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ORGANIZATIONALLEARNING CULTURE CHANGE & DEVELOPMENT

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Presented By VIKRAM SONI

LEARNING

He who stops being better stops being good


Oliver Cromwell- British Politician and Soldier

ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING

ORG. LEARNING MODELS

Argyris
and Schn

Nonaka
and Takeuchi

ARGYRIS AND SCHN


Single Loop
Actions are changed to get desired outcomes

Double Loop

Actions are Studied and changed.

Action

WHY

Result

TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE
KNOWLEDGE

Tacit
Personal, Content specific, Individual, Subjective

Explicit
Documented, Codified, Systematic, Formal.

NONAKA AND TAKEUCHI


INTERNALIZATION SOCIALIZATION

KNOWLEDGE CREATION

COMBINATION

EXTERNALIZATION

Learning:
Increasing knowledge, that is, increasing capacity for effective action.

Learning Organizational :
An organisation that learns and encourages learning among its people. It promotes exchange of information between employees hence creating a more knowledgeable workforce. This produces a very flexible organisation where people will accept and adapt to new ideas and changes through a shared vision.

Types of learning

Characteristics

Benefits
Maintaining levels of innovation and remaining competitive

Being better placed to respond to external pressures

3 Having the knowledge to better link resources to customer needs


Improving quality of outputs at all levels

4 5 6

Improving Corporate image by becoming more people oriented

Increasing the pace of change within the organization

Barriers

Efficiency

Inertia

Convenience

Training Mindset

Manager Engagement

Conclusion
Practices of Learning Organizational will lead to..
Developing Workforce Teams and Groups Work Better

Greater motivation The workforce is more flexible People are more creative Improved social Interaction

Knowledge sharing Interdependency

The Company Benefits


Breakdown of traditional communication barriers Customer relations Information resources Innovation and creativity

Introduction

1 2 3
Originally an anthropological term
refers to the underlying values, beliefs, and codes of practice that makes a community what it is

It refers to the totality of knowledge in an organization or society.

Our focus

1 2 3
Mind framework System of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that show people what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior

Have a strong influence on employee behavior as well as organizational performance.

Ways of looking at organizational culture


1
Historical

2
Behavioral

3
Normative

4
Functional

5
Mental

6
Symbolic

Why does Organizational Culture Matter?


1 2 3
Strongest assets or its biggest liability Culture, or shared values within the organization, may be related to increased performance. organizational culture is an effective control mechanism dictating employee behavior.

ASSET

LIABILITY

Levels of Organisational Culture


Scheins DefinitionA pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems

Adapted from Schein 1980; Schein 1985

Levels of Organisational Culture SIMPLIFIED VERSION

Types of organizational culture


The power culture

The role culture

2 3 4

The task culture

The person culture

INCREASING IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Improve efficiency, quality & speed of designing, manufacturing and delivering product & services Product innovation

Strategy innovation Increasing workforce diversity

Process innovation & ability to introduce new technology Cross cultural management of global enterprise

Facilitation & support of team work

FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Fooling of organizational identity

Collective commitment

Socialization of members

Desired Behavioral pattern

CULTURAL CHANGE

Composition of workforce

Merger and acquisition

Planned organized change

CORPORATE CULTURE

Corporate values

Organizational climate

Management style

WORK CULTURE

Timing Perponsiveness Communication Proffessional work etiquette Housekeeping

Infrastructure Commitment to results Performance recognition Quality cosciousness proactivity

sence of belonging team work group dynamics socialisation practices Decission making

respect to others caring Interpersonal sensitivity openness

IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON EMPLOYEE DEMAND

Individual autonomy

Organizati onal structure

PRIMERY COMPONENTS

Primery values of organization Existing management style and systems

Reward organization

Essence of organizational culture

consideration

conflict

CONCLUSION

Helps the organization to accomplish what it desire to achieve.

Works as a great motivating impact to motivate employees.

Organizational Change

3 2 1
When the change is fundamental and radical, one might call it organizational transformation

It is generally considered to be an organization-wide change, as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person.

