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Code Division Multiple Access

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Content
Introduction History and Development of CDMA Comparison CDMA Working Schemes Techniques CDMA Coding Codes Benefits of CDMA Architecture Channels

Coding Power Control Frequency Allocation Hand-Off Rake Receiver Advantages Conclusion

Introduction
Code Division Multiple Access, or CDMA, is technology for wireless cellular networks. The phrasing "Code Division Multiple Access" refers to this technology's approach of using special codes to spread information (i.e. voice and data calls) from different users across a large band of radio spectrum, allowing more calls and more data to travel over the same radio spectrum assigned. This means more users can be served by fewer cell sites. This technique is utilized in two main cellular systems: Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) which is used by UMTS service providers and CDMA2000 which is used by CDMA service providers.

The term CDMA ("Code Division Multiple Access") is generic. It applies to any spread-spectrum multiple access system where different spreading codes (or different portions of the same spreading code) allow receivers to discriminate between multiple transmitters using the same frequency channel at the same time. For several years, the cellular industry has used the term to refer specifically to the Qualcomm developed digital cellular telephone system based on CDMA techniques. Now that the technology is a standard, the preferred term is TIA IS-95 (Telecommunications Industry Association Interim Standard 95). In this paper I will tend to use "CDMA" to refer to the general characteristics of spread spectrum multiple access systems and "IS-95" to refer to the

Comparison
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), is a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. In CDMA every channel uses the full available spectrum. CDMA in Technical Term IS-95.

Access Methods

For radio systems there are two resources, frequency and time. Division by frequency, so that each pair of communicators is allocated part of the spectrum for all of the time, results in Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Division by time, so that each pair of communicators is allocated all (or at least a large part) of the spectrum for part of the time results in Time Division Multiple Access In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), every communicator will be allocated the entire spectrum all of the time. CDMA uses codes to identify connections.

FDMA Overview
en c y

C B A

f2 f1 f0

B A

Time

Fr eq u

TDMA Overview

B C

C B A C B A C B A C B A

f0

Time

Fr eq

ue nc y

CDMA Overview
Base-band Spectrum Code B B
B

spread spectrum Radio Spectrum

Code A
Fr eq ue n cy

A
A

Code A
B A C B A C B A

CB

C B

Sende r

Time

Receive r

For Wireless systems there are two simple and common resources, frequency and time. Division by frequency, so that each pair of communicators is allocated part of the spectrum for all of the time, results in Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Division by time, so that each pair of communicators is allocated all (or at least a large part) of the spectrum for part of the time results in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), every communicator will be allocated the entire spectrum all of the time. CDMA uses codes to identify connections.

Summary of Multiple Access


FDMA
pow er

pow er

tim e

en qu fre cy
tim e

TDMA

pow er

n ue q fre cy
tim e

CDMA

n ue q fre cy

CDMA uses unique spreading codes to spread the baseband data before transmission. The signal is transmitted in a channel, which is below noise level. The receiver then uses a co-realtor to dispread the wanted signal, which is passed through a narrow band-pass filter. Codes take the form of a carefully designed one/zero sequence produced at a much higher rate than that of the baseband data. The rate of a spreading code is referred to as chip rate rather than bit rate.

Technique
Spread Spectrum modulation techniques are defined as being those techniques in which: The bandwidth of the transmitted signal is much greater than the bandwidth of the original message. The bandwidth of the transmitted signal is determined by the message to be transmitted and by an additional signal known as the Spreading Code. Two main Spread Spectrum modulation techniques are defined: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)

Spread Spectrum modulation techniques present two major advantages: low power density and redundancy. Low power density relates to the fact that the transmitted energy is spread over a wide band, and therefore, the amount of energy per specific frequency is very low. The effect of the low power density of the transmitted signal is that such a signal will not disturb (interfere with) the activity of other systems receivers in the same area and that such a signal can not be detected by intruders, providing a high level of intrinsic security. Redundancy relates to the fact that the message is (or may be) present on different frequencies from where it may be recovered in case of errors. The effect of redundancy is that Spread Spectrum systems present high resistance to noises and interference, being able to recover their messages even if noises are present on the medium.

