– – – – – Nuisance of Waste Water Health & Environmental Concerns Industrial Wastewater Typical Composition of Untreated Domestic Wastewater Characteristics of Wastewater
9.00 – 9.30 a.m

– – Coliforms Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

9.30 – 10.15 a.m


– – – – – –

Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) BOD, CBOD & NBOD BOD Rate Equation BOD Calculations Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen

– – – – Preliminary Operation Physical Treatment System Screening Grit Removal

10.30 – 11.15 a.m


– – –

Flow Equalization Mixing Sedimentation & Retention Time


– – – Conventional Wastewater Treatment Flow Diagram Purpose of Secondary Treatment Biological Treatment Processes
• • • Activated-Sludge Processes Trickling Filters Stabilization Ponds

11.15 – 12.15 p.m


– – – – – – Chemical Unit Processes Chemical Precipitation Coagulants Phosphate Removal Adsorption Disinfection with Chlorine Compounds

12.15 – 1.00 p.m


– – – – – Additional Treatment for Water Reuse Various Advanced Treatment Methods Suspended Solids Removal by Filtration Phosphate Removal Removal of Toxic Compounds

2.00 – 2.45 p.m


m – Sludge Disposal 6. SLUDGE TREATMENT & DISPOSAL – – Sludge Sources & Characteristic Sludge Treatment Processes • • • • • Thickening Stabilization Conditioning Dewatering Reduction 2.45 – 4.30 p. INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT – – Inorganics in Industrial Wastes Pretreatment • Equalization 3.m 6 .45 p.7.45 – 3.

• • • Neutralization Grease and Oil Removal Toxic Substances 7 .


Off-line Equalizer Grit Removal


C12 mixer

Screen & Communication

Primary Settling

Bio. Process

Sec. Settling

Effluent Filtration
C12 Contact Chamber

Backwash Water Storage

Flotation Thickening To Sludge – Processing Facilities



• Nuisance of Waste Water • Health & Environmental Concerns

• Industrial Wastewater
• Typical Composition of Untreated Domestic Wastewater • Characteristics of Wastewater


Nuisance of Wastewater
• It is desirable and becoming necessary to remove immediately wastewater from its sources of generation, followed by treatment and disposal because:
– Untreated wastewater usually contains many pathogenic or disease-causing micro-organisms that dwell in the human intestinal tract of that may be present in certain industrial waste. – Also, nutrients which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants are found in wastewater. – Wastewater may contain toxic compounds.

• Wastewater collected from municipalities and communities must ultimately be returned to receiving waters or to the land.

• Nuisance and health conditions have brought about an increasing demand for more effective means of wastewater management.
– The impracticability of procuring sufficient areas for the disposal of untreated wastewater on land, particularly for larger cities, led to the adoption of more intensive methods of treatment.


• Primary treatment is essentially dealing with physical operations in which screening and sedimentation are used to remove the floating and settleable solids found in wastewater. • Secondary treatment uses biological and chemical processes to remove most of the organic matter. • Advanced treatment uses additional combinations of unit operations and processes to remove other constituents such as nitrogen and phosphates. • Land treatment processes or the natural systems combine physical, chemical and biological treatment mechanisms.
– These systems produce water with quality similar to or better than that from advanced wastewater treatment.


particularly. • The control of odours. 13 .Health and Environmental Concerns • Odours are one of the most serious environmental concerns to the public. the control of hydrogen sulphide generation is of great concern in collection systems and at treatment plants – The sulphide produced in sewers is released as hydrogen sulphide – The release of excess hydrogen sulphide will cause accelerated corrosion of concrete sewers and headwork structures and to the release of odours.

14 . installation and the proper sitting of wastewater collection and treatment facilities.• Special efforts should be made to control and contain the development of odours in the design.

INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS • Industrial wastewaters can be classified as: – Domestic wastewaters – Process wastewaters. 15 . shower facilities and cafeterias produce domestic wastewaters. and – Cooling wastewaters • Plant workers. spills and leaks. • Process wastewaters are produced by product washing.

• Domestic wastewaters pose the potential for pathogenic micro-organisms – Normal sanitary-sewage system is normally used to handle the domestic wastewaters to prevent the spread of pathogenic micro-organisms.• Various cooling processes produce cooling wastewaters – They can be once-pass systems or multiple-recycle cooling systems. • In the multiple-recycle cooling system. 16 . wastewaters are the result of blow-down which is required to prevent excess buildup of salts. • In the once-pass cooling systems. using cooling towers. large volumes of cooling waters are used and returned to the environment.

• Cooling wastewaters are the least hazardous – However. 17 . directly or indirectly – Some process waste are toxic and pose a direct health hazard to biological life in the environment – Other process wastes are readily bio-degraded and create an immediate oxygen demand.• There is normally no potential hazard of pathogenic micro-organisms in the process wastewaters – However. they are potential hazard to the environment through chemical reactions. process wastewaters may be present in the cooling wastewaters resulting from the leaks in the cooling systems.

Physical Characteristics • Wastewater characteristics can be classified as – Physical – Chemical. and – Biological • The physical properties are – – – – – Solids Odour Colour Temperature and Density 18 .

• The most important physical characteristics of wastewater is its total solids content. and Matter in solution 19 . • The total solids content is composed of the following items: – – – – Floating matter Settleable matter Colloidal matter.

– Hydrogen sulphide is produced by anaerobic micro-organisms that reduce sulphate to sulphide – Hydrogen sulphide is responsible for the most characteristic odour of stale or septic wastewater.Odour • Odours in wastewater are nuisance to the environment – Offensive odours can cause poor appetite for food. odour in fresh wastewater is less objectionable than the odour of wastewater that has undergone anaerobic (devoid of oxygen) decompositon. • Generally. impaired respiration. 20 . odours in wastewater have been considered as the first concern of the public in the implementation of wastewater facilities. nausea and vomiting – Thus.

odours are caused by the presence of odorous compounds or compounds that generate odours during the wastewater treatment process. treatment and disposal.• In domestic wastewater. – The control of odours is a major consideration in the design and operation of wastewater facilities covering collection. odours are due to gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter – Or by substances added to the wastewater. 21 . • In industrial wastewaters.

• Black wastewater is often described as septic 22 .Colour • Condition relating the age of the wastewater is qualitatively determined by the colour and odour of the wastewater. – Fresh wastewater is usually a light brownish-grey colour – The colour changes sequentially from grey to dark grey and finally to black as the travel time to wastewater in the collection system increases and more anaerobic conditions develops.

Temperature • Wastewater temperature tends to be higher than the temperature of the water supply – Due to the addition of warm water from households and industrial activities. 23 . • It is important to consider the temperatuare of wastewater because it affects: – Chemical reaction and reaction rates – Aquatic life. and – The suitability of the water for beneficial uses.

– This is also accompanied by the decrease in the quantity of oxygen present in surface waters. 24 .• Also. – Abnormally high temperatures can cause the undesirable growth of wastewater fungus and water plants. the optimum temperatures are from about 25 to 35°C. – The effects of temperature on the performance of biological treatment processes are discussed later in biological treatment topic • An increase in wastewater temperature causes an increase in the rate of biochemical reactions. • For the most part. temperature is not a critical issue below 37°C if wastewaters are to receive biological treatment. oxygen is less soluble in warm water than in cold water. – For bacterial activity.

25 . • A sudden change in temperature can cause a high rate of mortality of aquatic life.– This combined effect results in serious depletion in dissolved oxygen concentration in the summer months. – Aquatic life requires reasonable dissolved-oxygen (DO) levels – The minimum stream DO levels is set by EPA at 5mg/L during summer operations. • Oxygen is a critical environmental resource in receiving streams and lakes.

26 .Density • Density or specific gravity of wastewater is an important parameter because – Of the tendency of density currents formation in sedimentation tanks and in other treatment units. • The density of domestic wastewater is essentially the same as that of water at the same temperatures. provided that is does not contain significant amounts of industrial waste.

0 mg/L suspension measures as 1.Turbidity • Insoluble particulates impede the passage of light through water by – Scattering and absorbing the rays.0 NTU. 27 . • This interference of light passage is referred to as turbidity. • The standard is a suspension of silica of specified particle size selected so that – A 1.

Chemical Characteristics • The chemical characteristics of wastewater are classified into – Organic matters or organics – Inorganic matters or inorganics – Gases • Organic compounds are composition of: – – – – Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen Together with nitrogen in some cases 28 .

29 .• The organic composition of industrial wastes varies widely – Because different raw materials are used by each specific industry.

• The release of VOCs in sewers and at treatment plants is of great concern because – They pose a significant public health risk – They contribute to a general increase in reactive hydrocarbons in the atmosphere.Volaltile Organic Compounds (VOCs) • VOCs are organic compounds that have – A boiling point equal to or less than 100°C. leading to the formation of photochemical oxidants. and/or – A vapour pressure greater than 1 mm Hg at 25°C. 30 .

• These chemicals are mainly from surface runoff from agricultural and park lands – They are not common constituents of domestic wastewater. 31 .Agricultural Pesticides • Pesticides. herbicides and other agricultural chemicals are trace organic compounds – They are toxic to most life forms – They can be significant contaminants of surface waters. • Concentration of agricultural chemicals in wastewater can cause – Fish kills – Contamination of the flesh of fish – Impairment of water supplies.

or (Teratogeny.Priority Pollutants • Priority pollutants are both organic and inorganic – They are identified by the Environment Protection Agency • They are selected on the basis of their known or suspected – Carcinogenicity (carcinogen means cancer-producing substance) – Multagenicity (mutation. genetic change which when transmitted to offspring gives rise to heritable variation) – Teratogenity. production of monstrosities) – High acute toxicity • Many of the organic priority pollutants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 32 .

Ag – Organic Compounds • Benzene. Cr Lead. Ba Cadmium. C6H5C2H5 • Toluence. Cd Chromium. Hg Silver. C5HC5H3 33 . Se – Metals • • • • • • Barium. As • Selenium. C6H6 • Ethylbenze. Pb Nercury.• Typical examples of priority pollutants are: – Non-metals • Arsenic.

C6H5C1 Chloroethene. CH2CHC1 Dichloromethane. CH2C12 Tetrachloroethane. Herbicides. CC12CC12 – Pesticides. 34 . They are also halogenated compounds • Examples: Endrin (C12H8OC16) Lindane (C6H6C16) etc.– Halogenated Compounds • • • • Chlorobenzene. Insecticides • They are listed by trade names.

• Some of the rocks and minerals are dissolved in water when they come in contact with the natural water. • Concentration of inorganic constituents are increased by the natural process.Inorganics • The natural water and wastewater contain several inorganic matters – The inorganic components of wastewater and natural waters have to be considered in establishing and controlling water quality. 35 .

• Wastewaters are seldom treated for removal of the inorganic constituents that are added in the use cycle. 36 . • It is important to examine the nature of some of the constituents in terms of: – – – – pH value Chlorides Alkalinity and Nitrogen concentration.

37 . • Chlorides are found in natural water – They result from the leaching of chloride-containing rocks and soils – From salt water intrusion • Other sources of chlorides are – Agricultural.Chlorides Concentration • The chloride concentration is an important parameter for the determination of water quality. industrial and domestic wastewaters – Human excreta contain about 6g of chlorides per person per day.

potassium or ammonia • Other compounds such as silicates. magnesium. and • Bicarbonates of calcium. 38 .Alkalinity • Wastewater is normally alkaline – The alkalinity in wastewater is due to the presence of • Hydroxides • Carbonates. sodium. phosphate • The concentration of alkalinity in wastewater is important in – Chemical treatment – Biological nutrient removal etc.

