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23.

Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
RECAP
Turning operation and its arrangement
Various type of turning operations like facing,
turning, grooving, slotting etc etc.
Comparison between turning and other operations
and where turning stands w.r.t finish and accuracy.
Some basic mathematical relationship.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Lesson outcome course outcome
Explain the machine tool
for turning operations
Identify the various
features and functionalities
Guidelines
Try to cover the details of
various operations that can
be performed on lathe like
screw thread, boring,
drilling, reamer and tapping

Explain the components of
metal cutting and machine
tools
Can differentiate between
various machining
operations and relevant
machine tool used
Generate a tentative
machining plan for a part
Know about advance
machine tools

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Machine Tool
The machine tool used for turning operation is
called LATHE
LATHE is used for turning , drilling , boring , facing
and all the other allied operation.
Identified by a chuck holding the work-piece and a
stationary tool
The chuck rotates and the tool stay still( only
partially) though
Does the tool really stay still
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3 Lathes and Lathe Operations
Lathes generally are considered to be the oldest
machine tools.
The maximum spindle speed of lathes typically is
around 4000 rpm but only may be about 200 rpm
for large lathes.
Although simple and versatile, an engine lathe
requires a skilled machinist, because all controls
are manipulated by hand.
Consequently, it is inefficient for repetitive
operations and for large production runs.
The rest of this section will describe the various
types of automation that usually are added to
improve efficiency.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Typical LATHE
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.1 Lathes components
Bed
The bed supports all major components of the
lathe.
Beds have a large mass and are built rigidly,
usually from gray or nodular cast iron.
The top portion of the bed has two ways with
various cross-sections that are hardened and
machined for wear resistance and dimensional
accuracy during turning.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.1 Lathes components
Carriage
The carriage or carriage assembly slides along
the ways and consists of an assembly of the
cross-slide, tool post, and apron.

Headstock
The headstock is fixed to the bed and is equipped
with motors, pulleys, and V-belts that supply
power to a spindle at various rotational speeds.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.1 Lathes components
Tailstock
The tailstock, which can slide along the ways and
be clamped at any position, supports the other
end of the workpiece.
It is equipped with a center that may be fixed
(dead center), or it may be free to rotate with the
workpiece (live center).
Drills and reamers can be mounted on the
tailstock quill (a hollow cylindrical part with a
tapered hole) to drill axial holes in the workpiece.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.1 Lathes components
Feed rod and lead screw
The feed rod is powered by a set of gears through
the headstock.
The rod rotates during the lathe operation and
provides movement to the carriage and the cross-
slide by means of gears, a friction clutch, and a
keyway along the length of the rod.
Closing a split nut around the lead screw engages
it with the carriage; it is also used for cutting
threads accurately.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.1 Lathes components
Lathe specifications
A lathe generally is specified by:
1. Its swing, the maximum diameter of the
workpiece that can be machined (Table 23.6).
2. The maximum distance between the headstock
and tailstock centers.
3. The length of the bed.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.1 Lathes components
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.2 Workholding devices and accessories
Workholding devices are important, particularly in
machine tools and machining operations, as they
must hold the workpiece securely.
A chuck usually is equipped with three or four
jaws.
Three-jaw chucks generally have a geared-scroll
design that makes the jaws self-centering.
The jaws in some types of chucks can be
reversed to permit clamping of the workpieces
either on the outside surfaces or on the inside
surfaces of hollow workpieces, such as pipes and
tubing.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.2 Workholding devices and accessories
A and b are draw-in type collet. The workpiece is placed in the collet hole, and the conical surfaces
of the collet are forced inward by pulling it with a draw bar into the sleeve
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.2 Workholding devices and accessories
Chucks are available in various designs and
sizes.
Their selection depends on the type and speed of
operation, workpiece size, production and
dimensional accuracy requirements, and the jaw
forces required.
By controlling the magnitude of jaw forces, an
operator can ensure that the part does not slip in
the chuck during machining.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.2 Workholding devices and accessories
Power chucks, actuated pneumatically or
hydraulically, are used in automated equipment
for high production rates, including the loading of
parts using industrial robots.

