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You are on page 1of 49

APPLICATIONS

(SMS 3123)

TITLE : KENDALLS TAU

GROUP : 16

GROUPS MEMBER :

36) NOR AMIN BIN ROZZAHLIM (D20091036056)

28) NOOR IDAYU BT BADARUDDIN (D20091036044)

49) NOOR AMALINA BT OSMAN (D20091036072)

LECTURERS NAME : MR. LIM KIAN BOON

KENDALLS

TAU

LEARNING OUTCOME

To test the null hypothesis

that x and y are independent

(which implies ) against

one of the following

alternative:

0 or 0, , 0 < > = t t t

0 = t

ASSUMPTIONS

1. The data consists of a random sample of n pairs

of numeric or nonnumeric observations.

Each pair of observations represents two

measurement taken on the same unit of

association.

2. The data are measured on at least an ordinal

scale, so that we can rank each X observation in

relation to all other observed Xs and each Y

observation in relation to all other observed Ys.

) ( , i i Y X

KENDALLS TAU TEST :

There are two types of Kendalls Tau Test :

1. Small sample ( Ties and non-ties)

2. Large sample approximation

HYPOTHESES

CASE A ()

Two sided

CASE B (>)

One sided

CASE C (<)

One sided

H0 : X and Y are

independent

H1 : 0

H0 : X and Y are

independent

H1 : >0

H0 : X and Y are

independent

H1 : <0

Small Samples

(Non-ties)

TEST STATISTIC

Test statistic:

where :

S = P - Q

n=number of (X, Y) observations (or rank)

2

) 1 (

^

=

n n

S

t

To obtain P an Q , follow the steps:

1. Arrange the observations in a column

according to the magnitude of the Xs from smallest

to largest X values. Then we say Xs are in natural

order.

2. Compare each Y value, one at a time with each Y

value appearing below it. In making these comparison,

we say that a pair of Y values is in natural order if

the Y below is larger than the Y above. We say that

a pair of Y values is in reverse natural order if the

Y below is smaller than the Y above.

3. P : Total number of pairs in natural order and

Q : Total number of pairs in reverse natural order.

4. S = P Q

) ( , i i Y X

Let say we are given data as below:

Rearrange the data to get the value of P and Q

so that we get value of S :

S = 2 1 = 1

X Y

3 7

1 6

2 3

X Y Y pairs in natural

order

Y pairs in reverse

natural order

1 6 1 1

2 3 1 0

3 7 0 0

P = 2 Q = 1

If all the Y pairs are in natural order, then

and we have

indicating perfect direct correlation between the

ranking of X and Y

2

) 1 (

0

2

) 1 (

, 0 ,

2

) 1 (

=

(

=

= =

=

n n n n

S

Q P S Q

n n

P

1

2

) 1 (

2

) 1 (

=

=

n n

n n

If all the Y pairs in reverse natural orders we have

and

indicating a perfect inverse correlation between the

and Y rankings.

Thus, cannot be greater than +1 or smaller

than -1.

2

) 1 (

2

) 1 (

0

,

2

) 1 (

, 0

=

(

=

=

= =

n n n n

S

Q P S

n n

Q P

1

2

) 1 (

2

) 1 (

=

=

n n

n n

Small Samples

(Ties)

If many ties are present, we may compute by

using the following special formula:

Q - P S

rank given a at tied are n that observatio y of number

rank given a at tied are n that observatio x of number

) 1 (

2

1

) 1 (

2

1

) 1 (

2

1

) 1 (

2

1

^

=

=

=

=

=

=

y

x

y y y

x x x

y x

t

t

t t T

t t T

where

T n n T n n

S

t

To obtain P and Q, follow the steps:

1. List the observation in ascending(natural) order

according to the magnitude of the Xs.

2. Within the tied observations of the Xs, arrange

the Y values in ascending order of magnitude.