Nitrogen • Nitrogen and phosphorus are known as nutrients or biostimulants – They are essential to the growth of protista and plants. nitrite and nitrate. • Ammonia nitrogen exists in aqueous solution as either – The ammonium ion or ammonia. ammonia. depending on the pH of the solution: NH3 + H2O < > NH4+ + OH‾ 39 . • Total nitrogen is comprised of – Organic nitrogen.

the ammonium ion is predominant • Nitrite nitrogen is relatively unstable and is easily oxidised to the nitrate form. • The most highly oxidised form of nitrogen found in wastewaters is the nitrate nitrogen. • Nitrites present in wastewater effluents are oxidised by chlorine – Thus it increases the chlorine dosage requirements and the cost of disinfection. 40 .– At pH above 7. the equilibrium is displaced to the left – At pH below 7. – The most highly oxidised form of nitrogen found in wastewaters is the nitrate nitrogen.

HPO4⁻². • The orthophosphates are PO4⁻³. H3PO4 – They are available for biological metabolism without further breakdown • The polyphosphates are – Molecules with two or more phosphorus atoms. hydrogen atoms combined in a complex molecule. and in some cases. polyphosphate and organic phosphate are the usual forms of phosphorus found in aqueous solutions. H2PO4‾. oxygen atoms. 41 .Phosphorus • The orthophosphate.

sulphate is reduced biologically to sulphide – The sulphide can then combine with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulphide. H2S.SULPHUR • Sulphate ions are present in most water supplies and wastewater. 42 . • Under anaerobic conditions. • The generalised reaction are: Organic matter + SO4⁻² →S⁻² + H2O + CO2 bacteria S⁻² + 2H+ → H2S.

43 .• H2S will accumulate at the crown of the pipe – The accumulated H2S in turn can be oxidised to sulphuric acid – Sulphuric acid is corrosive to sewer pipes.

– The toxic inorganic compounds are • • • • • • Copper Lead Silver Chromium Arsenic acid Boron • They are toxic in varying degrees to micro-organisms and must be considered in the design of a biological treatment plant.Toxic Inorganic Compounds • Many of the toxic inorganic compounds are classified as priority pollutants. 44 .

– In sludge digesters. copper is toxic at a concentration of 100 mg/L.– The micro-organisms may be killed and the biological treatment ceased by the introduction of these ions in treatment plant. 45 . – Chromium and nickel are toxic at concentrations of 500 mg/L etc.

46 . • Chlorine. and ) – Methane ) Produced by decompositon of the organic matter in wastewaters.Gases • The following gases are found in untreated wastewater: – Nitrogen – Oxygen – Carbon dioxide ) ) ) found in all waters exposed to air – Ammonia ) – Hydrogen Sulphide. Ozone and the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen are not present in untreated wastewater.

• It is desirable to have dissolved oxygen in wastewater because – It prevents the formation of noxious odour. and – The purity of the water. 47 .Dissolved Oxygen • The respiration of aerobic micro-organisms requires dissolved oxygen. • Oxygen is only slightly dissolved in water. • The solubility of gas depends on – The partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere – The temperature.

mathane is produced because of anaerobic decay in accumulated bottom deposits. mehtane gas will not be found in large quantities in untreated wastewater. 48 . • Occasionally. – It is colourless and odourless – It is combustible hyddrocarbon and it has high fuel value. – Since even small amounts of oxygen is toxic to the organisms responsible for methane production.Methane • Mathane gas is the main by-product of the anaerobic decomposition of the organic matter in wastewater.

49 . • Safety measures should be taken and – Notices should be posted about the plant warning of explosion hazards in treatment plant where methane is produced. the explosion hazard is high – It is important that manholes and sewer junctions or chambers where methane gas may be present (or collected) should be ventilated with a portable blower during and before the workers are working in them.• Since methane is highly combustible.

Hydrogen Sulphide • Hydrogen sulphide is produced by – The anaerobic decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur. 50 . • Hydrogen sulphide is – Colourless and – Inflammable – It has a characteristic odour of rotten eggs. or – The reduction of mineral sulphites and sulphates.

– Resulting in the blackening of wastewater and sludge. 51 .• Hydrogen sulphide will combine with iron present in waste-water to form ferrous sulphide (FeS). • Other metallic sulphides are also produced.

and – Archaebacteria • The eucaryotes group includes – – – – – Algae Fungi Protozoa Mosses Ferns. 52 .Micro-organisms • The micro-organisms found in surface water and wastewater are classified as – Eucaryotes – Eubacteria. etc.

• Archaebacteria group includes methanogens. halophiles and thermacidophiles.• Eubacteria group includes most bacteria. 53 .

CBOD & NBOD BOD Rate Equation BOD Calculations Total kjeldahl Nitrogen (TkN) 54 . BOD.2.0 COLIFORMS. COD AND TKN • • • • • • • • Coliforms Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) BOD5.

and – The absence of coliform organisms is taken as an indication that the water is free from disease-producing organisms • Because the numbers of pathogenic organisms present in wastes and polluted water are few and difficult to isolate and identify. which is more numerous and more easily tested for. – The coliform organisms. in addition to other kinds of bacteria – Thus.Coliforms • The intestinal tract of man contains countless rodshaped bacteria known as coliform organisms. – Each person discharges from 100 to 400 billion coliform organisms per day. 55 . the presence of coliform organisms is taken as an indication that pathogenic organisms may be present. is commonly used as an indicator organism.

– This amount of oxygen is known as the Theoretical Oxygen Demand (Th OD) 56 .Th OD • The amount of oxygen required to oxidize a substance to carbon dioxide and water may be calculated by stoichiometryif the chemical compositon of the substance is known.

a strong chemical oxidizing agent (chromic acid) is mixed with a water sample and then boiled. 57 . COD. – The difference between the amount of oxidizing agent at the beginning of the test and that reamining at the end of the test is used to calculate the COD. – In the COD test. is a measured quantity that does not depend on knowledge of the chemical compositon of the substance in the water.Chemical Oxygen Demand • In contrast to the Th OD. the Chemical Oxygen Demand.

58 . the oxygen consumed is known as Biochemical Oxygen Demand.Biochemical Oxygen Demand • If the oxidation of an organic compound is carried out by microorganisms using the organic matter as a food source. • The test is a bioassay that utilizes microorganisms in conditions similar to those in natural water to – Measure indirectly the amount of biodegradable organic matter present. or BOD. – The actual BOD is less than the Th OD due to the incorporation of some of the carbon into new bacterial cells. • Bioassay means to measure by biological means.

– The greater the amount of organic matter present. the process is called aerobic decompositon. – This oxygen consumption is easily measured. – Because the organisms also utilize oxygen in the process of consuming the waste. the greater the amount of oxygen utilized. 59 . • The BOD test is an indirect measurement of organic matter because – We actually measure only the change in dissolved oxygen concentration caused by the microorganisms as they degrade the organic matter.BOD Test • A water sample is inoculated with bacteria that consume the biodegradable organic matter to obtain energy for their life processes.

and BOD be equal. • The BOD test is still the most widely used method of measuring organic matter because of • The direct conceptual relationship between BOD and oxygen depletion in receiving waters.• Although not all organic matter is biodegradable and the actual test procedures lack precision. COD. • Only under rare circumstance will the Th OD. 60 .

this value has become firmly established. • Since there is no other time which is any more rational than five-days. 61 . so there was no need to consider oxygen demand at longer times. where rivers have travel times to the sea of less than five days.BOD5 • The five-day BOD5 was chosen as the standard value for most purpose because – The test was devised by sanitary engineers in England.

also contain nitrogen that can be oxidized with the consumption of molecular oxygen. • The two processes must be considered separately – Because the mechanisms and rates of nitrogen oxidation are distinctly different from those of carbon oxidation.CBOD and NBOD • Not only the carbon in organic matter is oxidized – Many other organic compounds. • Oxygen consumption due to oxidation of carbon is called carbonaceous BOD (CBOD) – And oxygen consumption due to nitrogen oxidation is called nitrogenous BOD (NBOD) 62 . such as proteins.

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) • TKN is a measure of the total organic and ammonia nitrogen in the wastewater. • It gives a measure of the availability of nitrogen for building cell. the aqueous sample is first boiled to drive off the ammonia. Kjeldahl (Pronounced ‘kell dall’) developed the test in 1883. 63 . – J. and then – It is digested – During the digestion. organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia. – As well as the potential nitrogen oxygen demand that will have to be satisfied • In this method.

the test results were: The initial dissolved oxygen (DO) = 8 mg/L The final DO = 3.0 ml into each 300 ml bottle. • Solution – Since the sample is unseeded.6 mg/L (after 5 days of incubation at 20°C) Determine the BOD5. For one pair of bottles.Example • Given: The BOD tests for the raw wastewater were set up by pipetting 5. the relationship equation: BOD = D1-D2 P 64 .

– Where D1 D2 P = 8mg/L = 3.6 mg/L = Decimal fraction of wastewater sample used = 5/300 mg/L BOD5 = 8-3.6 5/300 = 65 .

3.0 PRIMARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT • • • • • • Preliminary Operation Screening Grit Removal Flow Equalizer Sedimentation & Retention Time Flotation 66 .

Screening • Wastewater treatment is directed towards removal of pollutants (contaminants) with least effort. 67 . circular or rectangular slots are common. • A screen is a device with opening of any shape. • Suspended solids are removed by either – Physical separation or – Chemical separation • Screening is the first physical unit operation encountered in a wastewater treatment plant.

and is called a screen. called a bar rack or bar screen – It may consist of wires.• It consists of parallel bars or rods. 68 . gratings. wire mesh or perforated plate.

69 .6 to 1.5 in. are used. valves. – Generally used in pre-treatment operation – The size is classified as coarse.Bar Racks • Bar racks are used to protect pumps. pipelines etc. from damage or clogging by rags and large objects. • Steels or stainless steels bar of screening surface size ranging 0.

• Coarse screenings consist of materials or debris such as – – – – – – – – Plastics Rocks Rags Branches Pieces of lumber Leaves Papers Tree roots.Screenings • Screenings are the material retained or bar racks and screens. etc. 70 .

• Coarse screenings are collected on racks or bars of 5/8 in. or greater spacing. (15mm). 71 . • Fine screenings are retained on screens with openings less than 5/8 in.

(the most commonly used) – Burial on the plant site. 72 . for small installation only – Incineration – As municipal solid wastes.Disposal of Screenings • Screenings may be disposed or removed by – Hauling to disposal areas such as landfill. or – Discharged to grinders or mascerators where they are ground and returned to the wastewater.

the comminuted solids may present downstream problem. more uniform size so as – To improve the downstream operation and processes and – Grit may include egg shells. bone chips. clogging pump impellers.Communication • To comminute means to cut up into small fragments. 73 . etc. • However. • Communication are used to cut up coarse solids into a smaller. – It is particularly bad with rags because the rags tend to recombine after cutting up into ropelike strands. – Thus. if agitated (in grit chambers and aerated channels). sludge pipelines. seeds and large organic particles such as food wastes.

cinders or other solid materials – Grit may include egg shells. bone chips.Grit Chambers • Grit chambers are used to remove grit – The grit consists of sand. seeds and large organic particles such as food wastes. 74 . gravel. • Grit chambers are designed to – Provide protection against abrasion and wear in moving mechanical equipment – Reduce the risk of forming heavy deposits in pipelines and channels.

heat exchangers and high-pressure diaphragm pumps – Grit chambers are usually installed after the bar racks and before the primary sedimentation tanks.• It is essential to remove grit ahead of centrifuges. 75 .

