Moving to new era using instrumentation&robotics






But things tend to get a bit trickier when you send a robot into the world. touch) that we humans possess make us unique. SCADA TELEMETRY APPLIED ENVIRONMENT SOLUTION The goal of designing intelligent machines is to mimic natural systems as closely as possible.NECESSITY-FOR NETWORKED AUTONOMY MANAGING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE VIA SATELLITE. Robotic arms are relatively easy to build and program because these only operate within a confined area. The sensory systems (eyes. . which is actually a basic element of a robotic system. The most common form of a robot is a robotic arm. nose. and it will require a lot of programming to equip machines with the same capabilities.

process automation and autonomy in networking. q . q ? It is a branch of engineering that involves conception .WHAT IS THE ROLL OF ROBOTICS The design and manufacture of intelligent machines that are programmed to perform specific tasks. manufacture and operation of machines assigned for specific high-precision tasks . design .


.SENSOR Provides limited feedback to the robot and aids it in performing the job. Sends information in the form of electronic signals to the controller letting it know about the state of world around it.

In the near future controllers with artificial intelligence could allow robots to ‘think’ on their own and even program themselves. processes or robots. Allows the robot to be networked to other systems . so that it may work in collaboration with other machines. .CONTROLLER Functions as the brain of the robot.

pressure or electricity. water . They are powered by air . Without a drive a robot is as good as ‘dead’. .DRIVE It is the ‘Engine’ ‘that drives the links (the section between the two joints) into their desired position.

tweezers . End-effectors are suited to perform specific tasks. It could be any tool such as gripper . Some robots can change end-effectors and be programmed for a different set of tasks.END-EFFECTOR It is the ‘hand’ connected to the robot’s arm. . etc that helps it do its job. vacuum pumps .

They give the robot lots of ways to position itself in the environment. Most working robots have 6 degrees of freedom. Each joint gives the robot one degree of freedom. .ARM Positions the end-effector and sensor to do their pre-programmed businesses. They can be of any shape and form and many of them can even resemble human arms.

A robot ‘architecture’ primarily refers to the software and hardware framework for controlling the robotic system. tend to be task. Ø System developers have typically relied upon reference architecture to guide the construction of robotic systems and provide computational services to the sub-systems. Ø One trend in robotic frameworks has been behaviour-based or reactive systems. and lack suitability to a broad range of applications. minimal computation and task-achieving behaviour problem. some of which are emergent. Behaviour-based systems exhibit various behaviours. Ø These architectures.REFERENCE FRAMEWORKS Ø Robotic systems are complex and tend to be difficult to develop. These systems are characterized by tight coupling between sensors and actuators.and domain-specific. Ø . however.

MCUs are buried in an end system. . which may have a direct bearing on the automation application being developed. A hybrid architecture combining the microcontroller unit (MCU) and the controller area network (CAN) modules can be used in applications ranging from toys to industrial manufacturing. but on a single piece of silicon.THE MICRO-BRAIN The microcontroller forms the heart of the embedded system that forms the brain of majority of the robots. An MCU contains the basic functionality as a computer . Currently available MCUs have different internal architectures .

reliable and connected devices.industrial systems has fuelled the demand for robust . The prime reason why the trend is towards distributed intelligence is that it provides higher reliability at lower cost.and connect them to operations and enterprise level systems and processes.many plant floor equipment and networking systems . The trend towards more intelligent . In recent years . Given the low cost of microcontrollers .using several of these components within a distributed processing system still provides a cheaper solution than using a monolithic central processor based solution.many organisations have sought to integrate disparate . .DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENCE Use of highly integrated MCUs allows development of distributed intelligence systems.

is an advanced serial bus system that supports distributed control systems efficiently. Bosch in Germany initially developed it for the use in motor vehicles in the late 1980s.CONNECTING WITH CAN CAN or the controller area network . Ø The bus access is handled via the advanced serial communications protocol ‘Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection with Non-Detective Arbitration’. Ø . Ø The number of nodes may be changed dynamically without disturbing the communications of the other nodes. Ø CAN is a multimaster bus with an open linear structure with one logic bus line and equal nodes.

