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Dr. D.K. Tuli

General Manager (Alternate Energy)


Solar Energy Research Plan of IOC-R&D

Line of action (strategy) Basic research

Solar Power Generation Plans of IOC

Solar Lanterns & other products Solar hydrogen dispensing station Large scale solar farms

Three-Pronged Approach

1. Infrastructure & Expertise Creation

2. Product Development & Technology Evaluation 3. Basic Research Projects

R&D Strategy - Infrastructure & Expertise Creation

Set-up laboratory facility for testing of lanterns and other solar energy driven products Testing facility for solar panels

Up-gradation of laboratory facility To certification level

Discussions with TUV, Germany and Fraunhaufer, Germany

For Solar Cell Research For Solar Thermal Research

Targeted Areas of Expertise Solar PV

Testing of Modules & Components of PV Systems

Mechanical, Electrical, Environment & Other Related Tests

Energy yield assessments Study of local irradiation data & system

details and long term yield forecasts compilation using simulations

Site Condition Evaluation Actual energy yield at the site including

shadowing/seasoning and type of plant (off or on grid, pump systems etc)

Technology advisory services Based on global technology evaluation

and relevant standards/regulations

Plant monitoring, output energy yields checks and evaluation

Data logging and analysis capabilities

Damage & fault assessment Determination and analysis of damages

& malfunctions of the systems including required repairs

Necessity for Comprehensive Testing

Prolonged exposure to weather and extreme temperature conditions Sturdiness of insulating materials Performance of wires Extent of current leakages Fire and health hazards

For Whom ?
Grid tied systems Government rebates and tax incentives House insurance Off-grid systems
Current leakages Durability

Benefits of Comprehensive Testing Facilities

Setting up of complete laboratory facility

Can be utilized for all R&D purposes as well as for certification purpose
Sole Indian party status and second Asian certification country after Japan If utilized for certification, can earn extra revenue

All collaborative basic research efforts shall be helped by leveraging the lab facility successfully and the pace of

development will be enhanced by aggressive

institution/industrial collaborations

Targeted Areas of Expertise Solar Thermal

Basic research areas: Advanced coatings Improved reflectors Advanced thermal collectors High temperature resistant thermic fluids Applied research areas: Hydrogen generation through solar thermal route Advanced solar systems for refinery steam pre-heating solar assisted biomass gasifiers air heating & drying etc.

Hydrogen through Solar Energy

R&D Strategy
Product Development & Technology Evaluation
Technology / product tie-ups
for LED lanterns & other appliances development for panels for solar thermal products IITs & CSIR labs such as CMERI, CEERI, CAZRI etc

Existing technology evaluation and data generation

Actual field evaluation exercise on controlled basis on a 10 KWp size plant complete with data management facilities
Power generation & data logging to evaluate all possible commercial PV technologies amongst following :

Mono and/or multi c-Si a-Si CPV CIGS CdTe

Activity can be extended further for all remaining cell technologies under incubation

Basic research for Improved Solar Systems

Focus on 3rd & 4th Generation PV Cells Solar thermal systems leading up-to hydrogen generation

R&D Strategy Basic Research

Solar Lanterns from IndianOil

Made for poor, adored by rich.a viable solar power generation for India

Kerosene use - Market Surveys

Puri & Bhubaneswar
Parameter Target segment Income Rs./day (Range) ltr/month (Range) Rs./ltr (Range) Unit Puri Sea beach Mostly small shops (39/500) 200/(50-500) 40 (10-70) 27/(23-30) Nolia basti, Puri Mostly fishermen (49/700) 110/(75-200) 20 (7-35) 26.30 (20-30) Unit-12, BBSR Slums (36/200) Not divulged

Kerosene consumption SKO purchase @ price

23 (10-60) 25/(25-28)

Monthly SKO spend

Amount ready to pay for SL

Rs./mont h (Range)
Rs./day (Range)

4.10 (3-5)

4.70 (3-12)

4.60 (3-5)

The hows & whys of solar lights

Solar light brighter, healthier & cheaper than kerosene lamps

Brighter than kerosene lights

15-20 times better quality light
150-200 lumens vs. 10-20 lumens (kerosene dibri)