DS-SS Techniques
CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications. In general, Spread Spectrum communications is distinguished by three key elements: a) The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send the information. This results in many benefits, such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access. b) The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is independent of the data. The independence of the code distinguishes this from standard modulation schemes in which the data modulation will always spread the spectrum somewhat.

c) The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. The use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same time. In order to protect the signal, the code used is pseudo-random. It appears random, but is actually deterministic, so that the receiver can reconstruct the code for synchronous detection. This pseudorandom code is also called pseudo-noise (PN).

Orthogonal Spreading and Channelization User Input 1 0 0 1


100 1
TX data

100 1 100 1

100 1 100 1

100 1 011 0

100 1 011 0

011 0

Decoding using correct Orthogonal Code


RX data Correct Functio n

011 0 100 1 111 1

100 1 100 1 000 0

100 1 100 1 000 0

011 0 100 1 111 1

011 0 100 1 111 1

1 1

Decoding with incorrect Orthogonal Code


RX data Incorrec t Functio n

011 0 010 1 001 1

100 1 010 1 110 0

100 1 010 1 110 0

011 0 010 1 001 1

011 0 010 1 001 1

? ?

CDMA Coding

Advantages of FH-SS
FHSS is a very robust technology, with little influence from noises, reflections, other radio stations or other environment factors. In addition, the number of simultaneously active systems in the same geographic area (collocated systems) is significantly higher than the equivalent number for DSSS systems. All these features make the FHSS technology the one to be selected for installations designed to cover big areas where a big number of collocated systems is required and where the use of directional antennas in order to minimize environment factors influence is impossible. Typical applications for FHSS include cellular deployments for fixed Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), where the use of DSSS is virtually impossible because of its limitations.

Advantages of DS-SS
DSSS has the advantage of providing higher capacities than FHSS, but it is a very sensitive technology, influenced by many environment factors (mainly reflections). The best way to minimize such influences is to use the technology in either (i) point to multipoint, short distances applications or (ii) long distance applications, but point to point topologies. In both cases the systems can take advantage of the high capacity offered by DSSS technology, without paying the price of being disturbed by the effect of reflections. As so, typical DSSS applications include indoor wireless LAN in offices (i)Building to Building links (ii)Point of Presence (PP) to Base Station links (in cellular deployment systems) etc.

CDMA Channels
There are two groups of channels, play an important role for data flow over CDMA and these channels are 1-) Forward Channels a) Pilot Channels b) Synchronization Channels c) Paging Channels d) Traffic Channels 2-) Reverse Channels a) Access Channels b) Traffic Channels

Walsh Function W0 Pilot Channel (All 0s) PN Chips 1.2288 Mcps

Pilots channels -Has all zeros. Uses no WALSH code. Used for receive level comparison for power control. Gives O/H information for locking with sync.

Synchronization Channels -Uses during system acquisition stage. To be re-used when the system is powered up again.

Multiple Access Methods


Base Station
Forward link Reverse link Mobile Station

Mobile Station

Mobile Station

Mobile Station

DS-CDMA

DS-CDMA System(Forward link)


CDMA is a multiple spread spectrum.

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Data A

BPF

BPF

Despread er Code A

Data A

Code A

MS-A

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Data B

BPF

BPF

Despread er Code B

Data B

BS

Difference between each communication path is only the spreading code

Code B

MS-B

DS-CDMA System Overview DS-CDMA System Overview (Reverse Link) (Reverse Link)
CDMA is a multiple spread spectrum.

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Data A

BPF

BPF

Despread er Code A

Data A

MS-A

Code A

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Freq.