at a maximum bus length of 40 meters.detection and error-handling mechanisms such as cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and high immunity against electro-magnetic interference. and the bus access is prioritised through its identifier.CAN is----Low cost because low-cost protocol devices are available due to mass production in the automotive and industrial markets. Ø Fast because the data length is limited to 8 bytes per message. Ø Real time capable because of the data transfer rate of 1000 kbps. Ø Flexible because the number of nodes on the bus is not limited by the protocol itself. Ø Reliable because it provides sophisticated error. This ensures a good price-performance ratio. when using a twisted wire-pair. Ø .

q However.e. i. q For basic serial line communication. you plug them directly into serial ports on the robot and off-board computing. a variety of radiomodems are available that use fixed frequencies or spreadspectrum techniques. q . q Higher bandwidths such as ETHERNET or high speed synchronous serial require different hardware.COMMUNICATIONS Digital communications via radio-frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) links is becoming cheaper and a number of companies are providing off-the-shelf solutions. q In many cases they are also transparent. with high speed serial communication we may even be able to use serial line Internet protocol (SLIP) or point-to-point protocol (PPP) instead of LAN-based interface.

In articulated robots or other mechanisms with revolute motions . Ø . Ø SENSOR INTEGRATION.MOTION CONTROL applications Robots are some of the most complex motion-control in the industry.robots move in coordinated fashion . Ø KINEMATIC SOLUTIONS.but the use of a range of payloads makes servo tuning difficult.path following and straight line movements.coupling creates complex nonlinear motions .Robots are expected to perform uniformly throughout their work envelope . Ø LARGE WORK ENVELOPES.Unlike a collection of individual axes of motion control .which must be managed. MECHANICAL COUPLING.and this coordination is the basis for sensor integration .The motion control system of a robot must adjust points and paths in real time based on the sensed information. The following performance requirements top the list of motion control challenges.

They typically come with a kinematic solution and a complete software solution including real-time operating systems and a robot-specific programming language. Ø Software-enabled components is an emerging approach that adds a layer of integrated software to the generic motion components. SOFTWARE-ENABLED COMPONENTS and INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS. Ø . are purchased from various vendors and integrated into a control system. human-machine interface (HMI) and the programming pendant. Ø Integrated solutions are complete robot motion control packages that just need a mechanism. PCB assembly machines and other cartesian coordinate robots. typically including an industrial PC. motion control board. Control components. The components approach is common for semiconductor robots.CONTROLLING MOTION The three main approaches to implementing motion control on a robot are COMPONENTS.

q q True vision in robotics is both a hardware and software issue.ROBOT VISION An increasing number of robot applications require machine vision for guiding the robot’s movements in automated assembly as well as for quality control.and can improve on human vision where precise and repeatable visual measurements and inspections are required. A real vision robot is one which . Machine vision replaces human vision with video cameras and specialised computers . q .with a single and multiple cameras integrated to the robot controller . q A robust robot-to-camera calibration utility is required and the robot controller must have an accurate model of the robot to meet the above requirement.locates randomly oriented objects in the field of view of the camera and generates a robot transformation to identify the location and orientation of the object.

ROBOSURGERY Thanks to their precision. the surgeon can ‘feel’ the tissue underneath the robot’s instruments. The surgeon can control the surgery from a terminal in the room or at times several miles away from the patient while robots go on about their job. This lets the surgeons perform delicate procedures that would otherwise be too fine for human hands. robots are increasingly being used during certain types of microsurgery. Assisted with tactile/feedback sensors. .

through which surgeons operate on the heart using pencil-sized instruments. each about 2.5 centimeters in diameter. . surgeons from the New York presbyterian hospital performed a robotic heart surgery using the DA VINCI surgical system. This particular technique requires making four puncture wounds.THE ‘DA VINCI’ SURGICAL SYSTEM Around a year ago. Sitting comfortably at a console a few meters away from the patient they can view the insides of a patient on a monitor. The DA VINCI surgical system made by California-based Intuitive surgical system is getting worldwide attention and is operational worldwide with more than a hundred installations to its credit. The team which performed the operation was quite satisfied with the results and the patients recovered well before the required time frame.