Face plates are used for clamping irregularly
shaped workpieces. The plates are round and
have several slots and holes through which the
workpiece is bolted or clamped.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.2 Workholding devices and accessories
Mandrels are placed inside hollow or tubular
workpieces and are used to hold workpieces that
require machining on both ends or on their
cylindrical surfaces.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.2 Workholding devices and accessories
Accessories
Several devices are available as accessories and
attachments for lathes. Among these devices are
the following:
1. Carriage and cross-slide stops, with various
designs to stop the carriage at a predetermined
distance along the bed.
2. Devices for turning parts with various tapers.
3. Milling, sawing, gear-cutting, and grinding
attachments.
4. Various attachments for boring, drilling, and
thread cutting.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.3 Lathe operations
The cutting tool is attached to the tool post,
which is driven by the lead screw, and removes
material by traveling along the bed.
Form tools are used to produce various shapes
on solid, round work-pieces by moving the tool
radially inward while the part is rotating.
As a rule
The formed length of the part should not be greater
than about 2.5 times the minimum diameter of the part,
the cutting speed should be set properly.
cutting fluids should be used.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.3 Additional Lathe operations
Boring on a lathe is similar to turning. It is
performed inside hollow workpieces or in a hole
made previously by drilling or other means.
Drilling can be performed on a lathe by mounting
the drill bit in a chuck in the tailstock quill.
The tools for parting, grooving, thread cutting, and
various other operations are specially shaped for
their particular purpose or are available as
inserts.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.4 Types of Lathes
Bench lathes
As the name suggests, these lathes are placed
on a workbench or a table.
They have low power, are usually operated by
hand feed, and are used to machine small
workpieces.
Toolroom lathes have high precision, enabling the
machining of parts to close dimensional
tolerances.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.4 Types of Lathes
Special-purposes lathes
These lathes are used for applications (such as
railroad wheels, gun barrels, and rolling-mill rolls)
with workpiece sizes as large as 1.7 m in
diameter by 8 m in length and capacities of 450
kW.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.4 Types of Lathes
Tracer lathes
These lathes have special attachments that are
capable of turning parts with various contours.
Also called duplicating lathes or contouring
lathes, the cutting tool follows a path that
duplicates the contour of the template, similar to a
pencil following the shape of a plastic stencil.
However, operations typically performed on a
tracer lathe have been replaced largely by
numerical-control lathes and turning centers.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.4 Types of Lathes
Automatic lathes
Lathes have been automated increasingly over
the years; manual machine controls have been
replaced by various mechanisms that enable
machining operations to follow a certain
prescribed sequence.
In a fully automatic lathe, parts are fed and
removed automatically, whereas in
semiautomatic machines, these functions are
performed by the operator.
Automatic lathes may have a horizontal or
vertical spindle and are suitable for medium- to
high-volume production. why not small production
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.4 Types of Lathes
Turret lathes
Turret lathes (either bar type or chucking type)
are versatile, and the operations may be carried
out either by hand, using the turnstile (capstan
wheel), or automatically.
Once set up properly, these machines do not
require highly skilled operators.
Vertical turret lathes also are available; they are
more suitable for short, heavy workpieces with
diameters as large as 1.2 m.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.4 Types of Lathes
Turret lathes
Fig 23.9 shows the schematic illustration of the
components of a turret lathe. Note the two turrets:
square and hexagonal (main).


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.4 Types of Lathes
Computer-controlled lathes
Fig 23.9 shows the (a) computer numerical-
control lathe. Note the two turrets on this
machine.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 23.2 Typical parts made on CNC turning machine tools
The capabilities of CNC turning-machine tools
Material and number of cutting tools used and machining
times are indicated for each part. These parts also can
be made on manual or turret lathes, although not as
effectively or consistently.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 23.3 Machining of complex shapes
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.6 Design considerations and guidelines for turning operations
When turning operations are necessary, the
following general design guidelines should be
followed:
1. Parts should compatible with work holding device
2. The dimensional accuracy and surface finish specified
should match process capability.
3. If possible use near net shape rather then blank
4. Tool path optimization
5. The manufacturing technology must use standard tool
and inserts
6. Machinability