Data B

BPF

BPF

Despread er Code B

Data B

BS

Difference between each communication path is only the spreading code

MS-B

Code B

Power

Mobile Propagation Environment Multi-path Fading


path-1 path-2 path-3 multi-path propagation path-2

Path Delay
path-1

path-3

The peaks and bottoms of received power appear, in proportion to Doppler frequency.

Power

Base Station (BS)

Mobile Station (MS)

Time

Fading in non-CDMA System


With low time-resolution, different signal paths cannot be path-1 discriminated. path-2 These signals sometimes path-3 strengthen, and sometimes cancel out each other, depending Path Delay on their phase relation. This is fading. Detected Power In this case, signal quality is damaged when signals cancel out each other. Required signal In other words, signal quality is level Time dominated by the probability for In non-CDMA system, fadingpower to be weaker than detected damages signal minimum required level. quality.
Power Power

Fading in CDMA System


path-1 path-2 path-3
Path Delay

As the CDMA system has high timeresolution, different path delay of CDMA signals can be discriminated. Energy from all paths can be summed by adjusting their phases and path delays. This is a principle of RAKE receiver.
Power

Power

interference produced by path-2 and path-3 path-1

CDMA Receiv er CODE A with timing of path-1 CDMA Receiv er

Synchronization Adder

path-3
Power

Path Delay

path-2 path-1

Power

path-2
Path Delay

CODE A with timing of path-2

Continued..
In CDMA system, multi-path propagation improves the signal quality by adopting RAKE receiver.
path-3

Power

path-2

RAKE receiv er

Power

path-1

Detected Power

Time Detected power of CDMA signal will be less fluctuated by combining all energy

Near-Far Problem
P

Lp-a
DATA A

CDMA Trans mitter CODE A

Lp-b

CDMA Receiv er CODE A

Demodulated DATA

DATA B

CDMA Transmitt er CODE B

When user B is close to the receiver and user A is far from the receiver, Lp-a could be much bigger than Lp-b. In this case, desired signal power is smaller than the interfered power.

Desired Signal Power = P/Lp-a Interfered Signal Power = P/Lpb/G G: processing gain

Power Control
As the propagation losses between BS and MS are different according to individual communication distances, the received levels at the base station are different from each other when all mobile stations transmit their signals at the same power. Moreover, the received level fluctuates quickly due to fading. In order to maintain the strength of received signal level at BS, power control technique must be employed in CDMA systems. from A
Detected Power

from B
Time

Need of Power Control


1-) All CDMA signals interfere with one another Near-orthogonal codes make other users appear as interference noise at the receiver High transmitted power levels of mobiles near the base raise noise level at base (Near-far problem) 2-) Multipath fading channel 3-) Prolong battery life Smallest level possible to maintain quality Maximize capacity and increase talk-time

Continued..
Open Loop Power Control

Closed Loop Power Control


measuring received power estimating path loss calculating transmissi on power transmit

trans mit

decide transmissi on power

power control command

about 1000 times per second

transmit

measuring received power

receive

Effect of Power Control


Effect of Power Control Power control is capable of compensating the fading fluctuation. Received power from all MS are controlled to be equal.
Detected Power

Near-Far problem is mitigated by the power closed loop control. power


control for MS B.
S M r fo A.

from MS B from MS A

Time

Frequency Allocation
In FDMA or TDMA, radio resource is allocated not to be interfered among neighbor cells. Neighbor cells cannot use the same (identical) frequency band (or time slot).
f f4 3 f2 f1 f7 f5 f6

The left figure shows the simple cell allocation with seven frequency sub-bands.

In actual situation, it is difficult to allocate the frequency (or time slot) appropriately because of complicated radio propagation and irregular cell allocation. cell : a cell means covered area by one base
station.

In the CDMA system, identical radio resource can be allocated among all cells as explained in Introduction. In this sense, CDMA cellular Frequency allocation in CDMA is not necessary. system is easy to be designed.

