MUAZ BIN OMAR NUR AISHAH BINTI RAMLI NURHIDAYAH BINTI MAT NOR
Learning Outcomes
Student will be able to use the sign test for two related samples to make inference about location parameters.
Assumptions
The data consist of a random sample of n pairs of measurements (X1,Y1), (X2,Y2)(Xn,Yn) where each pair of measurements is taken on the same subject or subjects that have been paired with respect to one or more variables. The variable of interest is Xi  Yi = Di the difference between pairs of measurements.
The n pairs of measurements are independent. The measurement scale is at least ordinal within each pair, so that one can determine which of two members is larger (unless they are equal).
Case A. (Twosided)
Hypotheses H0 : MD = 0 H1 : MD 0
Test Statistic Either a sufficiently small number of plus sign or a sufficiently small number of minus sign cause us to reject H0. The number of plus sign or minus signs, whichever is smaller.
P(K k  n, 0.50 ) /2
B. (Onesided)
H0 : MD 0 H1 : MD > 0
If small number of minus Reject H0 at the level signs causes to reject H0, of significance if therefore the k is the number of minus signs. P(K k  n, 0.50 )
C. (Onesided)
H0 : MD 0 H1 : MD < 0
If small number of plus sign Reject H0 at the level causes to reject H0, of significance if consequently k is the number of plus signs. P(K k  n, 0.50 )
Example
Latane and Cappell * studied the effect of togetherness on heart rate in rats. They recorded the heart rates of 10 rats while they were alone and while in the presence of another rat. The authors, who used a ttest with the data, were able to conclude at the 0.05 level of significance that togetherness that in rats increases heart rate. Let us see whether we can reach the same conclusion by using the sign test. Let = 0.05.
*Latane, Bibb
and Howard Cappell, The Effects of Togetherness on heart Rate in Rats, Psychon. Sci. 29 (1972), 177179.
2) Test Statistic Test differences between alone and togetherness heart rates and their signs.
Alone rate (X) 463 462 494 462 456 450 461 535 476 426 454 418 448 415 408 409 402 470 437 Together rate (Y) 523
60

32

+1
+
79

26

28

30

+7
+
61

35

k = 2,
n = 10,
= 0.05
5) Conclusion Not enough evidence to support the claim that togetherness in rats increase heart rate.
EXERCISES
Exercise 1 Van Duijn * studied the effect of clonazepam on cobalt included focal seizures in alert cats. Before and after administering clonazepam, he recorded focal paroxysmal activity as mean seconds with spikes/10 seconds recording. Table below shows the results of this part of this part of the experiment. Can we conclude on the basic of these data that clonazepam decreases focal spiking? Let = 0.05. What is the Pvalue?
* Van Duijin, H., Superiority of Clonazepam over Diazepam in Experimental Epilepsy, Epilepsia, 14 (1973), 195 202.
SOLUTION
Hypotheses H0 : MD 0 H1 : MD > 0 (claim)
Test Statistic Differences of the effect of clonazepam on focal spikes produced by cobalt.
Cat Before (X)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2.7 4.2 3.3 5.3 4.2 3.5 6.5 4.8 3.7 7.1 4.5 2.6 1.4 2.5 2.5 2.3 3.0 2.6 1.9 0.4
+ + + + + + + + +
After (Y)
Sign of (X Y)
k = 1, n =10, = 0.05
Exercise 2 Shani et al. * studied the effect of phenobarbital on liver functions in patients with DubinJohnson syndrome. The table below shows the total bilirubin in the sera of these patients before and after treatment with phenobarbital. Can we conclude on the basis of these data that phenobarbital reduces total bilirubin level? Let = 0.05. What is the Pvalue?
* Mordechai Shani, Uri Seligsohn, and Judith BenEzzer, Effect of Phenobarbital on Liver Functions in Patients with DubinJohnson Syndrome, Gastroenterology, 67 (1974), 303308; copyright 1974, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
SOLUTION
Hypotheses H0 : MD 0 H1 : MD > 0 (claim)
Test Statistic Total bilirubin, milligrams per 100 ml, in sera of patients with Dubin Johnson syndrome, before and after treatment with phenobarbital.
Patient Before (X) After (Y) Sign of (XY)
10 11 12 13
4.0 3.2 3.8 1.8 3.0 5.3 5.7 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.8 1.8 2.6
3.1 3.0 3.5 1.0 1.8 3.9 2.2 2.1 1.4 2.9 2.6 1.4 2.5
+ + + + + + + + +
k = 0, n =12, = 0.05
eliminate
Exercise 3 Smith and Di Girolamo * examined the morphological changes in epididymal fat cells of mature, moderately obese rats during reduction of body weight and adipose tissue mass. Table below shows part of their results. Do these data provide sufficient evidence at the 0.05 level significance to indicate that reduction of body weight reduces the diameter of fat cells?
*Smith, Jerry E., and Mario Di Girolamo, Effect of Weight Reduction in the Rat on Epididymal Fat Cell Size and Relative Dispersion, Amer. J. Physiol., 227 (1974), 420424.
SOLUTION
Hypotheses H0 : MD 0 H1 : MD > 0 (claim)
Test Statistic Table of mean fat cell diameters, of mature obese rats before and after 20% reduction in body weight by underfeeding.
Rat Before (X) After (Y) Sign of (X Y) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 84.4 86.0 87.9 93.9 95.2 96.6 97.5 101.4 103.8 115.2 116.4 134.5 62.9 75.4 78.2 83.6 57.6 58.0 69.6 76.5
+ + + + + + + +
73.9
+
88.0
+
73.8
+
94.1
+
k = 0, n =12, = 0.05
YouTube Link:
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