23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.6 Design considerations and guidelines for turning operations
Guidelines for turning operations
Possible cause of problem in turning
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Additional Lathe operations
Screw Thread
Boring
Drilling
Reamer
Tapping
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.8 Cutting screw threads
A screw thread may be defined as a ridge of
uniform cross-section that follows a helical or
spiral path on the outside or inside of a cylindrical
(straight thread) or tapered surface (tapered
thread).
Threads traditionally have been machined, but
increasingly, they are formed by thread rolling.
Threads can be machined externally or internally
with a cutting tool with a process called thread
cutting or threading. Internal threads also can be
produced with a special threaded tool, called a
tap, and the process is called tapping.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.3.8 Cutting screw threads
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.4 Boring and Boring Machines
Boring is performed to
enlarge a hole made previously by some other
process or
to produce circular internal profiles in hollow
workpieces.
The tool used is called boring bar with a turning
insert

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.4 Boring and Boring Machines
Boring operations on relatively small workpieces
can be carried out on a lathe; large workpieces
are machined on boring mills.
In horizontal boring machines, the workpiece is
mounted on a table that can move horizontally in
both the axial and radial directions.
A vertical boring mill (Fig. 23.18) is similar to a
lathe, has a vertical axis of workpiece rotation,
and can accommodate workpieces with diameters
as much as 2.5 m.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.4 Boring and Boring Machines
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.4 Boring and Boring Machines
Design considerations for boring
Guidelines for efficient and economical boring
operations are similar to those for turning
Additionally, the following factors should be
considered:
Whenever possible, through holes rather than
blind holes should be specified.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5 Drilling, Drills and Drilling Machines
When inspecting various large or small products,
note that the vast majority have several holes in
them.
Hole making is among the most important
operations in manufacturing, and drilling is a
major and common hole-making process.
Drilling can be done using a drill machine but a
Lathe can also be used for drilling
In Lathe drill is held either in the tail stock or if
multi tool turret is used drill can be held in tool
post

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
The capabilities of drilling and boring operations
are shown in Table 23.10.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
Spade drill
Spade drills have removable tips or bits and are
used to produce large-diameter and deep holes.
Fig 23.1 shows various types of drills.



23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
Gun drilling
Developed originally for drilling gun barrels, gun
drilling is used for drilling deep holes and requires
a special drill.
Fig 23.22(a) shows the gun drill showing various
features. (b) Schematic illustration of the gun-
drilling operation.





23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
Trepanning
In trepanning, the cutting tool produces a hole by
removing a disk-shaped piece (core), usually from
flat plates.




23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
Other types of drills
Fig 23.20 shows the Various types of drills and
drilling and reaming operations.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.1 Drills
Other types of drills
A step drill produces holes with two or more
different diameters.
A core drill is used to make an existing hole
larger.
Counterboring and countersinking drills produce
depressions on the surface to accommodate the
heads of screws and bolts below the workpiece
surface.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.2 Material-removal rate in drilling
The material-removal rate (MRR) in drilling is the
volume of material removed by per unit time. For
a drill with a diameter D, the cross-sectional area
of the drilled hole is D
2
/4.
The velocity of the drill perpendicular to the
workpiece is the product of the feed, f (the
distance the drill penetrates per unit revolution),
and the rotational speed, N, where N=V/D.
Thus,
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 23.4 Material-removal rate and torque in drilling
A hole is being drilled in a block of magnesium alloy with
a 10-mm drill bit, at feed of 0.2 mm/rev, and with the
spindle running at 800 rpm. Calculate the material-
removal rate and the torque on the drill.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Solution
The material-removal rate first is calculated from Eq.
(23.3):


Referring to Table 21.2, lets take an average unit
power of 0.5 Ws/mm
3
for magnesium alloys. The
power required is then

Example 23.4 Material-removal rate and torque in drilling
( )( )
( )( ) s / mm 210 min / mm 570 , 12 800 2 . 0
4
10
MRR
3 3
2
= =
(