Soft Handover
Handover : Cellular system tracks mobile stations in order to maintain their communication links. When mobile station goes to neighbor cell, communication link switches from current cell to the neighbor cell. Hard Handover : In FDMA or TDMA cellular system, a new communication link is established after breaking the current communication link by hard handover. Communication between MSswitching and BS instantaneously breaks by switching a frequency or a time slot. Cell B Cell A

Hard handover: make connection (new cell B) after break (old cell A)

Hard Handover : In FDMA or TDMA cellular system, a new communication link is established after breaking the current communication link by hard handover. Communication between MS and BS instantaneously breaks by switching a frequency or a time slot.

In CDMA cellular system, communication link keeps a connection even in the handover procedure. Because the system does not require the frequency or time slot switching.
BS A and BS B transmit the same signal to the MS simultaneously

Cell B Cell A

Soft handover : break (old cell A) after make connection (new cell B)

Signal Structure
The forward link consists of up to 64 logical channels (code channels). Code channels is one of a set of 64 so-called Walsh functions. Only whole periods of the Walsh functions occur in each code symbol, the Walsh makes the channels completely separable in the receiver. Each forward code channel is spread by the Short Code, which has I- and Q-components. The two coded, covered, and spread streams are vector-modulated on the RF carrier. The spreading modulation is thus QPSK, superimposed on a BPSK code symbol stream.

Continue..
Reverse CDMA Channel consists of 2 42-1 logical channels One of the logical channel is permanently and uniquely associated with each MS. The channel does not change upon handoff. Reverse link addressing is accomplished through manipulation of period 2 42-1 Long Code, which is part of the spreading process. The reverse CDMA Channel does not use strict orthogonality in any sense to separate logical channels. Rather, it uses a very long period spreading code, in distinct phases. The correlations between stations are not zero, but they are acceptably small.

Overhead Messages
System Parameter Message:
configuration of the Paging Channel registration parameters parameters to aid pilot acquisition

Access Parameter Message


configuration of the Access Channel control parameters used to stabilize the Access Channel

Neighbor List Message


time offset of the pilot basic neighbor configuration

CDMA Channel List Message


CDMA frequency assignment that contain Paging Channels

Paging Channel Messages


Page Message:
contains pages to one or more mobile stations.

Order Message:
a broad class of messages used to control a particular MS.

Channel Assignment Message:


let BS to assign a MS to the traffic channel change Paging Channel Assignment direct the MS to use the analog FM system

Framing and Signaling on the Traffic Channel


Both forward & reverse Traffic Channels use 20 ms frames. Frames can be sent at 9600, 4800, 2400, or 1200 bps Signaling
blank-and-burst signaling: dim-and-burst signaling:
sent at 9600 bps replace one or more frames of primary traffic data sent at 9600 bps sends both signaling and primary traffic data in a frame degradation in voice quality is essentially undetectable

Traffic Channel Messages & Service Option


Four types of control messages on the Traffic Channel
messages messages messages messages controlling the call itself controlling handoff controlling forward link power for security and authentication

IS-95 supports different user applications, called service options Two different service options can be simultaneous supported:
primary traffic secondary traffic

MS can specify the desired service option at call origination.

Forward CDMA Channel


Forward link consists of up to 64 logical channels (code channels) The code channels are distinguished by a set of 64 Walsh functions Walsh function code number zero is always reserved as the pilot Short Code (with period 215 , 27.667 ms at 1.2288 MHz)
spreading the CDMA Forward Channel used in conjunction with the Long Code for spreading the CDMA Reverse Channel

Long Code (with period 242 - 1)


spreading the CDMA Reverse Channel Long Code Mask serves as a reverse link address

Forward Channel Modulator (Spreading)

Identical I, Q signals; but different I, Q PN sequences (short code) Transmitted power is reduced by 3, 6, or 9 dB for variable data rates at 9.6 k, 4.8 k, 2.4 k, and 1.2 kbps QPSK modulation