3. Count the number of Y pairs in natural order and

the number of Y pairs in reverse natural order as

describe before, but do not compare a Y value

accompanying a tied X value(say, ) with any

other Y value accompanying another X value that

is tied with

a X

a X

We are given data as below:

Rearrange data to get the value of P and Q so that we

get S:

S = 0 2 = -2 ,

X Y

1 3

1 2

2 4

X Y Y pairs in

natural order

Y pairs in

reverse

natural order

1 2 0 1

1 3 0 1

2 1 0 0

P = 0 Q = 2

0 t , 2 t

y x

= =

DECISION

Refer table A.22, page 579

If is unknown, assume =0.05

CASE A

()

CASE B

(>)

CASE C

(<)

Reject H0 if

(two - sided)

Reject H0 if

(one - sided)

Reject H0 if

(one - sided)

2

^

2

^

* - - or *

o o

t t t t < >

o

t t *

^

>

o

t t *

^

<

o

LARGE SAMPLE

APPROXIMATION

LARGE SAMPLE

APPROXIMATION

) 5 2 ( 2

) 1 ( 3

^

+

=

n

n n

z

t

If n>40, use this formula to compute

EXAMPLE-NON TIES

Cravens and Woodruff * conducted a study to design and

test a methodology for analytically determining standards of

sales performance. They reported the data on benchmark

achievement and management rating for 25 sales territories

shown in the Table 9.7. They computed benchmark

achievement as being sales volume divided by benchmark

sales, and based management ratings on salesperson

motivation and effort.

We wish to compute for these data to see whether there

is sufficient evidence to conclude that benchmark

achievement and management rating are directly related.

Although the data are reported as ranks, we follow the same

procedure in computing as we would if the data were

reported in absolute quantities .

*Cravens, David W., and Robert B. Woodruff, An Approach for Determining Criteria

ofSales Perfomance,J. Appl. Psychol., 57 (1973), 242-247.

0.005 use = o

Table 9.7

Territory Benchmark

achievement

(X)

Management

rating (Y)

Territory

Benchmark

achievement

(X)

Management

rating (Y)

1 2 4 14 11 10

2 9 2 15 1 1

3 7 20 16 21 14

4 23 17 17 14 15

5 5 5 18 3 11

6 17 7 19 13 13

7 16 6 20 18 19

8 25 24 21 22 25

9 4 3 22 19 16

10 10 21 23 24 23

11 20 18 24 6 22

12 15 9 25 12 12

13 8 8

SOLUTION:

1) HYPOTHESES

H0: Benchmark achievement and

management rating are independent (=0)

H1: Benchmark achievement and management

rating are directly related (>0) (claim)

2)TEST STATISTICS:

Firstly, arrange the data as in the Table 9.7 so that the X

ranks are in natural order. Then, based on the definitions of

natural order and reverse natural order of Y, find the

number of Y pairs in natural orders and reverse natural

orders. After we complete the arrangement, the formula

shown below will be applied:

sample of number

order natural reverse in pairs Y

order natural in pairs Y

=

=

=

=

n

Q

P

Q P S

2

) 1 (

=

n n

S

^

t

X

Y

(X, Y) rankings

Y pairs in

natural order

Y pairs in reverse

natural order

1 1 (1, 1) 24 0

2 4 (2, 4) 21 2

3 11 (3, 11) 14 8

4 3 (4, 3) 20 1

5 5 (5, 5) 19 1

6 22 (6, 22) 3 16

7 20 (7, 20) 4 14

8 8 (8, 8) 14 3

9 2 (9, 2) 16 0

10 21 (10, 21) 3 12

11 10 (11, 10) 11 3

12 12 (12, 12) 10 3

13 13 (13, 13) 9 3

Arrangement of data for computing (Table 9.7)

X

Y

(X, Y) rankings

Y pairs in

natural order

Y pairs in reverse

natural order

14 15 (14,15) 7 4

15 9 (15, 9) 8 2

16 6 (16,6) 9 0

17 7 (17, 7) 8 0

18 9 (18, 9) 3 4

19 6 (19, 6) 5 1

20 18 (20, 18) 3 2

21 14 (21, 14) 4 0

22 25 (22, 25) 0 3

23 17 (23, 17) 2 0

24 23 (24, 23) 1 0

25 24 (25, 24) 0 0

P = 218 Q = 82

From the calculation :

P=218, Q=82, n=25

S = P Q

= 218 82

= 136

The test statistic,

453 . 0

2

) 24 ( 25

136

^

= = t

3) DECISION

Test statistic,

From table A.22 with n=25 and =0.005

critical value,

Since

So, we reject H0.