No smoke
Virtual elimination of soot-related health hazard

Cheaper than kerosene lights No moving parts, very little maintenance Near-zero heat
Can sit very close to lamp: boon to villagers & shopkeepers

Above all, endless source of energy

Solar lighting options for the poor & 3 options middle class
1. Central charging station with lanterns on rental for lowincome villagers
Regular income for the rural entrepreneur Micro-financing by MFI/RRB/CB for purchase of lanterns by the poor

2. Solar lights with small panels for relatively well-off villagers

Direct purchase & use

3. Village adoption
Options 1 & 2 practical for both urban & semi-urban customers Low-income areas Shops/mandis (marketplace) Emergency lights

Solar Charging Station (SCS)

The Concept

Solar charging stations

At RO/KSK/LPGD or Any central location

Direct charging during the day

Batteries inside the lanterns

D(PBD) inaugurating SCS, Sathla KSK

Rooftop solar panels, Sathla KSK

Solar Charging Station (SCS)

The Concept

Customers pay rent for lantern & a fee for charging lantern on a daily/monthly basis
Every evening, Customers bring the discharged lantern and take a charged lantern with them Alternatively, the charging station owner arranges for delivery & collection of lanterns

IndianOils Solar Charging Station

KSK, Sathla, UP

IndianOils Solar Lantern Charging Rack

KSK, Chokoni, UP

IndianOils Solar Lantern in use

Ujhari village, Gajraula, Bareily DO

Sweet shops using IndianOils solar lanterns

A chemist shop using IndianOils solar lanterns

Solar Lanterns Specifications

Parameters PV module Battery Electronic efficiency Average duty cycle per day MNRE 2.5 5 (Wp) Upto 7AH @ 12V Min 80% 4 hours

2.5 4.5 (Wp) 4 7 AH @ 6 - 7 V Min 80% Central charging
Upto 6 hrs in full brightness Upto 8 hrs in dimmer Stand alone mode = 4 hrs


14 hours

Lux (1)

V=105 H=32

(*) Three categories

INDIANOILs Solar Lanterns

(Proposed Target Specifications )
Parameters PV module Battery Solar Lamp 2.5 Wp Upto 3.5 AH @ 6/12 V Solar Lanterns 4.5 Wp 5 AH @ 6 V Solar Petromax 8 Wp 12 AH @ 6 - 7 V

Electronic efficiency
Average duty cycle per day Autonomy

Min 80%
Central charging 5-6 hrs in full brightness 7-8 hrs in dimmer Stand alone mode = 4 hrs

Min 80%
Central charging 5-6 hrs in full brightness 7-8 hrs in dimmer Stand alone mode = 4 hrs

Min 80%
Central charging 5-6 hrs in full brightness 7-8 hrs in dimmer Stand alone mode = 4 hrs

Lux (1)

V = 70-104 H =15-25

V = 105-175 H = 26 - 50

V > 190 H > 65

IOC-R&D Plan & Targets (2011-2013)

New product development
Rural usage Lanterns Solar powered fans Pump sets Street lights Urban usage Home lighting systems Fans Garden lights Mobile chargers Street lights Inverters Captive power generating sets Miscellaneous (Industrial including commercial buildings) usage Cookers Power generating units


Demo Projects

Installation of solar powered systems within R&D Extending support to install solar systems in sister divisions Setting up some proven technological units in the country as demo units to leap-frog the technical know-how


~ 50+ MW

(12000 ROs x 6 W/d x 200 days x 4 years)

Solar Mission target = 200 MW for of-grid by 2013

Development of Solar based HCNG dispensing station at Delhi during Commonwealth Games

Project Objectives
To gain experience with onsite Solar Hydrogen Production infrastructure and Hydrogen HCNG utilization in automotive vehicles To study performance, emission, reliability and safety aspects of hydrogen powered vehicles To demonstrate Hydrogen / HCNG powered vehicles for public awareness and acceptance during Commonwealth Games

Work Plan
Work Plan IOC will set up on-site Solar Photovoltaic / Electrolyser based hydrogen dispensing station. The station will comprise the following Solar photovoltaic panels Electrolyser Hydrogen compressor Hydrogen Storage Blender & Dispenser

Infrastructure Required
S.No. 1 Description Solar Photovoltaic System Specification 25 kW (Peak- 50 kWp)