Forward Link Modulation Parameters

64 orthogonal Walsh codes per sector to identify channels


(S/N is not infinite due to AWGN, multipath, and the neighboring cell)

Long code (period 2 42 -1) to scramble data DS at 1.2288 Mbps Every cell uses the same PN sequence (period 2 15 or 26.67ms) and is identified by a pre-defined offset (64 x n chips) Coherent QPSK demodulation Diversity
time diversity: coding + interleaving path diversity: soft handoff and RAKE receiver

Forward Traffic Channel Frame Structure


9600 bps Frame 192 bits (20 ms) 172 information bits 4800 bps Frame 96 bits (20 ms) 80 information bits 2400 bps Frame 48 bits (20 ms) 40 information bits 1200 bps Frame F: Frame Quality Indicator (CRC) T: Encoder Tail Bits 24 bits (20 ms) 16 information bits 8 F 8 T 8 F 8 T 8 F 8 T 12 F 8 T

Access Channel
Is used by the MS to initiate communication with the BS & to respond to Paging Channel message Fixed data rate (4800 bps) & 20 ms frame duration Access Channel Message may carry Origination of a call Paging responses Orders response Data bursts Acknowledgements to Paging Channel message Registration Basic frame structure 96 bits (20 ms)
Information Bits = 88 bits Encoder Tail 8 bits

Access Channel

Access Channel Frame Structure


Access channel message has length of 88 x N bits
Message Length (in bytes) Padding = 000... Data N = 2 ~ 842 bits CRC 16 bits

Access channel slot is as

8 bits

MG S

96 x (4+PAM_SZ+MAX_CAP_SZ) bits
Access Channel Preamble = 000000 Channel Frame Access 96 x (1+PAM_SZ) bits 96 bits

...

Access Channel Frame 96 bits

Access channel frame = 88-bits + 8-bit tail bits (all 0s) The value of PAM_SZ and MAX_CAP_SZ are received on the paging channel

Reverse Traffic Channels


Variable data rates and format are as forward traffic channel. But transmission duty cycle is reduced accordingly. (Bits are not repeated on this channel.) Message format is identical to the forward traffic channel.

Code Add Frame Reverse Traffic Convolutional Symbol Add 8-bit Symbol Quality Indicator Channel Encoder Encoder Repetition Information Bits kbps for 9600 & 9.2 kbps Tail 8.6 9.6 kbps R=1/3, K=9 28.8 ksps 4800 bps Rates4.4 kbps (172, 80, 40 or kbps 14.4 ksps 4.0 4.8 kbps 16 bits/frame) 7.2 ksps 2.0 kbps 2.0 kbps 2.4 kbps 3.6 ksps 0.8 kbps 0.8 kbps 1.2 kbps Code Frame Data Rate Modulation Symbol PN Chips Code Symbol 64-ary (Walsh chip) 1.2288 Mcps Symbol 28.8 ksps Data Burst Block Orthogonal Randomizer Interleaver 4.8 ksps Modulator 28.8 ksps Long Code (307.2 kcps) Long Code Mask Generator

Reverse Channel Modulator (Spreading)


Identical I, Q signals; but different I, Q PN sequences (long code + short code) OQPSK modulation

Reverse Link Modulation Parameters


20 ms interleaver for time diversity Orthogonal 64-ary Walsh modulation symbols Long code of period 2 42 -1 (for channel identification) concatenated with PN codes of length 2 15 . Noncoherent OQPSK Diversity
time diversity: coding + interleaving path diversity: RAKE receiver spatial diversity: 2 Rx antennas (4 Rx antennas available during handoff)

Signaling Flow of Registration Process


MS notifies BS of its presence (location, status, identification, etc.) in the system IS-95 supports the following registration types:
power-up registration power-down registration timer-based registration distance-based registration zone-based registration parameter-change registration ordered registration implicit registration

