You are on page 1of 30

Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy

Pages: 371-381

Chapter 17 Objective
Students will be able to indicate how the issues of Oregon and Texas became central in the election of 1844 and why Polks victory was seen as a mandate for Manifest Destiny.

Chapter 17 Drill
What is meant by manifest destiny?

The Ascension of Tyler Too


Whig leaders (Clay and Webster) had planned to control newly elected President William H. Harrison. Their plan fell through when Harrison died of pneumonia four weeks after the inauguration.

The Ascension of Tyler Too


New President John Tyler was all alone. Tyler did not agree with the Whig Party. The Whigs were pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, and pro-internal improvements.

John Tyler: A President Without a Party


After their victory, Whigs unveiled their platform. Financial reform came in the form of a law ending the independent treasury system which Tyler signed. The Whigs also tried hard for a new U.S. Bank but Tyler vetoed it.

John Tyler: A President Without a Party


Whig extremists started calling Tyler his accidency as his entire cabinet resigned except for Daniel Webster. Tyler even vetoed a Whig tariff. The Whigs would revise the tariff in order to get Tyler to sign it in to law.

A War of Words with England


During this time there was a lot of antiBritish sentiment. American and British magazines traded barbs with one another but fortunately no blood was shed. 1800s America was a borrowing nation with its expansive infrastructure. Britain was the lender for Americas big projects.

A War of Words with England


As the Panic of 1837 broke out Englishmen who lost money scoffed at the Americans. In 1837, an American steamer, the Caroline, was attacked in New York and set on fire by the British.

A War of Words with England


Tension was high after the Caroline affair. In 1841 the British would capture the ship the Creole loaded with 130 revolting slaves and give them asylum in the Bahamas.

Manipulating the Maine Maps


In 1842 Britain sent Lord Ashburton to meet with Daniel Webster to negotiate the borders of Maine. Britain got HalifaxQuebec while the U.S. received more land north .

The Lone Star of Texas Shines Alone


Since Texas declared its independence in 1836 it prepared for its defense if or when the Mexicans tried to recapture their land. Texas prepared by making treaties with foreign nations like France, and Holland.

The Lone Star of Texas Shines Alone


America could not annex Texas with out a war. Britain wished to keep Texas independent so as to keep American expansionism in check. Britain also thought Texas would be good for the cotton crop.

The Belated Texas Nuptials


James K. Polk and his expansionist ideas won the election of 1844. The following year Texas would be asked to join the Union as 28th state. Mexico complained about the Americans taking Texas. There was little they could do, however, to stop the Americans.

Oregon Fever Populates Oregon


For American settlers, Oregon was a great place to start their new lives. It stretch from northern California to the 54 40 line.

Oregon Fever Populates Oregon


Oregon was once claimed by Russia, Spain, Britain, and the U.S. Now only Britain and the U.S. claimed it. Britain claim of was north of the Columbia River since this is where settlers from the Hudson Bay Company lived. The Oregon Trail stretched for over 2000 miles across America.

The Mandate (?) for Manifest Destiny


In the 1844 Presidential election the Whigs nominated Henry Clay while the Democrats picked James K. Polk since they couldnt agree on anyone else. Polk was not a stranger to politics as he was Speaker of the House for four years and was governor of Tennessee for two terms.

The Mandate (?) for Manifest Destiny


Polk was known as Young Hickory as he was supported by Andrew Jackson. Polk and the Democrats advocated Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny stated that it U.S. was destined to expand across the continent gaining as much land as possible.

The Mandate (?) for Manifest Destiny

Clay lost the election because of his blurry beliefs about what should come of Texas.

Polk The Purposeful


One of Polks first acts was to lower the tariff from 32% to 25% despite the complaints by the industrialists. Polk also sought to solve the question of California and settle the Oregon dispute.

Polk The Purposeful


While the Democrats promoted acquiring all of Oregon during their campaign, after the annexation of Texas Southern Democrats did not care much. Fortunately, the British proposed a treaty that would separate British and American claims at the 49th parallel which was accepted by the Senate. Some citizens were upset and cried, Why all of Texas but not all of Oregon?

Misunderstandings with Mexico


Polks desire for California strained the relationship of the U.S. and Mexico. After Texas was annexed, Mexico recalled its foreign minister. Texas claiming of the Rio Grande as its boundary and not the Nueces River caused Polk to defend Texas.

Misunderstandings with Mexico

John Slidell was then sent to Mexico City to purchase California for $25 million but the Mexicans refused to meet with him.

American Blood on American(?) Soil


Polk would send 4,000 troops to Texas under General Zachary Taylor. On April 25, 1846 news would reach Washington that Mexicans killed 16 Americans. Polk then went to Congress seeking a declaration of war.

American Blood on American(?) Soil

Encouraged by Polk, Congress declared war, thus beginning the Mexican-American War.

The Mastering of Mexico


Polk hoped that once Mexico was defeated they would give or sell California. Santa Anna promised to end the war and give California to the U.S. if his power was restored. This was all a lie though. Old Rough and Ready Zachary Taylor repelled 20,000 Mexicans with only 5,000 troops.

Fighting Mexico for Peace


Nicholas Trist was sent to Mexico with $10 million to negotiate an armistice. Santa Anna would take the bribe but not fulfill his promise. On February 2, 1848 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed giving the U.S. all Mexican Territory from Texas to California north of the Rio Grande. The U.S. paid $15 million for the land.

Profit and Loss in Mexico


During the Mexican-American War 13,000 soldiers died. Most died of disease rather than the fighting. The Mexican-American War would serve as practice for the Civil War. Generals Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant gained valuable experience from the war.

Profit and Loss in Mexico


The war also gave the U.S. some much needed international respect as no major blunders occurred during the war. The war would end up paving the way for the Civil War as the question of slavery now arose in the newly acquired lands.

Profit and Loss in Mexico


David Wilmot of Pennsylvania would introduce his Wilmot Proviso which stated that slavery should never exist in any of the territories taken from Mexico. The amendment passed the House twice but each time it was struck down in the Senate. Mexicans upset at the loss of half of their territory referred to the American Civil War as Santa Annas Revenge.