Output : 100 V (DC)

2 Electrolyser 5 Nm3/hr Purity; 99.999 % 3 H2 Compressor H2 Storage HCNG Blender Dispenser Suction Pressure: 5-10 bar

Discharge Pressure: ~450 bar

4 5 6 Pressure 450 bar Blending Range: 0-50% (v/v) HCNG : 200-250 bar

Hydrogen : 350 bar

Existing Fuels

Facility Creation


Product Development & Evaluation

Long term

Basic Research

Competencies & Leadership

Future Fuels

Future Fuels

A progressive & profitable energy centre of repute having international level research facilities, development expertise and certification accreditations

Basic Research on New Generation PV Cells


Multi junction devices

Stacks of single junction cells in descending order of band-gap Top cell captures high-energy photons and passes rest on to lower band-gap cells

New materials / material technologies

Nano PV cells Dye sensitized cells Polymer cells

Concentrator PV
Concentrates and utilizes maximum sun power

PV Cells..theoretical projections
# Junctions in Cells 1 Sun Maximum Concentration

1 Junction 2 Junction 3 Junction n Junctions

30.8% 42.9% 49.3% 68.2%

40.8% 55.7% 63.8% 86.8%

PROS: Multi junction is one of the approach to exceed single junction efficiencies For 50% efficiency, it is mentioned that 5 junctions shall be needed assuming 80% absorption is possible CONS The tandem approach is limited by the availability of stable materials of desired band gaps Concentration possess challenges in acceptance angle and thermal management as the degree of concentration is increased

Solar Energy
Some Interdisciplinary Areas of R&D Hydrogen generation through Solar Energy
Comparative study of PV & Thermal route

Building Integrated PhotoVoltaic

Emerging & promising area

Polymeric Materials and chemicals used in solar panels

Polymeric films Adhesives

Hybrid Systems
Fuel cells Combustion engineering

Type Testing SOLAR PV


Terminal Robustness Static Mechanical Load Test

Tensile and/or torque test on electrical terminations to assess the ability to withstand the normal stresses associated with handling and insulation Determines the ability of the module to withstand wind, snow, ice, or other static load

IEC 61215-10.14 IEC 62108-10.12 IEC 61646-1014 UL 1703-22, 28 IEEE 1262-5.9 & 1513-5.9 IEC 61215-10.16 IEC 62108-10.13 IEC 61646-10.16 UL 1703-39 IEEE 1262-5.11

Impact Test
Surface Cut Susceptibility Junction Box Securement Hail Impact Test

Assesses the adequacy of the system to withstand impact forces

Verifies if the covering surface can withstand surface cuts Verifies if junction box can withstand tensile pull forces Simulates hail impact to determine the ability to withstand and survive severe hailstorm conditions

UL 1703-29

UL 1703-24 IEEE 1262-5.12 IEC 61730-10.3 UL 1703-39

IEC 61215-10.17 IEC 62108-10.9 IEC 61646-10.17 ASTM E-1038 & E 822 IEEE 1262-5.14 & 1513-5.11

Type Testing SOLAR PV


Thermal Cycling

Rapid cycling of temperature extremes between -40 C and + 85C for 200 cycles at 6 hours per cycle to test the ability to withstand thermal mismatch, fatigue or other stresses caused by rapid, non-uniform or repeated changes of temperature Rapid cycling of both temperature and humidity extremes similar to thermal cycling with additional high humidity @ 10 cycles per 24 hour. Determines the ability to withstand high temperature and high humidity followed by freezing temperatures +85C & 85% RH for 1000 hours to test the ability to withstand the effects of long-term penetration of humidity

IEC 61215-10.11 IEC 62108-10.6 IEC 61646-10.11 UL 1703-35 IEEE 1262-5.7 & 1513-5.7 ASTM E 1171-6.5 IEC 61215-10.12 IEC 62108-10.8 IEC 61646-10.8 UL 1703-36 IEEE 1262-5.8 & 1513-5.8 ASTM E 1171-6.6 IEC 61215-10.13 IEC 62108-10.7 IEC 61646-10.13 IEEE 1262-5.13 & 1513-5.10 ASTM E 1171-6.7