=
t
( )( ) W 105 5 . 0 210 Power = =
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 23.4 Material-removal rate and torque in drilling
Solution
Power is the product of the torque on the drill and the
rotational speed, which in this case is (800)(2)/60 =
83.3 radians per second. Noting that W=J/s and J=Nm,
we find that

m N 25 . 1
8 . 83
105
= = T
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.5 Drilling practice
Drills and similar hole making tools usually are held in
drill chucks, which may be tightened with or without
keys.
Special chucks and collets with various quick-
change features
To keep the drill more centered, the point angles of
the spot drill and of the drill are matched.
minimizing walking of the drill bit are to use a
centering punch

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.5 Drilling practice
Drilling Recommendations
The feed in drilling is the distance the drill travels
into the workpiece per revolution.
Chip removal during drilling can be difficult,
especially for deep holes in soft and ductile
workpiece materials.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.5 Drilling practice
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.5 Drilling practice
Drilling reconditioning
Drills are reconditioned by grinding them either
manually or using special fixtures.
Measuring drill life
Drill life, as well as tap life, usually is measured by the
number of holes drilled before they become dull.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.6 Drilling on machines other than LATHE
Drilling machines are used for drilling holes, tapping,
reaming, and small-diameter boring operations.
The types of drilling machines range from simple
bench-type drills used to drill small-diameter holes
large radial drills which can accommodate large
workpieces.
Hand held drill but not included in machining
category

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.6 Drilling machines
a) schematic illustration of the components of a vertical drill press.
b) A radial drilling machine.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.6 Multi tool or CNC Drilling machines
A three-axis computer numerical-control drilling machine. The turret holds
many as eight different tools, such as drills, taps, and reamers.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.6 Drilling machines
Drilling machines with multiple spindles (gang
drilling) are used for high production- rate
operations.
Workholding devices for drilling are essential to
ensure that the workpiece is located properly.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.5.7 Design considerations for drilling
The basic design guidelines for drilling are as
follows:
1. Designs should allow holes to be drilled on flat
surfaces and perpendicular to the drill motion.
2. Interrupted hole surfaces should be avoided or
minimized for improved dimensional accuracy,
drill life, and to avoid vibrations.
3. Hole bottoms should match, if possible, standard
drill-point angles; flat bottoms or odd shapes
should be avoided.


23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.6 Reaming and Reamers
Reaming is an operation used to (a) make an
existing hole dimensionally more accurate than
can be obtained by drilling alone, and (b) improve
its surface finish.
The most accurate holes in workpieces generally
are produced by the following sequence of
operations:
1. Centering
2. Drilling
3. Boring
4. Reaming
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.6 Reaming and Reamers
For even better accuracy and surface finish, holes
may be burnished or internally ground and honed.
A reamer is a multiple-cutting-edge tool with
straight or helically fluted edges that remove very
little material.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.6 Reaming and Reamers
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.7 Tapping and Taps
Internal threads in workpieces can be produced
by tapping. A tap is a chip-producing threading
tool with multiple cutting teeth.
Fig 23.27(a) shows the terminology for a tap. (b)
Tapping of steel nuts in production.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.7 Tapping and Taps
Tapered taps are designed to reduce the torque
required for the tapping of through holes.
Bottoming taps are for tapping blind holes to their
full depth.
Collapsible taps are used in large-diameter holes;
after tapping has been completed, the tap is
collapsed mechanically and is removed from the
hole without rotation.
Chip removal can be a significant problem during
tapping because of the small clearances involved.

23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.7 Tapping and Taps
Tapping may be done by hand or with machines
such as (a) drilling machines, (b) lathes, (c)
automatic screw machines, and (d) vertical CNC
milling machines combining the correct relative
rotation and the longitudinal feed.
Tap life can be determined with the same
technique used to measure drill life.
Self-reversing tapping systems also have been
improved significantly and now are in use with
modern computer-controlled machine tools.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
23.7 Tapping and Taps
Chipless tapping is a process of internal thread
rolling using a forming tap.
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Assignment Number 3
Write a paragraph on an advance machining
method which can produce holes without any
physical contact between tool and workpiece and
can be there any technique which produce holes
without any tool

Submission: before next class Monday 12-12-2011
23. Machining Processes used to Produce Round Shapes: Turning and Hole Making
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Assignment number 4
Chapter 23
23.28
23.34
23.35
23.37

Submission :15-12-2011