453 . 0

^

= t

367 . 0 *

005 . 0

= t

005 . 0

^

* t > t

4) CONCLUSION

There is enough evidence to support the claim that

there is direct relationship between benchmark

achievement and management ranking in the

population.

EXAMPLE-TIES

Krippner* reported the data shown in Table 9.9 on

30 children(26 boys,4 girls) who attended a

summer reading clinic sponsored by a university

child-study center. The data were generated as

part of an investigation to determine which of the

several variables appear to be related to reading

improvement manifested in a remedial program. We

wish to compute from these data and test the

null-hypothesis that there is no association

between IQ and reading improvement,let .

*Krippner, Stanley, Correlates of Reading Improvement, J.Devel. Reading, 7 (1963)

29-39.

1 . 0 = o

Data on 30 subjects enrolled in a 5-week summer reading clinic

Table 9.9

Client Improvement(X) WISC IQ full

scale(Y)

Alvin 0.6 86

Barry 0.2 107

Chester 1.6 102

Dick 0.5 104

Earl 0.9 104

Floyd 0.5 89

Gregg 0.8 109

Harry 0.8 109

Ivan 0.8 101

Jacob 0.4 96

Karl 1.8 113

Continue

Client Improvement(X) WISC IQ full

scale(Y)

Lewis 0.1 85

Marvin 0.9 100

Ned 0.2 94

Oscar 1.6 104

Peter 1.6 104

Quincy 0.0 98

Ralph 1.6 115

Rita 0.2 109

Simon 0.3 94

Tony 0.0 112

Uriah 1.0 96

Continue

Client Improvement(X) WISC IQ full

scale(Y)

Victor 1.3 113

Waldo 0.6 110

Walter 0.6 97

Wanda 0.5 107

Xavier 1.7 113

York 1.6 109

Yvonne 2.2 98

Zohra 1.5 106

1) HYPOTHESES:

0)(claim) IQ( and t improvemen reading between ip relationsh inverse or direct is There :

t independen are IQ and t improvemen Reading

1

0

:

= t H

H

2) TEST STATISTIC:

Firstly we arrange the data based on the natural order

of X (ascending order).

Find the Y pairs in natural order and Y pairs in reverse

natural order based on their definition. After we get the

arrangement, we will get the value of P and Q to be

applied in formula shown below:

Continue

rank given a at tied are that ns observatio Y of no.

rank given a at tied are that ns observatio X of no.

) 1 (

2

1

), 1 (

2

1

) 1 (

2

1

) 1 (

2

1

=

=

= =

=

y

x

y y y x x x

y x

t

t

t t T t t T

T n n T n n

S

Arrangement of data for computing in Table 9.9 :

Improvement(X) IQ(Y) Y pairs in

natural order

Y pairs in

reverse

natural order

0.0 98 19 8

0.0 112 4 24

0.1 85 27 0

0.2 94 21 2

0.2 107 8 15

0.2 109 5 16

0.3 94 21 2

0.4 96 19 2

0.5 89 18 1

0.5 104 9 7

Continue

Improvement(X) IQ(Y) Y pairs in

natural order

Y pairs in

reverse natural

order

0.5 107 8 11

0.6 86 16 0

0.6 97 15 1

0.6 110 4 12

0.8 101 10 3

0.8 109 4 8

0.8 109 4 8

0.9 100 9 2

0.9 104 6 3

1.0 96 10 0

1.3 113 1 6

Continue

Improvement(X) IQ(Y) Y pairs in natural

order

Y pairs in

reverse natural

order

1.5 106 4 4

1.6 102 2 1

1.6 104 2 1

1.6 104 2 1

1.6 109 2 1

1.6 115 0 3

1.7 113 0 1

1.8 113 0 1

2.2 98 0 0

P=250 Q=144

Continue

2564 . 0

19

2

) 29 ( 30

24

2

) 29 ( 30

106

19

2

) 2 ( 3 ) 3 ( 4 ) 1 ( 2 ) 3 ( 4 ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( 2

T

24

2

) 4 ( 5 ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ( 3 ) 2 ( 3 ) 2 ( 3 ) 2 ( 3 ) 1 ( 2