However in most of the robots used. and destroy the harmful elements. detect. the robot’s operator controls it from a safe distance and guides the fully armed robot to the danger zone. . Besides such land combing operations.IN DANGER ZONE Process autonomy form an important part of land mines and bomb detection squads in many countries. Robots were recently used to recover humans trapped under the debris of World Trade Centre. Work is going on to build autonomous robots that could search. the robots go deep down the earth’s crust where temperatures are unbearable and also search for buried treasures in the deepest of oceans and sometimes work in nuclear reactors.

does the routine undersea search. the robot checks out for oil leakages in tankers that travel on the high seas and fixes the metal. This tripod-like machine can roll through mine fields.SOME EXAMPLES One such robot called DERVISH developed by Stephen Salter of the University of Edinburgh has the capability to withstand the force of about 11 anti-personal mines during the landmine operations. detonating buried mines and still managing to survive the blast. Using ultrasound techniques. Another robot named MAVERICK. besides cleaning up the oil spillage. . developed by Solex Robotics.

Technically. much as doctors repair humans. will be able to repair themselves and. Androids are said to be the ultimate in instrumentation and control engineering.Anything to NETWORKED AUTONOMY will be incomplete without a reference to THE ANDROIDS. other Androids. Many Android developers prefer to call their creations ‘HUMANOIDS’ rather than ‘ANDROIDS’. Androids are anthropomorphic robots. robots that look more like humans. at the very least. Androids will also be able to tell us what is wrong when something inside them fails. Ø Many researchers are already fiddling with numerous ideas to create a fully functional Android. Ø THE ANDROIDS Androids will help us enjoy life by relieving us of many of the mundane tasks.e. In short they will be a new species of humans Ø . The most striking creation is ASIMO from HONDA. Ø Androids will be capable of building themselves and will lead to lower product cost. i.

HUMANOID ROBOTS SONY’S SDR-4X HONDA’S ASIMO These humanoid robots walk on two feet with amazing grace. replicating the walking movements o humans. The engineers of SONY have given SDR-4X advanced features such as the ability to remember faces and recognise emotions from facial features. .

AIBO can express emotions of happiness. sadness. anger. . hearing. This robot pup responds to your voice commands with flashing sounds and lights. AIBO is the name that comes across everyone’s mind. touch. viz. The newer versions promise more interaction and far better responses with the addition of sensors responding to the senses of humans and animals. An engineering breakthrough.AIBO:THE ROBOT PUP When one thinks about robots. surprise. sight and a sense of balance. etc and definitely makes a wonderful companion.

Ø Micro-controller based devices are smaller and lighter than pure mechanical systems. The benefits of using electronics in robotic systems are many. Ø Electronics provides a wide variety of changeable functions by simply reprogramming the chip with the new product features. Ø .TOWARDS AUTONOMY The advances made in the field of microelectronics have virtually made the design and development of robotic systems much easier. Ø The systems with fewer moving parts are more reliable while providing a longer life. Power requirements are typically less than for electro-mechanical systems.

robotic applications range from today’s automated vacuum cleaners and interactive toys to connected intelligent devices and personal service companions of .standard of living . In the real world they are redefining manufacturing . However we must not forget that good things often come with potential dangers also. Robotics has the potential to change our economy . Combining computer science and real world practicability . .exploration and consumer electronics.WHAT LIES AHEAD Robots are no longer just the character of sci-fi movies. As technology progresses .knowledge and above all the WORLD we live in.we are finding newer ways to leverage robotics.medicine .

Saha .S.THANK YOU Prepared by: Rabi.

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