Types of Grit Chambers • Grit chambers may be classified into – Horizontal-flow with square or rectangular section – Aerated. – The vanes or gates distribute the influent over the cross section of the tank. and – Vortex-type • The horizontal-flow grit chamber has the flow passing through the chamber in a horizontal direction – It has a series of influent distribution vanes or gates and a weir section at the effluent end. – The distributed wastewater flows in straight lines across the tank – The effluent overflows the weir in a free discharge. 76 .

• Aerated grit chambers are designed to remove 65-mesh particales (0. • The vortex-type grit chamber uses a cylindrical tank – The flow enter the tank tangentially to create a vortex-flow pattern – The grits are separated by centrifugal and gravitational forces • The square horizontal-flow grit chambers are designed to remove 95% of the 100-mesh particles at peak flow.• The aerated grit chamber has a spiral-flow aeration tank – The spiral velocity is induced and controlled by the tank dimensions as well as the amount of air supplied to the unit.2 mm) or larger at peak flow. 77 .

(85% of 70mesh. 65% of 100-mesh) 78 .33 mm) at peak flow.• The vortex-type grit chambers are designed to remove 95% of the 50-mesh (0.

Flow Equalisation • There are variations in the flowrate of influentwastewater and strength (concentration) of wastewater in all wastewater treatment facilities. – To reduce the size and cost of downstream treatment facilities. – To improve the performance of the downstream processes. 79 . • The purposes of flow equalisation are as follows:– To overcome the operational problems caused by flowrate variations.

or – Off-line arrangement. • Flow equalisation may have – In-line arrangement. 80 .• Flow equalisation is the damping of flowrate variation so that – A constant or nearly constant flowrate is achieved.

Grit Removal Mixing 00 Equalization Basin Pumping To Primary Treatment Bar rack and/or Comminutor Untreated Wastewater 81 .In-Line Equalisation • Figure below shows the in-line equalization incorporated in a wastewater treatment plant.

all of the flow pass through the equalisation basin. 82 .• In in-Line arrangement. – A considerable amount of constituent and flowrate damping can be achieved by in-line equalisation.

Off-line Equalisation • The off-line equalisation arrangement is shown below. Grit Removal Bar Rack And/or Comminutor Mixing OO Equalisation Basin Overflow structure Untreated Wastewater To Primary Treatment Pumping Station 83 .

84 . – The pumping requirements are minimised.• In the off-line arrangement. only slight damping is achieved – Only the flowrate above some predetermined flowrate is deverted into the equalisation basin.

Equalisation Basin • For flow equalisation. the following design factors must be considered: – Basin construction – Mixing and air requirement – Pump and pump control systems • The basin may be of – Concrete – Earthen. 85 . or – Steel constructin • The earthen basins are the least expensive – The side slopes of basin may very between 3:1 and 2:1.

86 .

• The terms sedimentation and settling are used interchangeably – A sedimentation basin may also be called as • Sedimentation tank • Settling basin. – The particles are heavier than water – Sedimentation is by gravitational settling.Gravity Sedimentation • Sedimentation is the separation from water of suspended particles. or • Settling tank 87 .

• Example of sedimentation applicaton are: – Grit removal and particulate matter removal in the primary settling basin. – Biological-floc removal in the activated-sludge settling basin – Chemical-floc removal when the chemical coagulation process is used. 88 .

Gravity Sedimentation Tanks • Gravity sedimentation tanks are used to remove slowly settling particles. • The sedimentation tanks can be – Rectangular or – Circular • The design of sedimentation tanks are based on: – Retention time – Surface overflow rate. and – Minimum depth 89 .

• The removal efficiency is affected by – The hydraulic flow pattern through the tank. • After the solids have settled. the settled effluent should be collected without creating serious hydraulic currents – Sedimentation process could be adversely affected by hydraulic currents. • It is important to note that – The energy contained in the incoming wastewater flow must be dissipated before the solids can settle. • For maximum settling efficiency. the wastewater flow must be distributed properly through the sedimentation valume. 90 .

• Sludge hoppers are used in conventional sedimentation tanks – To collect the concentrated sludge and – To prevent removal of excess volume of water with the settled solids. • The settled solids are removed from the sedimentation tank floor by – Scrapping and hydraulic flow. 91 .• Effluent weirs are placed at the end of rectangular sedimentation tanks and – Around the periphery of circular sedimentation tanks. • Effluent weirs are placed to ensure uniform flow out of tanks.

• Fig CS and Fig RS are the cross-section diagrams of conventional sedimentation tanks. 92 .

93 .

Retention Time • The gravity sedimentation tanks are normally designed to provide for 2-hr retention based on average flow. • Sedimentation time should not be too long – Because the solids will become too densely compact. affecting solid collection and removal. – Inorganic solids will compact up to 20% to 30%. • Organic solids generally will not compact to more than 5 to 10%. – Longer retention period are allowed for light solids or inert solids that do not change during their retention in the tank. 94 .

• Centrifugal sludge pumps can handle solids up to 5 or 6% – Positive-displacement sludge pumps can pump solids up to 10%. • There is a tendency for sludge to lose fluid propertise when solids are above 10% – And the sludge with solids above 10% must be handled as semisolid rather than a fluid. 95 .

– The length-to width ratio of rectangular sedimentation tanks is 5:1.0 m or 10 ft. 96 . – The minimum diameter of a circular sedimentation tank is 6.Minimum Dept • The minimum depth of sedimentation tanks is generally 3.0 m or 20 ft.

– The combined air bubbles and particle will create buoyancy forces that are high enough to cause the particle to rise to the surface (floating).Flotation • Flotation process may be used in place of primary sedimentation for removal of suspended and floating solids. • Flotation is a unit operation that will separate solids or liquid particles from a liquid phase. 97 . – Separation is achieved by the introduction of air bubbles into the liquid phase. • The bubbles will attach to the particulate matter.

98 . such as oil suspension in water. • Flotation can also be used to float particles with lower density than the liquid.– In this way. particles or solids that have a higher density than the liquid can then be made to rise.

• This is followed by release of the pressure. • The following methods are used: – Dissolved-Air Flotation • Air is injected while the liquid is under pressure. 99 . – Air Flotation • Aeration at atmospheric pressure • Air bubbles are formed by introducing air directly into the liquid phase through a revolving impeller or through diffusers.Flotation Agents • Air is used as the flotation agent for municipal wastewater treatment.

– Vacuum Flotation
• Saturation with air at atmospheric pressure, followed by application of a vacuum to the liquid. • Vacuum flotation consists of saturating the wastewater with air either
– Directly in an aeration tank, or – By permitting air to enter on the suction side of a wastewater pump.

• The application of partial vacuum causes the dissolved air to come out of solution as minute bubbles. • The bubbles and attached solid particles rise to the surface, forming a scum blanket which is removed by skimming operation.

– For flotation application, design air-solids ratios have not been well defined.
• However, air quantities of 2 to 3% by volumne of wastewater flowrate yield satisfactory rasults.


Chemical Additives
• In the flotation operation, various chemical additives are commonly used to enhance the degree of removal. • These chemical additives will create a surface or a structure that can easily absorb or entrap air bubbles. • Inorganic chemicals such as
– Aluminum and ferric salts and activated silica are used – They bind the particles together, creating a structure that can easily entrap air bubbles.


• Organic polymers are used to change the nature of either the air-liquid interface or the solid-liquid interface or both.
– These compounds will collect on the interface to bring about the desired change.


Advantages of Flotation
• Flotation are used for
– Untreated wastewater, and – Settled wastewater.

• Flotation has the advantage of
– High surface-loading rates and – High removal of grease and floatable material.

• The main advantage of flotation over sedimentation is that
– It can remove more completely and in shorter time the very small or light particles that settled slowly.

• The floated particles can be collected by a skimming operation.

• Conventional Wastewater Treatment Flow Diagram • Purpose of Secondary Treatment • Biological Treatment
– Bacterial Growth – Micro-Organism in Biological Treatment – Biological Treatment Process

• Activated-Sludge Process • Trickling Filters • Stabilization Ponds

Settling Effluent Filtration C12 Contact Chamber Recycle Backwash Water Storage Flotation Thickening To Sludge – Processing Facilities Effluent WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM SHOWING THE LOCATION OF PHYSICAL UNIT OPERATIONS 105 .Metering Off-line Equalizer Grit Removal Optional C12 mixer Screen & Communication Primary Settling Bio. Process Sec.

106 .Purpose of Secondary Treatment • The secondary treatment is used mainly. • The basic requirements for conventional aerobic secondary biological treatment are – The availability of many microorganisms – Good contact between these organisms and the organic material. – The availability of oxygen. and – Having favorable environmental conditions such as • Favourable temperature and • Sufficient time for the organisms to work. – To remove the soluble BOD that has not been removed by the primary treatment and – To carry out further removal of suspended solids.

107 . • The common approaches include: – The activated sludge – The trickling filters – Oxidation lagoons or ponds.• Many methods have been used in the past to meet these basic requirements.

that are responsible for stimulating the growth of aquatic plants. 108 . • For agricultural return wastewater. the main objective is: – Removal of the nutrients. • For domestic wastewater.Objectives of Biological Treatment • The main objectives of the biological treatment of wastewater are: – Coagulation and removal of the nonsettleable colloidal solids and – Stablization of the organic matter. particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. the principal objective is: – Reduction of the organic content and the nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

109 . the main objective is to remove or lower the concentration of organic and inorganic compounds.• For industrial wastewater.

primarily bacteria. • The specific gravity of the cell tissue is slightly greater than that of water – Thus.Use of Microorganisms • A variety of microorganisms. – The removal of carbonaceous BOD. • The colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter are converted by microorganisms into various gases and into cell tissue. are used for: – The coagulating of nonsettleable colloidal solids. and – The stabilization of organic matter. the removal of resulting cells from the treated liquid can be achieved by gravity settling. 110 .

etc. 111 . it must have – An energy source – Carbon for the synthesis of new cellular material – Nutrients such as nitrogen. sulphur. phosphorus. • Carbon and energy sources are usually referred to as substrates.Carbon for Microorganisms • For an organism to reproduce and function properly. calcium. • Organic matter and carbon dioxide are two of the most common sources of cell carbon for microorganisms.

112 .• The energy needed for cell synthesis may be supplied by – Light or – Chemical oxidation reaction.

113 . • The energy released by biomass metabolism is used to produce the new units of protoplasm. mixed biological populations. • A portion of the waste is oxidized. interrelated.Bacterial Growth • Secondary treatment uses biological processes to stabilize waste components – Most biological treatment processes are comprised of complex. – The remainder is used as building blocks of protoplasm. – The mixture of microorganisms is usually referred to as biomass. releasing energy.

the advantage of using the biomass to stabilize waste is that – It provides the energy and basic chemical components required for reproduction. 114 .• Thus.

Conditions Reduced electron acceptor) 115 .Biological Waste Conversion • The process of biological waste conversion may be expressed in terms of the following equation: Waste (electron donor) + Biomass + Electron → More + End Products acceptor ↑ Biomass Proper (Oxidized Environmental electron donor.

• The electron acceptors include: – – – – Molecular oxygen Carbon dioxide Oxidized forms of nitrogen Sulphur and organic substances. 116 .• The waste generally serves as an electron donor – And it needs an electron acceptor.