T

106 144 250 S

y

x

=

=

=

+ + + + + +

=

=

+ + + + + +

=

= =

3) DECISION

4) CONCLUSION

test). tail - ce(two significan of level 0.10 at the

H reject can we A.22, in table given 30 n for 0.218 * than

greater is 0.256 of value computed our Since

0 0.05

= = t

=

IQ. and

t improvemen reading between ip relationsh inverse or direct

is e that ther claim e support th to evidence enough is There

EXERCISE(NON-TIES)

Johnson* conducted a study to determine whether, in

collegiate schools of nursing, relationships bertween

certain variables could be identified. Two variables of

interest for which indixes were constucted were

extent of agreement (between the dean and the

faculty) on the responsibilities for decision making and

faculty satisfaction. The ranks on the two variables

of the 12 institutions that participated in the study are

shown in Table 9.11. The author computed a value of

rs =-0.336 from the data, which she declared not

significant. Compute from the data and test

significance against the alternative that < 0.

*Johnson, Betty M.,Decision Making, Faculty Satisfaction, and The Place of the

School of Nursing in the University, Nursing Res.,22(1973),100-107.

t

Table 9.11

School Rank on faculty

satisfaction

Rank on

decision-making

agreement

A

1 12

B

7 11

C

6 10

D

2 9

E

8 8

F

4 7

G

10 6

H

12 5

I

11 4

J

5 3

K

9 2

L

3 1

EXERCISE(TIES)

Pierce* points out that is most investigations of

lightning discharges to earth, the estimated quantity of

electricity passing from the cloud to the ground is

around 20 to 30 coulombs. However, Pierce cites the

data of Meese and Evans*, who reported much larger

values. Their data as reported by Pierce are shown in

table 9.13, along with the distance of the observing site

of the discharge. Pierce computes a Pearson product-

moment correlation coefficient of r=0.877 and a P value

of 0.01. Compute and the corresponding P value for

Hi : > 0.

*Pierce, E.T.,The Charge Transferred to Earth by a lightning Flash, J.Franklin

Inst.,286 (1968), 353-354

*Meese,A.D., and W.H.Evans.Charge Transfer in the Lightning Stroke as

Determined by the Magnetograph,J.Franklin Inst.,273(1963),375-382.

t

Table 9.13

Distance, kilometres Charge, coulombs

6 23

6 46

6 46

6 47

6 94

7 80

9 133

10 81

10 114

10 274

11 260

12 378

15 197

15 234

18 1035

23 1065

EXERCISE(LARGE SAMPLE)

Cravens and Woodruff * conducted a study to design and

test a methodology for analytically determining standards of

sales performance. They reported the data on benchmark

achievement and management rating for 41 sales territories

shown in the table 9.14. They computed benchmark

achievement as being sales volume divided by benchmark

sales, and based management ratings on salesperson

motivation and effort.

We wish to compute for these data to see whether there is

sufficient evidence to conclude that benchmark achievement

and management rating are directly related. Although the

data are reported as ranks, we follow the same procedure in

computing as we would if the data were reported in

absolute quantities.

*Cravens, David W., and Robert B. Woodruff, An Approach for Determining

Criteria ofSales Perfomance,J. Appl. Psychol., 57 (1973), 242-247.

Table 9.14

Territory Benchmark

achievement

(X)

Management

rating (Y)

Territory

Benchmark

achievement

(X)

Management

rating (Y)

1 2 4 14 11 10

2 9 2 15 1 1

3 7 20 16 21 14

4 23 17 17 14 15

5 5 5 18 3 11

6 17 7 19 13 13

7 16 6 20 18 19

8 25 24 21 22 25

9 4 3 22 19 16

10 10 21 23 24 23

11 20 18 24 6 22

12 15 9 25 12 12

13 8 8 26 28 34

Continue

Territory Benchmark

achievement

(X)

Management

rating (Y)

Territory

Benchmark

achievement

(X)

Management

rating (Y)

27 30 41 35 32 30

28 26 38 36 39 33

29 29 36 37 37 35

30 27 32 38 36 37

31 33 29 39 41 39

32 35 31 40 38 40

33 31 26 41 40 27

34 34 28

TABLE

A.22

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vT18FbqDqTc&

feature=youtu.be

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K289f4S75Bg&

feature=youtu.be

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