system processes. . sensor. The power bus volt-age can range from 20 Vdc to 120 Vdc. The dc-dc converters shown in Figure typically receive power from a space-craft power bus and regulate their outputs to a narrow voltage range. and RF. optical.Satellite power system: Electrical energy is one of the vital elements that keep a satellite operational in orbit . laser and electromechanical devices.
power efficiency.3 Vdc to 28 Vdc . The voltage level is mission and satellite design dependent. output-voltage regu-lation. . DC to DC converters are used to provide varying voltages in a satellite power system Key requirements for the converters include reli-ability. Electronics for both the payload and bus system typically require 3. and output ripple and noise. The voltage requirements decline toward 1 V and less for digital loads.
Advanced Dc to Dc converters .
Fundamental Circuits Developed Buck Converter Boost Converter Buck-Boost Converter Positive Output Luo-Converter Negative Output Luo-Converter Double Output Luo-Converter Cuk-Converter SEPIC Forward Converter Push-Pull Converter Half-Bridge Converter Bridge Converter Fly-Back Converter ZETA Converter Positive Output Luo-Converter Negative Output Luo-Converter 7 Self-Lift Converter Modified P/O Luo-Converter Double Output Luo-Converter Transformer Voltage Lift Super-Lift Positive Output Cascade Boost Converter Negative Output Cascade Boost Converter Positive Output Super-Lift Luo-Converter Negative Output Super-Lift Luo-Converter .
Resonant converters These process power in sinusoidal form not in a pulsed form They operate in two modes Continuous mode Discontinuous mode The resonant control circuit keep the frequency and vary the pulse width .
SEPIC (single ended primary inductor converter) It can both step up and step down the input voltages while maintaining the same ground reference .
When the switch is turned on When the switch is turned on the input inductor is charged from the source and the second inductor is charged from the first capacitor no energy is supplied to the load capacitor during this .
When the switch is turned off When the switch is off the both the inductors provide current to the load capacitor. .
applications Architecture specially suited for battery operated equipment and battery charger a .
Fly back converters in detail .
Offline switch mode power supplies AC RFI FILTER I/P RECTIFIER AND FILTER SWITCHING ELEMENT ISOLATION POWER T/F O/P RECTIFIER AND FILTER vout FEEDBACK AND CONTROL I/O ISOLATION .