H20 H2S. N2O. CO2. H2O CH4. S. acetic acid. NO. H2 H2. CO2. CO2. CO2. formic acid Complex organics End Products Water. simple organics.Electron Acceptors & End Products • The end products of the reaction are determined by the electron acceptor. oxidized nitrogen N2. H20 117 . • A list of typical end products produced by various electron acceptors is given as follows: Electron Acceptors • • • • • Molecular oxygen Oxidized nitrogen Oxidized sulphur CO2. CO2.

• In general. – As a result. there is a release of energy. 118 . the energy level of end products are much lower than that of waste components.

• The environmental conditions are required by the biomass. 119 . etc. not the electron donor or acceptor. – pH – Temperature – Nutrients – Ionic balance.Environmental Control • It is indicated in the earlier equation that proper environmental conditions are required for the reaction to take place. • The environmental conditions include.

– It is also important to maintain a relatively constant pH in the process. • Thus it is necessary to have a controlled environment and biological community (biomass) in the design of biological waste-treatment units. 120 .• biomass can function over a wide pH range generally from 5 to 9. some microbes requires a much narrower pH range. – However. • Most organisms can function well over a broad range of temperature – But do not adjust well to frequent fluctuation of even a few degrees. – Continual changes in pH are detrimental.

• The wasted organisms are called sludge. – It is necessary that some organisms are wasted from the system. – The ultimate disposal of sludge is a major cost companent of all biologically based processes.Need for Sludge Disposal • More biomass is produced after the process of biological waste conversion. • However. – This is desirable because it provides a continual production of the organisms required to stabilize the waste. an excess level will build up and the process could cause choking on organisms. 121 . see equation given earlier.

– Anaerobic processes • Biological treatment processes that occur in the absence of oxygen. 122 .Terms used for Biological Treatment Processes • The following terms are commonly used to define various biological processes: – Aerobic processes • Biological treatment processes that occur in the presence of oxygen. – Nitrification • The biological process by which ammonia is converted first to nitrite and then to nitrate. – Denitrification • The biological process by which nitrate is converted to nitrogen and other gaseous end products.

123 . it is assumed that the nitrogen present in the vaious compounds is converted to ammonia. – Carbonaceous BOD removal • The biological conversion of the carbonaceous organic matter in wastewater to cell tissue and various gaseous end products.– Anoxic denitrification • The process by which nitrate nitrogen is converted biologically to nitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen. – Substrate • The organic matter or nutrients that are converted during biological treatment or that may be limiting in biological treatment. This process is also known as anaerobic denitrification. – Biological nutrient removal • The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in biological treatment processes. In the conversion.

or specially designed ceramic or plastic materials. 124 . These processes are also known as fixed – film processes. – Attached – growth processes • The biological treatment processes in which the micro – organisms responsible for the conversion of the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to gas and cell tissue are attached to some inert medium such as rock.– Suspended – growth processes • The biological treatment processes in which the microorganisms responsible for the conversion of the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to gases and cell tissue are maintained in suspension within the liquid. slag.

125 . anoxic and anaerobic processes. depending on whether treatment is accomplished in: – Suspended – growth systems.Various Biological Treatment Processes • There are five major groups of biological treatment. – Attached – growth systems. or – Combinations thereof (of the two). namely: – – – – – Aerobic processes Anoxic processes Anaerobic processes Combined aerobic. and Pond processes • These processes are further subdivided.

– They speed up the decomposition of waste by controlling the environment required for optimum growth of the microorganism involved.Microbiology in Wastewater Treatment • In nature. • All biological processes for wastewater treatment are in fact derived from processes occurring in nature. 126 . the key role of the bacteria is to decompose organic matter produced by other living organisms.

• The principal applications of these processes are for: – The removal of the carbonaceous organic matter in wastewater. total organic carbon (TOC). and – Waste stabilization 127 . or chemical oxygen demand (COD). usually measured as BOD. – Nitrification – Denitrification – Phosphorus removal.

– This process is presented in the following pages. 128 . and The aerobic digestion process.Aerobic Suspended – Growth Treatment Processes • The various suspended – growth biological treatment processes for the removal of carbonaceous organic matter are as follows: – – – – The activated – sludge process Aerated lagoons A sequencing batch reactor. • The activated – sludge process is most commonly used for the secondary treatment of domestic wastewater.

129 . • The activated – sludge process derives its name from the biological mass (activated sludge) produced when air is continuously injected into the wastewater. • Many versions of the original process are in use today – Fundamentally they are all similar.Activated – Sludge Process • The activated – sludge process was developed in England in 1914.

130 . • The sludge (biological solids) are then separated from the treated wastewater and returned to the aeration process as needed.• Basically. in this process: – A mixture of wastewater and biological sludge (micro-organisms) is agitated and aerated.

organic waste is introduced into a reactor (aeration tank) where an aerobic bacterial culture is maintained in suspension.Activated Sludge • In the activated – sludge process. the individual organisms clump together (flocculate) to form an active biological called activated sludge. 131 . – As the microorganisms grow and are mixed by agitation of the air. – In this process. • The mixture of activated sludge and wastewater in the reactor (aeration tank) is called mixed liquor. microorganisms are mixed thoroughly with the organics under conditions that stimulate their growth through the use of organics as foods.

most of the settled sludge is returned to the reactor.Return Sludge • The mixed liquor then flows from the reactor to a secondary clarifier. • Some of the return sludge has to be diverted or wasted to the sludge handling system for treatment and disposal. • Since high population of microbes is required to permit rapid breakdown of the organics in wastewater. 132 . hence it is called return sludge. – The activated sludge will settle out in the secondary clarifier. – Because more activated sludge is produced than in desirable in the process.

Chemical Equation • In the reactor. the bacterial culture performs the conversion as described by the following equations: Oxidation and Synthesis: COHNS + O2 + nutrients → CO2 + NH3 + C5H7NO2 + other end products (organic matters) (new bacterial cells) Endogenous respiration: bacteria ↓ C5H7NO2 + 5O2 → SCO2 + 2H2O + NH3 + energy (cells) 133 .

• Although the endogenous respiration reaction results in relatively simple end products and energy. stable organic end products are also formed. the bacteria are the most important microorganisms because they are responsible for the decomposition of the organic material in the influent. 134 . the organic matter in wastewater is represented by COHNS. • In the activated – sludge process.• In these equation. which also serves to maintain the mixed liquor in a completely mixed regime. • The aerobic environment in the reactor is achieved by the use of diffusers or mechanical aeration.

many intermediate products are formed before the end products are produced. the bacteria in the activated-sludge process include member of: – The genera such as Pseudomonas 135 . a portion of the organic waste is used by aerobic and facultative bacteria to obtain energy for the synthesis of the remainder of the organic material into new cells. – Only a portion of the original waste is actually oxidized to low energy compounds such as NO3⁻. • In general. and CO2.• In the reactor or aeration tank. – Also. SO4⁻². – The remainder is synthesized into a cellular material.

Zoogloea Achromobacter Flavobacterium Nocardia Bdellovibrio Mycobacterium – And the two nutrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas Nitrobacter 136 .

– About 8m³ of air is required to treat each m³ of wastewater – Sufficient air is used to keep the sludge in suspension.Conventional Activated Sludge Systems • In conventional activated sludge systems. • The injection of air is at near the bottom by the aeration tank (reactor) through a system of diffusers. 137 . rectangular reactors. it is typically required that – The wastewater be aerated for six to eight hours in long. • The volume of sludge returned to the aeration tank is about 20 to 30 percent of the wastewater flow.

This is carried out – To maintain the proper amount of the microorganisms to efficiently degrade the BOD. 138 .Wasted Sludge • The activated sludge process is controlled by wasting a portion of the microorganisms each day. • A balance is the then achieved between growth of new organisms and their removal by wasting. – Wasting means that a portion of the microorganisms is discarded from the process. – The discarded microorganisms are called waste activated sludge (WAS).

– If too little sludge is wasted. ultimately. the concentration of microorganisms in the mixed liquor will becomes too low for effective treatment. a large concentration of microorganisms will accumulate and.– If too much sludge is wasted. overflow the secondary tank and flow into the receiving stream. 139 .

5-18. Flow Diagram of Conventional Activated Sludge Plant 140 .Disinfection Sewage in Rack Grit Chamber Primary Settling Tank Secondary Settling Tank Aeration Tank To stream Digester Fig.

and Effluent characteristics.Practical Application • The practical application of the activated – sludge process is considered briefly as follows: – In the design of the activated – sludge process. consideration must be given to • • • • • • • Selection of the reactor type Loading criteria Sludge production Oxygen required and transfer Nutrient requirements Control of Filamentous organisms. 141 .

• Trickling filters have a bed of coarse material (media) over which wastewater is continuously distributed. • The coarse materials include: – Stones or rocks – plastic 142 .Trickling Filters • Trickling filters have been a popular biological treatment process for nearly 100 years.

143 . the filter medium should possess the following: – – – – Providing a high surface area per unit of volume High durability Low cost Does n clog easily • Rock media such as high-quality granite or blast furnace slag were commonly used until the mid – 1960s. or pressure – treated wood because of problems such as minimal void areas and the potential for biomass clogging. redwood.• Ideally. – Rock media have been replaced by plastic.

Sewage in Rack Grit Chamber Primary Settling Tank Trickling Filter Secondary Settling Tank Digester Recirculation Disinfection Stream Fig. Flow Chart of Trickling-Filter Plant 144 . 5-15.

• The distributor has two or more arms mounted on a pivot in the centre of the filter. 145 . revolving in a horizontal plane – The arms are hollow and contain nozzles – The wastewater is discharged through these nozzles over the filter bed.Distributing Systems • The wastewater is typically distributed over the surface of the rocks by rotating arm – The rotary distributor has become a standard trickling filter process because it is reliable and easy to maintain.

• The distributor unit is driven by – An electric motor. 146 . or – By the dynamic reaction of the wastewater discharging from the nozzles.

Secondary Clarifier • As the wastewater trickles through the bed. – The microorganisms cling and grow in a slime on the rocks as they feed on the organic matters. – Thus a sedimentation tank is needed to allow these solids to settle out in it. if not removed. a microbial growth establishes itself on the surface of the stone or packing in a fixed film. 147 . would cause undesirably high levels of suspended solids in the plant effluent. – The sedimentation tank is termed as secondary clarifier or final clarifier. • Excess growth of microorganisms.

148 .• Thus. the function of the secondary settling tank is to produce a clarified effluent – All the sludge from trickling – filter settling tanks is removed to sludge – processing facilities (digester).

• In trickling filter design, recirculation is provided for return of portion of the effluent to flow through the filter.
– The ratio of the returned flow to the incoming flow is called the recirculation ratio.

• Recirculation practised in stone filters has the following advantages:
– It increases contract efficiency by bringing the waste into contact more than once with active biological material. – It dampens variations in loading over a 24 hour period. The strength of the recirculated flow lags behind that of the incoming wastewater. Thus, recirculation dilutes strong influent and supplements weak influents.

– It improves distribution over the surface, thus reducing the tendency to clog and also reduce filter flies. – It prevents the biological slimes from dying out and dying during night time periods when flows may be too low to keep the filter wet continuously,

• Recirculation practised for plastic media will provide the desired wetting rate to keep the microorganisms alive.


• The wastewater collection system in a trickling filter has underdrains.
– The underdrains catch the filtered wastewater and solids discharged from the filter medium and convey them to the final sedimentation tank.