It includes the management of changes to the organizational culture, business processes physical environment, job design / responsibilities, staff skills / knowledge and policies / procedures.

Factors in Organizational Change


External Internal

External Factors

Technological Change

Changes in Marketing Conditions

2 3 4

Social Changes

Political and Legal Changes

Internal Factors

Change in Managerial Personnel

Deficiency in Existing Organization

Planned Change
Structure

Technology

Task

People

Planned Change

Technology related Changes 1. Problem Solving 2. Methods of Production 3. Data Processing

Task related Changes 1. Internal Work Motivation 2. Quality Work Performance

Structure related Changes 1. No. Of Hierarchical levels 2. Span of Management 3. Form of Organization

People related Changes 1. Skills of People 2. Behaviour of People

Process of Planned Change

Resistance To Change
Efforts by employees to

block the intended change is referred to as Resistance to Change. Resistance to Change has been defined as:
...behavior which is intended to protect an individual from the effects of real or imagined change

Resistance To Change

1
Resistance is a natural and inevitable reaction in an organization. You can expect it

2
Resistance is sometimes hidden, so it may be necessary to take active steps to find it

3
There are many reasons for resistance; it is important to understand it

We manage resistance by working with people, and helping them deal with their concerns

There are many ways to build acceptance. It is important to be flexible. But persist!

The key to successful management of organizational change lies in the people.

Organizational Change Management

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

About Organization Development (OD)


OD is about how organizations and people function and how to get them function better Start Point when the leader identifies an undesirable situation and seeks to change it.

Focus - Making organizations function better (total system change).


Orientation - Action (achieving results through planned activities). No unifying theory just models of practice OD is an organization improvement strategy

Start Point
Poor alignment to organizations strategy

Low productivity

Organization

Intergroup conflict

Interpersonal conflicts

Focus

Change new state of things, different from old state of things Can be viewed as an opportunity or as a threat First order change (making moderate adjustments) Second order change (reinvent, reengineer, rewrite)

Change

What needs to be changed and how to go about it


OD consultants are experts in organizational change

Orientation
Diagnosing Taking Action Re-Diagnosing Taking New Action This process is known as

Action Research
Three ingredients: 1. Participation 2. OD consultant (as collaborator & colearner) 3. Iterative process of diagnosis & action

Change occurs based on the actions taken New knowledge comes from examining the results of the actions.

Models and theories


Change is a three-stage process
Stage 1- Unfreezing the old behavior/ situation Stage 2 - Moving to a new level of behaviors Stage 3 - Refreezing the behavior at the new level
Kurt Lewin

Edgar Schein modified this theory by specifying psychological mechanisms involved in each stage

Later Ronald Lippitt, Jeanne Watson and Bruce Westley expanded this model into seven-stage model

Models and theories Contd..


Seven stage model representing the consulting process Phase 1 Developing a need for change. Phase 2 Establishing the change relationship. Phase 3 Diagnosing the client systems problem. Examining alternative routes, establishing goals and Phase 4 intentions of action. Phase 5 Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Phase 6 Stabilizing change. Phase 7 Achieving a terminal relationship.

Systems Theory
Organizations are open systems in active exchange with their environment
David A. Nadler

The Congruence Model

Systems Theory Contd..


Sociotechnical Systems Theory (STS) All organizations comprise of two interdependent systems: 1. Social system 2. Technical system
Eric Trist

To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction, organizations must optimize both systems.

Changes in one system affect the other system.

Participation & Empowerment


Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or top people; it is extended broadly throughout the organization. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of OD.

Participation enhances empowerment and empowerment in turn enhances performance.


Empowerment is the key to getting people to want to participate in change.

Managing the OD Process


Three basic components of OD programs: Diagnosis Continuous collection of data about total system, its subunits, its processes, and its culture Action All activities and interventions designed to improve the organizations functioning Program All activities designed to management ensure success of the program

Summary

OD can make a difference


Good understanding Proper response Adaptability

Bibliography
Wikipedia.com Youtube.com OB by LM Prasad Peter Sange Report on Learning Organization.