Humidity Freeze Cycling Damp Heat Test

Type Testing SOLAR PV

ELECTRICAL TESTS Ground Path Continuity / Bonding Path Resistance Electrical Isolation (Including wet/dry hipot, leakage current and dielectric voltage withstand tests) Bypass / Blocking Diode Terminal Test (Nonintrusive) Impulse Voltage
Verifies electrical continuity between all exposed conductive parts and the grounding point under high current condition Measures the quality of electrical insulation under various conditions. Verifies the adequacy of electrical insulation between all active parts of the power generating circuit and the frame or the outside world Assesses the adequacy of thermal design and relative long-term reliability of bypass/blocking diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of system hotspot susceptibility Verify the insulations ability to withstand over-voltage
IEC 62108-10.3 IEC 61730-2-10.4 UL 1703-25 IEEE 1262-5.3 IEEE 1513-5.3 ASTM E 1462-7.3 IEC 61215-10.3 IEC 62108-10.4/10.5 IEC 61646-10.3 UL 1703-21/26/27 IEC 61730-10.6 ASTM E 1462-7.1/7.2 IEEE 1262-5.4,5.5,5.6 IEEE 1513-5.4,5.5,5.6 IEC 61215-10.18 IEC 61646-10.18 IEC 62108-10.11 IEEE 1262-5.15 IEEE 1513-5.12 UL 1703-21

Type Testing SOLAR PV


Temperature Coefficients Temperature Tests Visual Inspection

Determines the effect of temperature on the current, voltage and peak power output of the module

IEC 61215-10.4 IEC 61646-10.4

Verify the system to withstand high heat without showing signs of stress or deformation Visually inspect system for damage and compliance with design criteria

IEC 61730-2-10.7 UL 1703-19

IEC 61215-10.1 IEC 62108-10.1 IEC 61646-10.1 IEC 61730-2-10.1 IEEE 1262-5.1 & 1513-5.1 ASTM E 1799

Learning from the Workshop

Solar PV and Solar Thermal are two distinct and separate areas of solar energy research Traditionally, solar thermal was more in use quantitatively, while solar PV is now spreading far & wide

Total installed solar thermal capacity in world ~ 500 MW

Total installed solar PV capacity in world ~ 15 GW

At present, installing solar thermal plant is relatively cheaper than solar PV plant of equivalent capacity

Solar Thermal Some Areas Under R&D

Basic research areas: Advanced power cycles Advanced coatings Improved reflectors Advanced thermal collectors High temperature resistant thermic fluids Applied research areas: Development of organic Rankine cycle system Solar dish engines such as Stirling/steam/micro-turbines for decentralized power Development of suitable receiver systems Solar energy storage devise Solargas, Fuel Cells, Molten salts with low freezing temperatures and options for low & medium temperature applications Development of heliostats with automatic tracking controls Advanced solar systems for cooling green buildings cooking air heating & drying etc.

Solar PhotoVoltaic Some Areas Under R&D

Areas of basic research:
Crystalline silicon based solar technology
Modeling & simulation of novel structures Reduction in optical losses Reduction in wafer thickness Indigenous development of transparent conducting light trapping oxides (TCLO) Development of silver paste etc

Non-crystalline based solar technology

Development of CIGS (Copper indium gallium di-selenide) based solar modules Amorphous silicon based modules Nano-silicon & dye sensitized modules

Areas of applied research

Improvement of module life Module making processes Low weight modules etc.

RESOURCES NEEDED..cumulatively

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 0 10 2 0 11 2 0 12 Year 2 0 13 2 0 15 4 10 12 14 18

Rs. crores

25 20 15 10 5 0 20

25 22

5 7

2010 2011 2012 2013 2015 Year

2010 Initiation & lantern project

2011 Data generation & research project initiation 2012 Building & lab upgradation + demo projects onstream 2013 Projects fructifications

In case of certification/accreditation lab

Activity Lantern project Equipment procurement & Building/lab set up Lab upgradation Product development (PV + thermal) Solar fuels (gasification + reforming) Data generation (PV + thermal + outside R&D) Demo systems Propulsions
2013 + 2011 - 2012

Dedicated Manpower Quantity 2 2 2 2 (1+1) 2 (1+1) 3 (1+1+1) 3 2 TOTAL