Stabilization Ponds
• Stabilization ponds have been used to treat wastewater
– Particularly as wastewater treatment systems for small communities.

• Domestic wastewater can be effectively stabilized by the natural biological process that occurs in shallow ponds. • Waste stabilization pond has been used as an all – inclusive term that refers to a pond of lagoon used to treat organic waste by biological and physical processes.


– In fact, many terms have been used to describe different types of systems employed in wastewater treatment. – In recent years, oxidation pond has been widely used as a collective term of all types of ponds.

• In general, stabilization ponds can be classified according to the presence of oxygen, as:– – – – – Aerobic Facultative Anaerobic Maturation or tertiary, and Aerated


Aerobic Ponds • Aerobic ponds have the following features: – Large. – Stabilization of the organic material in the aerobic pond is achieved by the action of aerobic bacteria. thereby maintaining active algae photosynthesis throughout the entire system.5 m in depth – Used for the treatment of wastewater by natural processes involving the use of both • Algae and • Bacteria – Dissolved oxygen is maintained in ponds throughout the entire depth. mainly by the action of photosynthesis. shallow earthen basins or ponds. – The pond is shallow to allow light to penetrate to the bottom. 154 . less than 1.

– Nutrients and carbon dioxide produced by the aerobic degradation are then used by the algae. 155 . and – Algae photosynthesis • Algae photosynthesis will release oxygen – The oxygen is used by the bacteria in the aerobic degradation of organic matter. the oxygen is supplied by – Natural surface reaeration.• In aerobic photosynthesis ponds.

• Facultative ponds have the following features: – The stabilization of waste is brought about by a combination of • Aerobic • Anaerobic. having three zones: • An aerobic upper zone where aerobic bacteria and algae exist in symbolic relationship.Facultative Ponds • Facultative ponds are the most common type used as wastewater treatment systems for small communities. and • Facultative (aerobic-anaerobic) bacteria – The ponds are 1 to 2. 156 .5m deep. maintained by photosynthesis and surface reaeration.

in which the decomposition of organic waste is carried out by facultative bacteria. 157 .• A facultative middle zone that is partly aerobic and partly anaerobic. • An anaerobic bottom zone where decomposition of accumulated solids are carried out by anaerobic bacteria.

and CH4 which are either oxidized by the aerobic bacteria or vented to the atmosphere. – Large solids will settle out at the bottom to form an anaerobic sludge. – Organic oxidation produces carbon dioxide. – Oxygen is maintained in the upper layer of facultative ponds by the presence of algae and by surface reaeration. H2S. serving as a carbon source for the algae.Facultative Stabilization Processes • The following processes are encountered in the facultative stabilization ponds. – Oxygen for oxidation is released by algae which grow abundantly near the surface. – Soluble and colloidal organic materials will be oxidized by aerobic and facultative bacteria. – The solids in the sludge are broken down by anaerobic bacteria. producing dissolved organics and gases such as CO2. 158 .

159 . – Management Factor • Long retention times facilitate the management of large fluctuation in wastewater flow and strength with no significant effect on effluent quality. operating and maintenance costs are less than those of other biological systems.Advantages of Facultative Ponds • Facultative ponds are popular because of the following reasons: – Cost Factor • Capital.

anaerobic conditions prevail throughout the entire depth. except for extremely surface zone. high-strength organic wastewater containing high concentration of solids.1m) have been built to conserve heat energy and to maintain anaerobic conditions. 160 . – Typically. – However. • Anaerobic ponds have the following features: – Deep earthen ponds with appropriate inlet and outlet pipings – Depths up to 30ft (9. they have been used to treat municipal wastewater as well.Anaerobic Ponds • Anaerobic ponds are used mainly as a pretreatment process to treat high temperature.

161 .• The wastes that are added to the pond will settle to the bottom. • The partially clarified effluent is usually discharged to another treatment process for further treatment.

and Cell tissues • There are two distinct stages in anaerobic treatment of complex waste: 162 .Anaerobic Stabilization Process • In anaerobic ponds. stabilization is obtained by – A combination of precipitation and the anaerobic conversion of organic wastes to • • • • • CO2 CH4 Other gaseous end products Organic acids.

– The first stage is known as acid fermentation. involving the conversion of these materials to gases. mainly CO2 and CH4. 163 . involving the breakdown of complex organic materials to (mainly) short-chain acids and alcohols. – The second stage is known as methane fermentation.

Anaerobic Conditions • The factor for determining whether the biological activity – The magnitude of the organic loading and – The availability of dissolved oxygen • The anaerobic condition of a pond is maintained by applying a BOD5 load that exceeds oxygen production from photo-synthesis. 164 . – The decrease in surface area and the increase in depth will reduce photosynthesis.

165 .• Anaerobic ponds become turbid (muddy and thick) from the presence of reduced metal sulphides – Thus. the penetration of light is restricted and algae growth becomes negligible.

Particularly in sites – Where extensive industrial expansion is not anticipated. this enables control of pollution during critical times of year.Advantages of Stabilization Ponds • Stabilization ponds are popular in small towns. • The advantage are: – Lower capital or initial cost. and – Where the topography and soil condition of land is suitable for siting. compared to that of a mechanical plant – Lower operating costs – Possible regulation of effluent discharge. 166 . – Treatment system is not significantly affected by a leaky sewer system that collects storm water.

Disadvantages of Stabilization Ponds • Disadvantages are: – – – – Extensive land area involved Poor assimilative capacity for certain industrial wastes Potential odour problems The town may expand and new development will intrude the lagoon site – Difficult to meet the effluent quality standard for suspended solids of 30 mg/L 167 .

0 CHEMICAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS • Chemical Precipitation • Adsorption • Disinfection • Disinfection with Chlorine Compounds • Other Means of Disinfection 168 .5.

169 .Chemical Unit Processes • Chemical unit processes used for the treatment of wastewater are brought about by means of or through chemical reaction. – They are usually used together with the physical unit operations and the biological unit processes. • Chemical unit processes are additive processes (with the exception of activated-carbon adsorption) – Chemicals are added to the wastewater to achieve or enhance the removal of suspended solids – The physical unit operation and the biological unit processes are subtractive in removing the suspended solids from the wastewater.

• Chemical unit processes are also used together with biological treatment – To remove phosphorus by chemical precipitation. including the nitrogen removal and phosphorus removal. 170 .• Chemical unit processes. together with various physical operations are developed for – The complete secondary treatment of untreated wastewater.

Chemical Precipitation • Chemical precipitation in wastewater treatment involves – The addition of chemicals to change the physical state of dissolved and suspended solids. 171 . • Thus. and – To facilitate the removal of the suspended solids by sedimentation. • Phosphorus removal is done in advanced wastewater treatment. chemical precipitation is used to – Improve the performance of primary settling facilities – Remove phosphorus.

• The precipitation reaction results in removal of suspended solids. – The chemical sludge must be taken into account together with the characteristics of the original suspended solids in the evaluation of sludge – processing systems. – The tiny particles are agglomerated into large particles by the chemical precipitation. – However.Chemical Precipitation & Gravity Sedimentation • Light weight suspended solids and colloidal solids can be removed by chemical precipitation and gravity sedimentation. – The large particles can then settle rapidly in normal sedimentation tanks. it also increases the amount of sludge to be handled. 172 .

173 . FeSO4. – – – – A12 (SO4)3. and – The cost and availability of the precipitation. FeC13 Ferrous Sulphate. 7H2O Ferric Sulphate.18H2O A12 (SO4)3. 3H2O Lime. Fe2 (SO4)3. Ca (OH)2 (XH2O) indicates the number of water molecules) • The choice of coagulant depends upon: – The chemical characteristics of the particles being removed – The pH of the wastewater. Fe(SO4)3.14H2O Ferric chloride.Coagulants • Chemicals used as coagulants in wastewater treatment are: – Aluminium sulphate (Alum).

Rapid Mixer • A rapid mixing system is normally required in chemical precipitation • The rapid mixing system and the flocculation system are installed ahead of the rectangular sedimentation tank. Tank) Rapid Mixing Sludge 174 . Influents OO Flocculation Sedimentation Effluent (Rect.

and increase in size. the rapidmixer and flocculation units are built into the tank. • Rapid mixers are designed to give 30s retention at average flow – Sufficient trubulence is required to mix the chemicals with the influents. 175 . without excessive shearing.• In the case of circular sedimentation tank. • The flocculation units are designed for slow mixing at 20min retention – The particles are caused to collide by flocculation.

– Iron salt produces best results.Improvement in Plant Performance • It is possible to obtain a clear effluent by chemical precipitation – Substantially free from matter in suspension or in the colloidal state. • Metal removal is a function of pH and the ionic state of the metal. • Removal of soluble organics is a function of the coagulant chemical. 176 . and lime the poorest.

177 .• Chemical precipitation can remove – 95 percent of the suspended solids – Up to 50 percent of the soluble organics and the bulk of the heavy metals in a wastewater. • In comparison. a sedimentation without chemical precipitation can remove – Only 50 to 70 percent of the total suspended matter. and – 30 to 40 percent of the organic matter.

178 . or – Chemical precipitates • This topic will be discussed in the advanced wastewater treatment.Chemical Precipitation for Phosphate Removal • The removal pf phosphorus from wastewater can be carried out by – Making phosphate into suspended solids and – Subsequently removing these solids. • Phosphorus can be incorporated or formed into either – Biological solids.

a solid or another liquid. – The interface can be between the liquid and a gas.Adsorption Process • Adsorption process is involved in collecting soluble substances that are in solution on a suitable interface. – The carbon is used to remove a portion of the remaining dissolved organic matter. 179 . • Activated – carbon absorbers are commonly used for odour control. • Adsorption process on an activated carbon is employed to improve the quality of treated wastewater effluent (after the normal biological treatment).

etc. char is made from materials such as: • • • • Almond Coconut Woods. creating a large internal surface area. Coal. • The gas develops a process structure in the char.Activated Carbon • The preparation of activated carbon is briefly described as follows:– First. – Char is produced by • Heating the materials (in a retort) to a red heat to drive off hydrocarbon – Activation is then carried out by exposing the char to an oxidised gas at a high temperature. 180 .

the carbon is then separated into different sizes with different capacities. it has a diameter of less than 200 mesh. 181 . it has a diameter greater than 0. • Both GAC and PAC are used for wastewater treatment. • The two size characteristics are: – Powdered activated carbon (PAC). – Granular activated carbon (GAC).• After activation.1 mm. • Activated carbon has different rates of adsorption for different substances.

• The removal of odours depend on the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the odorous gas – The hydrocarbon are absorbed first before compounds such as hydrogen sulphide are removed.• Activated carbon may be effective in removing – Hydrogen sulphide and will work on reducing organic odour. 182 .

• Regeneration of granular carbon can be easily done in a furnace by oxidizing the organic matter and thus removing it from the carbon surface.Carbon Regeneration • For economical application. – However. about 5 to 10 percent of the carbon is also destroyed in the process of carbon regeneration and must be replaced with new carbon. 183 . it is essential to use an efficient means of regenerating the carbon after its adsorption capacity has been reached.

• The methodology for regenerating powdered activated carbon is not well-defined. • The use of PAC produced from solid wastes may obviate the need to regenerate the spent carbon. – This is a major problem with the application of PAC. 184 .

and Radiation. 185 .Disinfection • Disinfection is a process – To render water safe from pathogenic bacteria • Disinfection can be accomplished by the use of: – – – – Chemical agents Physical agent Mechanical means.