Signaling Flow of Registration Process


MS
Register Determination Global Challenge Register Validate RAND ISDN REGISTER REGISTER IS-41 REGNOT Database Update REGISTER Response IS-41 REGCANC REGNOT Response Confirm

BS

MSC

New VLR

HLR

Old VLR

ISDN REGISTER Register Confirm

Initialization and Call Processing of MS


Acquires the pilot channel Receives the sync channel with sync channel message Adjust to system timing Receives the paging channel message Sends origination message (also registration) on the access channel Receives channel assignment message on the paging channel Initializes the traffic channel Enters conversion substate

Rake Receiver
If, in a mobile radio channel reflected waves arrive with small relative time delays, self interference occurs. Direct Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum is often claimed to have particular properties that makes it less vulnerable to multipath reception. In particular, the rake receiver architecture allows an optimal combining of energy received over paths with different. It avoids wave cancellation (fades) if delayed paths arrive with phase differences and appropriately weighs signals coming in with different signal-to-noise ratios.

The rake receiver consists of multiple correlators, in which the receive signal is multiplied by time-shifted versions of a locally generated code sequence. The intention is to separate signals such that each finger only sees signals coming in over a single (resolvable) path. The spreading code is chosen to have a very small autocorrelation value for any nonzero time offset. This avoids crosstalk between fingers. In practice, the situation is less ideal. It is not the full periodic autocorrelation that determines the crosstalk between signals in different fingers, but rather two partial correlations, with contributions from two consecutive bits or symbols. It has been attempted to find sequences that have satisfactory partial correlation values, but the crosstalk due to partial (non-periodic) correlations remains substantially more difficult to reduce than the effects of periodic correlations.

The rake receiver is designed to optimally detected a DS-CDMA signal transmitted over a dispersive multipath channel. It is an extension of the concept of the matched filter. In a multipath channel, delayed reflections interfere with the direct signal. However, a DSCDMA signal suffering from multipath dispersion can be detected by a rake receiver. This receiver optimally combines signals received over multiple paths.

Rake Receiver with 5 Finger

CDMA System Advantages


CDMA's advantages over conventional narrow band systems include the following: 1. Automatic Transmitter Power Control IS-95 adjusts mobile transmitter power with a fast "closed loop" power control system. It uses only the power actually needed at any instant (+/-1 dB) to produce an acceptable bit error rate at the cell receiver. This compares with conventional systems that need substantial transmitter power margins (often well over 20 dB) to "ride through" fade nulls. The much lower average transmitter power required by IS-95 results in considerably less interference to other users sharing the same channel, and correspondingly greater system capacity and mobile battery life.

2. Forward Error Correction IS-95 uses very strong forward error correction (FEC), decreasing required transmitter power still further. The typical Eb/N0 (energy per bit to noise spectral density ratio) required for good performance is 6 dB or less, while FM typically requires a signal-to-noise of at least 17 dB. 3. Universal channel reuse Narrow band systems cannot reuse every channel in every cell. Typically only 1/7 of the channels allocated to a carrier are usable in any given cell due to the need to protect neighboring cells. The inherent interference resistance of spread spectrum, however, allows every IS-95 cell to use every channel.

4. Variable rate speech coding Narrow band cellular systems statically allocate transmission resources to each user for the duration of a call. Proposals exist for the dynamic reallocation of channels among users according to voice activity, but they are hampered by the inherent overhead. The problem is fundamental. It is similar to that of contention-based packet radio networks with short packets and long feedback delays. CDMA, on the other hand, assigns each user a unique code (spreading sequence) from a set that is for all practical purposes infinite. There is no limited pool of single-user frequency channels or time slots to carefully manage.

Conclusion
CDMA is based on the spread spectrum technology which has been used in military field. CDMA cellular system has many advantages compared with the FDMA and TDMA cellular systems. CDMA system was adopted as the international standard for the 3rd generation mobile communications. The number of CDMA users will dramatically increase in the next five years all over the world.