186 . and – Chlorine is the most commonly used.Chemical Agents • The chemical agents include: – – – – – – – Chlorine and chlorine compounds Bromine Iodine Ozone Alcohols Soaps and synthetic detergents Various alkalies and acids • The most common disinfectants are the oxidizing chemicals.

• Bromine and iodine have also been used for wastewater disinfection. • Ozone is a highly effective disinfectant – Its use is increasing • Highly acidic or alkaline water can also be used to destroy pathogenic bacteria – Water with a pH greater than 11 or less than 3 is relatively toxic to most bacteria. 187 .

the ultraviolet radiation. • Sunlight is a good disinfectant – Particularly.Physical Agents • Physical disinfectants are – Heat and – Light • Heating water to the boiling point will destroy the major disease – producing bacteria. – But. it is not economically feasible to disinfect large quantities of wastewater by heating because of the high cost involved. 188 .

189 .• Ultraviolet rays emitting from special lamps have been used to sterilize small quantities of water – The efficiency of the process depends on the rays penetration into water. – It is difficult to use ultraviolet radiation in aqueous systems.

for a given concentration of disinfectant – Increasing the temperature gives more rapid kill 190 .Factors Influencing Disinfections • The following factors will affect the disinfection performance: – – – – – Contact time Concentration and type of chemical agent Temperature Number and types of organisms Nature of suspending liquid • In general: – The longer the contact time. the greater the kill.

bacterial spores are extremely resistant.– The larger the organism concentration. the longer the time required for a given kill. • Although in a dilute system such as wastewater. • The effectiveness of disinfectants will also depend on the types of organisms – Viable growing bacteria cells are easy to kill – But. many of the chemical disinfectants normally used will not be effective. 191 . the concentration of organisms is not a major consideration.

• Chlorine gas is normally used as a bioxide and disinfectant in water. high solubility (7000 mg/L) It leaves a residual in solution which is not harmful and helps protect distribution system – It is very toxic to most microorganisms. 192 . liquid or powder Cheap Easy to use.Chlorination • Chlorination is used because: – – – – It is readily available as gas.

Chlorine Compounds • The most common chlorine compounds used in wastewater treatment plants include: – – – – Chlorine gas. 193 . NaOC1 Chlorine dioxide. Ca(OC1)2 Sodium hypochlorite. C1O2 • The use of calcium and sodium hypochlorite is mostly found in very small treatment plant such as package plants – Because simplicity and safety are for more important than cost in this application. C12 Calcium hypochlorite.

194 .• Sodium hypochloride is used at large wastewater treatment plants for safety reason. • Chlorine gas is the most commonly used form.

195 . killing everything – Any objectional excess is then removed by dechlorination using sulphur dioxide – Contact time is 20-30 minutes – It leaves a small amount of residual chlorine. lowland river waters – Heavy initial dose of chlorine is added.Superchlorination / Dechlorination • Superchlorination / dechlorination – It is used where pollution is high.

– However. • It is therefore necessary to dechlorinate wastewater treated with chlorine in certain applications – So that the effects of the toxic chlorine residual on the environment will be minimized. 196 . some organic compounds in wastewater may react with the chlorine to produce toxic compounds that can cause long-term adverse effect on the use of water.Dechlorination • Chlorination is commonly used to destroy pathogenic and other harmful organisms that may cause danger to human health.

Sulphur Dioxide for Dechlorination • Dechlorination is applied after the breakpoint chlorination process for the removal of ammonia nitrogen. • Sulphur dioxide is used most commonly for dechlorination – Activated carbon has also been used. • Sulphur dioxide gas added in water will successively remove: – – – – – Free chlorine Monochloramine Dichloramine Nitrogen trichloride and Poly-n-chlor compounds 197 .

• Reaction with chlorine produces: SO2 + H20 > HSO3 ⁻ + H+ HOC1 + HSO3 > C1⁻ + SO4 ⁻² + 2H+ SO2 + HOC1 + H2O ⁻ C1⁻ + SO4 ⁻² + 3H+ • Reaction with chloramine gives SO2 + H20 > HSO3 ⁻ + H+ NH2C1 + HSO3 ⁻ + H20 > C1⁻ + SO4 ⁻² + NH4 + H+ SO2 + NH2C1 + 2H20 > C1⁻ + SO4 ⁻² + NH4+ 2H+ 198 .

199 . it should be produced on site as close to the point of use as possible. • Ozone is also a very effective virucide – It is generally believed to be more effective than clorine.Ozonization • Ozonization process or ozonation is used to: – Remove taste and odour as well as dissolved / colloidal organic matter – Good colour removal – Contact time is 5 minutes – The process is very effective but expensive • Ozone is a highly unstable toxic blue gas.

• For these reasons. ozonation is considered a viable alternative to either chlorination or hypochlorination.• Ozonation does not produce dissolve solids and is not affected by the ammonium ion or pH influent to the process. especially where dechlorination may be required. 200 .

and colour – producing agents. odour -. 201 . • Being chemically unstable. ozone decomposes to oxygen very rapidly after generation.Notes on Ozone • The application of Ozone to disinfect water supplies was first carried out in France in the early 1900s. • The common application for ozone at the European installation is to control taste -. – Eventually its use spread into several Western European countries (primarily in Europe). – Thus it must be generated on-site.

202 .• The most efficient method of producing ozone is by electrical discharge – Ozone is generated either form air or pure oxygen when a high voltage is applied across the gap of narrowly spaced electrodes.

0 ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT • • • • • • • • • • • • Additional Treatment for Water Reuse Various Advanced Wastewater Treatment Methods Suspended – Solids Removal by Filtration Filter Applications Refractory Adsorption Carbon Adsorption Phosphorus Removal Nitrogen Sources and Control Biological Nitrification Biological Denitrification Ammonia Stripping Removal of Toxic Compounds 203 .6.

and – A wide variety of organic and inorganic industrial wastes. • Contaminants of municipal water results from: – Human excreta – Food preparation wastes. 204 .Additional Treatment for Water Reuse • Advanced wastewater treatment refers to the additional treatment needed to – Remove contaminants (both suspended and dissolved substances) remaining after conventional secondary treatment • The term tertiary treatment is also used.

to – Reduce biochemical oxygen demands. • Secondary treatment processes when coupled with disinfection (mainly chlorination) may remove: – Over 85 percent of the BOD and suspended solids and – Nearly all pathogen. and possibly chlorination. • The maximum acceptable level of organic matter in a wastewater effluent after biological treatment is defined in terms of BOD and suspended-solids concentrations. suspended solids and pathogen. 205 .• Conventional treatment uses physical-biological processes.

it may be necessary to remove these pollutents by advanced wastewater treatment. • Advanced wastewater treatment processes improve effluent quality to the point that it is adequate for many reuse purposes. 206 .• However. secondary treatment processes can achieve only minor removal of some pollutents such as – – – – Nitrogen Phosphorus Soluble COD and Heavy metals • These pollutents may be of major concern in some circumstances – Thus.

207 .Various Advanced Wastewater Treatment Methods • The popular advanced treatment methods are given as follows: – Suspended-solids Removal • Filtration through granular media • Chemical coagulation and clarification – Organic Matter Removal • Adsorption on granular activated carbon • Extended biological oxidation – Phosphorus Removal • Biological-chemical precipitation and clarification • Chemical coagulation and clarification.

– Nitrogen Removal • Biological nitrification / Denitrification • Ammonia reduction by air stripping – Heavy Metal Removal • Lime precipitation – Dissolved-Solids Removal • Reverse osmosis 208 .

– However.Suspended – Solids Removal by Filtration • Secondary treatment processes. 209 . the typical effluent still contains a BOD of 20 to 50 mg/L. such as the activatedsludge process. • The secondary clarifiers are not perfectly efficient to settle out the microorganisms from the biological treatment processes. are highly efficient for removal of biodegradable colloidal and soluble organs. – These organisms will contribute both to the suspended solids and to the BOD5 because the process of biological decay of dead cells exerts an oxygen demand.

• Filtration process can be used to remove the residual suspended solids – Including the unsettled microorganisms – The residual BOD5 is also reduced by removing the microorganisms 210 .

carbon adsorption columns are preceded by filtration. it is necessary to remove suspended solids that can harbour and protect pathogenic bacteria and virus from the oxidizing action by chlorine or ozone.Purpose of Filtering • Removal of suspended solids from the effluent of a conventional treatment plant may serve to – Reduce the organic content. – To prevent fouling. • Examples are: – For effective disinfection. or – To pretreat the wastewater for subsequent processing. 211 .

– These filters often clog quickly. 212 . thus frequent back washing is required. can be used. it will permit the trapping of some of the larger particles of biological floc at the surface without plugging the filter.Filter Applications • Conventional sand filters. similar to those used in water treatment. • It is desirable to have – The larger filter grain sizes at the top of the filters – This will lengthen filter runs and reduce backwashing – Also.

plain filter can reduce the suspended solids of activated – sludge effluent from 25 to 10 mg/L. • Typically. the greater density offsets the smaller diameter – And the coal will remain on top. 213 . the sand in the middle while the garnet remains on the bottom. • This is so arranged that – During backwashing.• Multimedia filters use – Low-density coal for the large grain sizes – Medium – density sand for intermediate sizes. and – High – density garnet for the smallest size filter grains.

214 . • Refrectory organics can be detected in the effluent as soluble COD – The typical values of secondary effluent COD are 30 to 60 mg/L. sedimentation and filtration.Refractory Organics • Soluble organic materials that are resistent to biological breakdown will persist in the effluent – Even after the processes of secondary treatment. coagulation. • These persistent materials are called refractory organics.

Carbon Adsorption • Refractory organics can be effectively removed by – Adsorbing them on activated carbon. 215 . • The current practice is installing the granular-carbon columns as tertiary conditioning after the chemical precipitation and granular-media filtration. • Carbon is activated by heating in the absence of oxygen – The activation process results in the formation of many pores within each carbon particle. the greater its capacity to hold organic material. – The greater the surface area of the carbon (with many pores).

216 . the spent carbon can be regenerated for reuse.• After the adsorption capacity of the carbon has been exhausted. • Powdered carbon is commonly used in water treatment – But it has not widely used in wastewater processing because of the difficulty of regeneration.

using alum and iron coagulants or lime. • The precipitation reaction between alum and phosphate is: A12(SO4)3 + 2HPO4²‾ ↔ 2A1PO4 ↓+ 2H ++ 2SO4²‾ • The precipitation reaction between ferric chloride and phosphate is: FeC13 + hpo4²‾ ↔ FePO4 ↓ +H+ + 3C1‾ 217 . – Alum. double sulphate of aluminium and potassium. • Chemical precipitation.Phosphorus Removal • Phosphorus is typically found as mono-hydrogen phosphate (HPO4²‾) in wastewater. is effective in phosphate removal.

0. • The effective range of pH for alum and ferric chloride is between 5.• The chemical reaction using lime is 5Ca(OH)2 + 3HPO4²‾ ↔ Ca5(PO4)3 OH↓ + 3H2O + 6OH‾ • Alum and Ferric chloride reduce pH – Whereas lime increases pH. 218 . – Lime is added when there is not enough alkalinity so as to buffer the system to this range of pH.5 and 7.

• In the precipitation of phosphorus. and – The precipitate can be removed in the secondary clarifier. ferric chloride or sulphate.Phosphorus Removal by Chemical Addition • The addition of certain chemicals. a reaction basin and a settling tank are required for the removal of precipitate. (such as alum. • Since ferric chloride and alum may be added directly in the aeration tank in the activated sludge system. 219 . – The aeration tank can serve as a reaction tank. and lime) to wastewater produces insoluble or low-solubility salts.

the high pH required with lime to produce the precipitate is harmful to the activated sludge organism. this arrangement is not possible with lime – When lime is used.• But. storage. 220 . and feeding of lime. • The use of lime for phosphorus removal is declining due to – The operation and maintenance problems associated with the handling.

the primary sources of nitrogen are: – Faeces – Urine.Nitrogen Sources • Most nitrogen in surface waters is from: – Land drainage and – Dilution of wastewater effluents • In domestic waste. and – Food-processing discharges • Bacteria decomposition produces ammonia by deamination of nitrogenuous organic compounds 221 .

• The nitrogen forms of interest are – Organic – Inorganic and – Gaseous nitrogen 222 .• Continued aerobic oxidation results in nitrification.

Nitrogen Control • Nitrogen in any soluble form CNH3. • Nitrogen in the form of ammonia exerts an oxygen demand and – This can be toxic to fish • Removal of nitrogen can be carried out either by – Biological process. NH4+. or – Chemical process. 223 . NO2‾ and NO3‾ but not N2 gas is a nutrient and – The removal of nitrogen from wastewater may be necessary to help control algal growth in the receiving body.

224 .• The biological process is called – Nitrification/denitrification • The chemical process is called – Ammonia stripping.

• The nitrification step is expressed in chemical term as follows: NH4++ 2O2 ↔ NO3‾ + H2O + 2H+ – Bacteria must be present to cause the reaction to occur. – The second step is the conversion of nitrates to nitrogen gas. 225 . this is termed denitrification.Biological Nitrification • The removal of nitrogen can be effectively carried out by – Biological nitrification – denitrification • It is a two-step process: – The first step is the conversion of ammonia aerobically to nitrate (NO3‾) which is termed nitrification.

226 . pH and dissolved oxygen are important parameters – Nitrification rate decreases with temperature drop – The optimum pH for nitrification is 8.6.2 – 8.• The rate of nitrification in wastewater is essentially linear – It is a function of time and independent of ammonia – nitrogen concentration – Temperature.

227 .Biological Denitrification • Nitrie and nitrate are bacterially reduced to gaseous nitrogen by biological denitrification. • Denitrification is an anoxic process because it occurs in the absence of dissolved oxygen. • The process can be expressed chemically as follows: 2NO3‾ + Organic matter → N2 + CO2 + H2O • As indicated above. organic matter (carbon) is needed for denitrification – The wastewater to be denitrified must contain sufficient carbon to provide the energy source for the bacteria.

228 . or – By an external source such as methanol (CH3OH) • An organic carbon source acts as a hydrogen donor (oxygen acceptor) and – To supply carbon for biological synthesis.• The carbon requirement may be provided by wastewater and cell materials.

229 . • Ammonia stripping process involves the following steps: – Raising the wastewater pH to convert the ammonium ion into ammonia – The ammonia can then be stripped from the water by passing large quantities of air through the water. • The rate of ammonia transfer is enhanced by converting most of the ammonia to a gaseous form at a high pH.Ammonia Stripping • Nitrogen in the form of ammonia can be removed form wastewater by the physical-chemical process of ammonia stripping.

5 to 11.– Usually in the range of 10.5 • The ammonia stripping reaction is expressed as: NH4 + OH‾ ↔ NH3 + H2O • The hydroxide (high pH) is usually provided by adding lime. 230 . • The lime will also react with CO2 in the air and water – Thus calcium carbonate scale is formed and this must be removed periodically.

• The disadvantages are: – It is temperature sensitive • Ammonia solubility increases with lower temperature • Fogging and icing occur in cold climate – Pollution sensitive • Ammonia reaction with sulphur dioxide may cause air pollution problems. this will increase treatment cost and cause lime-related operating and maintenance problems. 231 . – Maintenance & Operation Problems • It usually requires lime for pH control.Disadvantages of Ammonia Stripping • Ammonia stripping is simple in concept – But is has disadvantages that make it expensive to operate and maintain.

• The nature of toxicity is complex – The specific characteristics of the wastewater and the nature of compound must be considered in the application of treatment methods.Removal of Toxic Compounds • Various methods are used for the treatment of toxic compounds. heavy metals. 232 . • The various treatment processes for toxic compounds removal are reviewed as follows: – Activated-carbon adsorption process • To remove natural and synthetic organic compounds including VOCs pesticides.

ammonia and selected refractory priority pollutants. sedimentation. and filtration • To remove heavy metals – Activated – sludge – powdered activated carbon • To remove heavy metals. 233 . trickling filter).– Conventional biological treatment process (activated – sludge. • To remove phenols and selected hydrogenated hydrocarbons – Air stripping • To remove ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) – Chemical coagulation.

0 SLUDGE TREATMENT & DISPOSAL • Sludge Sources & Characteristics – – – – – – Sludge Problem Primary of Raw Sludge and Scum Secondary Sludge and Scum Sludge from Chemical Precipitation Activated Sludge Tertiary Sludge • Sludge Treatment Processes – – – – – Thickening (Concentration) Stabilization Conditioning Dewatering Reduction 234 • Sludge Disposal .7.

– The exceptions of this rule are where land applications or polishing lagoons are used.Sludge Problem • In the process of treating wastewater to remove impurities. • The objective of processing sludge is to – Extract water from the solids and – Dispose of the dewatered residue. – In fact. the larger is the residue of sludge that must be handled. another problem is created : sludge. • Satisfactory treatment and disposal of the sludge is a very complex and costly operation in municipal wastewater treatment system. 235 . the higher the degree of wastewater treatment.

• The sludge rapidly becomes anaerobic and is highly odoriferous. – 1 percent solid is about 1 g solid/100 mL sludge volume.Primary or Raw Sludge and Scum • Quantities of sludge and scum depend upon the nature of the collection system. • Sludge from the bottom of the primary clarifiers contains from 3 to 8 percent solids which is about 70 percent organic. 236 .

• Sludge from primary settling tank is usually gray and slimy and – In most cases. • Primary sludge can be readily digested under suitable conditions of operation. 237 . it has an extremely offensive odour.

– Trickling filter sludge contains 2 to 5 percent solids.5 to 2 percent solids. – They create noxious conditions if not treated before disposal. • The solids content depends on the source. • The solids are about 90 percent organic.Secondary Sludge and Scum • The secondary sludge consists of – Microorganisms and inert materials that have been wasted from the secondary treatment processes. • This sludge becomes anaerobic when the supply of air is removed. 238 . – Wasted activated sludge is typically 0.

– But at a slower rate. • Lime sludge is grayish brown. 239 . • The ordour of chemical sludge may be objectionable – It is not as bad as primary sludge. • If the sludge is left in the tank. it undergoes decomposition similar to primary sludge.Sludge from Chemical Precipitation • Sludge form chemical precipitation with metal salts is usually dark in colour. – The surface may be red if it contains much iron.

240 .• Substantial quantities of gas may be given off and – The sludge density is increased by long residence times in storage.

Activated Sludge • Activated sludge generally has a brownish. • A lighter colour than usual. – Dark colour means that the sludge may be approaching a septic conditions. • The sludge tends to become septic rapidly and – Giving a disagreeable odour putrefaction. indicates that underaeration may have been occurred with a tendency for the solids to settle slowly. • Activated sludge will digest readily aline or when mixed with primary sludge. 241 . flocculent appearance.

the chemical sludge is combined with the biological sludge. • For example: – Phosphorus removal produces a chemical sludge that is difficult to handle and treat. • When phosphorus removal occurs in the activated sludge process. 242 . – Making the biological sludge more difficult to treat.Tertiary Sludges • The characteristics of sludges form the tertiary treatment processes depend on the nature of the process.

• Nitrogen removal by denitrification produces a biological sludge with properties very similar to those of waste activated sludge. 243 .

– Stabilization • To convert the organic solids to more refractory (inert) forms. – Conditioning • The sludge is treated with chemicals or heat so that that water can be readily separated. • The inert forms can be handled or used as oil conditioners without causing a nuisance or health hazard through processes referred to as “digestion”. 244 .Sludge Treatment Processes • The basic processes for sludge treatment are as follows: – Thickening (Concentration) • To separate as much as possible by gravity or flotation. • These are biochemical oxidation processes.

– Dewatering • Water is separated from sludge by vacuum. hence the term reduction. 245 . the volume of sludge is decreased. pressure or drying. – Reduction • Solids are converted to a stable form by – Wet oxidation or – Incineration • These are chemical oxidation processes.

or – Gravity thickening. the solids are allowed to settle to the bottom • The aim of the thickening is to remove as much water as possible before final dewatering or digestion of the sludge.Thickening • Thickening is usually accomplished in one or two ways: – Flotation. • The costs of thickening are usually more than offset by the resulting savings in the size and cost of downstream sludge processing equipment. 246 . the solids are floated to the top of the liquid. • The processes involved offer a low-cost means of reducing sludge volumes by a factor or two or more.

• The volume reduction obtained by sludge thickening is useful to subsequent treatment processes of – – – – Digestion Dewatering Drying and Combustion (incineration) • The costs of thickening process are usually more than offset by the benefits obtained from – The savings in the size and – Cost of downstream sludge processing equipment. 247 .

• In dissolved – air flotation. a large quantity of air can be dissolved in the sludge. and – Dispersed – air flotation • Dissolved – air flotation is the most extensively used operation for sludge thickening. – Under this pressure condition.Dissolved – Air Flotation • These are three types of flotation thickening operation: – Dissolved – air flotation – Vacuum flotation. air is injected into the solution (sludge) at an elevated pressure of 275 to 550 kPa. 248 .

– The bubbles then carry the sludge to the surface. – The sludge forms a layer at the top of the tank. • Flotation thickening is most effective on waste sludges form suspended . – This layer of sludge is removed by a skimming mechanism for further processing. • The activated sludge is difficult to thicken by gravity.growth biological treatment processes such as: – The activated sludge process.5 – 1 percent to 3 – 6 percent. 249 .– The sludge (solution) flows into an open tank (and is thus depressurized) where. the dissolved air is released as finely divided bubbles. or – The suspended – growth nitrification process. • The flotation process typically increases the solid contents of activated sludge form 0. at atmospheric pressure.

– The solids are allowed to settle and compact to the bottom where a heavy-duty mechanism scrapes them to a hopper from which they are withdrawn for further processing. – Normally. • Sludge flows into a tank that is very similar in appearance to circular clarifiers used in primary and secondary sedimentation.Gravity Thickening • Gravity thickening is a simple and inexpensive process – It has been used widely on primary sludges for many years. • Gravity thickening is essentially a sedimentation process – It is similar in design to a conventional sedimentation or settling tanks. a circular tank is used. 250 .

• Gravity thickening is most effective on primary sludge – Provisions for dilution water and occasional chlorine addition are frequently included to improve process performance. and then – Blending the thickened sludges for further processing 251 . • The current trend is toward applying – Gravity thickening for primary sludges – Flotation thickening for activated sludges.

• Stabilization is not used if sludge is to be dewatered and burned. • The two basic stabilization processes are: – Anaerobic digestion in which the stabilization is carried out in closed tank devoid of oxygen. 252 . – Aerobic digestion in which air is injected into the sludge to accomplish the process of aerobic digestion.Stabilization of Sludge • The main purposes of sludge stabilization are: – To break down the organic solids biochemically so that they are more stable (less odorous and less putrescible). – More dewaterable and – To reduce the mass of sludge.

• Coagulate : to change from fluid to more or less solid state. the result is – The coagulation of the solids and – Release of the absorbed water because the coagulated solids are more easily separated from the water. • When chemical coagulants are added to the turbid. or Organic polymers Ash from incinerated sludge is also used as a conditioning agent.Chemical Conditioning • A commonly used method for dewatering – Is the addition of chemical coagulants such as • • • • Ferric chloride Lime. 253 .

• Chemical conditioning can reduce the 90 to 99 percent incoming sludge moisture (tubid water) to 65 to 85 percent. depending on the nature of the solids to be treated. 254 .• The conditioning chemicals are injected into the sludge just before the dewatering process and are mixed with the sludge.

• Sludge is heated at: – High temperature. 255 .Heat Treatment Conditioning • Heat treatment is both a stabilization and a conditioning process. 175° to 230° – Pressure at 1000 to 2000 kPa • Under these conditions (similar to the conditions of a pressure cooker): – The sludge is sterilized and dewatered readily. – It involves heating the sludge for short periods of time and under pressure.

ammonia nitrogen and colour. close supervision and skilled operators.• Heat treatment produces a sludge that dewaters better than chemically conditioned sludge. high concentration of organics. • It is most applicable to biological sludges that may be difficult to stabilize or condition by other means. – Creation of highly polluted cooking liquors. • Disadvantages of heat treatment process are: – Relatively complex operation and maintenance. 256 .

few new heat treatment facilities are used in U.2m³/s) or – Facilities where space may be limited. 257 .• The high capital costs of equipment generally limit its use to – Large plants (more than 5 Mgal/d or 0. • Because of these disadvantages.S.

258 . – Repeat the cycle. mechanically or manually. – Remove the dewatered sludge.Sludge Dewatering • Sludge drying beds are used for sludge dewatering. – When the bed is filled to the desired level. the sludge is allowed to dry to the desired final solids concentration. • Sand drying beds are the most commonly used type of drying bed. – Add chemical conditioners continuously. • Operational procedures are as follows: – Pump stabilized liquid onto the drying bed surface.

259 .Reasons for Dewatering • Dewatering of sludge is carried out for one or more of the following reasons: – Lower the costs for trucking sludge to the ultimate disposal by reducing the sludge volume by dewatering. – Dewatering of sludge is required prior to landfilling. – Easier to handle the dewatered sludge than thickened or liquid sludge. – Sludge is dewatered prior to the incineration.

Sludge Disposal • The majority of wastewater sludges is disposed of on land. – Approximately three quarters are used as soil conditioners and – The remainder burned as landfill. 260 . • Other methods include: – Incineration and – Discharge in the sea. – The regulatory restriction on ocean disposal. • Land application is increasing due to the following reasons: – Rising cost of energy required to burn sludge.

261 .8.0 INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • Inorganic in Industrial Wastes • Pretreatment – – – – Equalization Neutralization Greases & Oil Removal Toxic Substance • Industrial Wastewater Flowrate • Typical Rates of Water Use for Various Industries • Disposal of Wastewaters • Waste Strength Reduction.

– The indirect source of inorganics resulting from chemical additions during plant operations. the soft-water sources contain lower inorganics than hard-water or saltwater sources. for example. • Normally.Inorganics In Industrial Wastes • There are two main sources of inorganics in industrial wastes – The direct source of inorganic compounds in the carriage water. for example. 262 . there is a balance in organics and inorganics in domestic wastewaters – Many industry process wastewater may be deficient in specific inorganic compound. many food processing wastewater are high in sodium.

263 . phospherous. iron. or even by normal steel corrosion. • When industrial waste are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorous. and trace salts. – These nutrients must be added if biological treatment is to be used. – Phosphorous by phosphates – Iron by ferrous and ferric salts. – Nitrogen can be supplied by ammonium salts or nitrate salts.Nutrients Requirements • Biologically based wastewater treatment requires adequate nutrients such as nitrogen.

• These nutrients may cause eutrophication problems – And treatment for removal of these nutrients is required. high level of nitrogen is found in paint-production wastes and – High level of phosphorous in detergent production wastes. 264 .• Some industrial wastewaters may contain very high levels of these nutrients. – For example.

and cooling waters are subject to discharge restrictions – Similar to those applied to municipal wastes.On industrial Wastewater Treatment Design • Industrial process water. – Both organic and inorganics • There are no standard design for industrial waterpollution control – The required effluent standards are diverse. 265 . colloidal. varying with the industrial and pollutant class. • Industrial wastewater contains a variety of pollutants in soluble. and particulate forms. wash waters.

• Each site requires a customised design to achieve optimum performance.– It depends on the particular processes and/or products and the size of the manufacturing plant. 266 .

267 .Importance of Laboratory & Pilot Tests • Industrial liquid waste are similar to wastewater but – Differ in significant ways • Although much of the experience and information has been gained from municipal wastewater treatment plants – Industrial wastewater treatment operations should not blindly follow the typical design parameters and standards developed for municipal wastewater treatment plants. • Laboratory and small pilot tests should be conducted with the specific industrial wastewater as part of the design process.

• For an industrial wastewater treatment operation to perform well. 268 . flow. we tend to forget the importance of laboratory and pilot studies and – Depends on waste characteristics from similar plants – This strategy may result in failure. delay. and waste components and – Their effect on the performance of various treatment processes. it is essential that one should understand – The temporal variations in industrial wastewater strength. and increased costs. • Very often in our effort to reduce cost.

Plant Survey • Industrial waste treatment should include procedures such as – – – – – Plant surveys Process changes Housekeeping improvements. 269 . treatment either in a separate industrial plant or jointly with the municipality. • Plant survey is carried out to determine individual waste sources and strengths. Pretreatment and Finally.

• Process changes may be required to reduce waste flow and/or strength. • Housekeeping improvements and pretreatment are carried out to meet sewer discharge or other standards. 270 .

e.. • The following wastes should be excluded from the municipal sewers: – Wastes which create a fire or explosion. of the biological treatment system.. paunch manure or sand.Pretreatment • Pretreatment should be considered for industrial discharge that have strengths or characteristics differing significantly from domestic wastewater. toxic metal ions or hazardous oroganic wastes.g. 271 . gasoline or cleaning solvents. e.g.g. – Waste which impair hydraulic capacity. e. and – Waste which create a hazard to people. the sewer system..

• Pretreatment processes include: – – – – Equalization Neutralization Grease and Oil Removal Toxic Substance 272 .

– To obtain a stable effluent easier to treat in a municipal plant • Equalization is one of the most important pretreatment operation units – The batch discharge of concentrated waste is best suited for equalization. 273 . wastewater concentration or both. – It may be important to equalize wastewater flow.Equalization • Industries using a diversity of processes may be required to equalize wastes by holding them in a basin for a certain period of time.

• Acidic or basic wastewater must be neutralized prior to discharge – Sulphuric acid is the primary acid used to neutralize high-pH wastewaters unless calcium sulphate might be precipitated as a result of neutralization reaction. 274 . and settling of heavy metals are some objectives of equalization. if sulphuric acid is not acceptable – For very weak wastewaters carbon dioxide can be adequate for neutralization. stabilization of BOD. – Hydrocholoric acid can be used.Neutralization • Neutralization of alkaline and acid waste streams.

275 . sodium hydroxide is the easiest base material to handle in a liquid form – And can be used at various concentration for in-line neutralization with a minimum of equipment. • Limestone is used when reaction rates are slow and considerable times is available for reaction.• Equalization basins can be used as neutralization basins • When separate chemical neutralization is required.

Source Food Industries
• Soft Drinks

High BOD and Solids

Screening, Biological Treatment Lagoons Biological Treatment Biological Treatment Recovery, Animal Feed.


High Nitrogen and Carbohydrates

Chemical Industries
• • Detergents Acids High BOD & Phosphates Flotation, Precipitation Low pH, Low Organics Neutralization

Other Industries
• • Textiles Rubber High pH, and BOD, High Neutralization, Precipitation, Solids Biological Treatment High BOD and Solids, Biological Treatment Odour 276

Grease & Oil Removal
• Grease and oil are hydrophobic (not readily wettable).
– They tend to form insoluble layers with water

• They can be easily separated form the water phase by gravity and simple skimming, if they are not too well mixed with the water prior to separation. • The oils and greases tend to form emulsions with water as a result of turbulent mixing.
– It is difficult to break the emulsions.


• Separation of oil and grease should be carried out near the point of their mixing with water
– It can be carried out by flotation; – Air bubbles can be added to the oil and grease mixtures in the flotation process. – Addition of chemicals will help to break the emulsion.

• The petroleum industries use American Petroleum Institute (API) separators extensively to remove oils form wastewaters. • Grease traps are used by the food industries to collect the grease prior to its discharge.

Toxic Substances
• Toxic substances have received very little attention in the past
– New they pose the greatest to industries.

• In the USA it is illegal for industries to discharge toxic substances in wastewaters.
– It becomes the responsibility of each industry to determine whether any of its wastewater components are toxic to the environment – The toxic materials have to be removed prior to the wastewater discharge.

• A number of priority pollutants have been identified by the EPA
– These priority pollutants must be removed.


• Toxic organics can be ultimately destroyed by various chemical oxidation systems. • Incineration appears to be the most economical method for destroying toxic organics when they are treated in their concentrated form.


major emphasis has been placed on – Heavy metals and on complex organics that have been implicated in possible cancer production. 281 . • It is essential to use pretreatment to reduce heavy metals below toxic levels – And to prevent discharge of any toxic organics. – They must be concentrated and placed into insoluble materials which will not leach the metals. • If the heavy metals cannot be reused.Heavy Metals • Recently.

282 . – Fluctuations in pH and BOD will upset the efficiency of a biological treatment system.Remarks on Equalization • Textile mill wastes discharged to a municipal plant must be equalized to prevent fluctuations in pH and BOD. • Unequalized wastewaters high in alkalinity or acidity commonly required neutralization by chemical addition to prevent upsetting the system.

copper.Waste Strength Reduction • Pretreatment is carried out on certain industrial wastes – To reduce the organic or inorganic solids prior to disposal in a municipal plant • Some of the examples are listed as follows – Textile or Tannery Wastes • Equalization and sedimentation may be required to reduce the settleable solids. – Metal-planting Wastes • They may contain zine. cyanide and other heavy metals • Treatment in addition to equalization may be required if the toxic ions are not sufficiently diluted with domestic wastewater. 283 . • They are commonly treated by chemical oxidation or coagulation for removal of these inorganic pollutants.

000 mg/L. and whey a BOD of 35. a creamery (butter – factory) or cheese factory may require • Pretreatment by aeration to prevent acidic.e.000 mg/L – Reduction in drippage and spillage and by-product recovery in milk processing can reduce the strength of dairy waste significantly. 284 .– Diary Wastes from a bottling plant. malodorous influent wastewater. salt or ammonia nitrogen) must be regulated at the plant site if the municipal wastedisposed system does not have sufficient assimilative capacity. – Refractory pollutants • Waste stream with high concentrations of refractory pollutants (i. • Whole milk has a BOD of approximately 100.

Standard A and Standard B • The two most important parameter measured are BOD and SS. • Standard A and standard B are set by the Environmental Quality Art (1974). BOD – Standard A: – Standard B: 20mg/L 50mg/L SS 50mg/L 100 mg/L 285 .

it should meet Standard B.• If the effluent is discharged upstream of a water supply intake it should meet Standard A. • If for effluent that is discharged downstream. 286 .

287 .

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