Sytem Pencernaan (Digestive System

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OLEH : KELOMPOK 6 • Eksa Bintari • Miftahul Huda • Nurhayati • Rika Pebriani

ANATOMI

Kolon ascenden 19.Diagram sistem pencernaan 1.Pankreas 10.Anus .Submandibularis (bawah rahang) 4.duodenum 15.Appendiks 23.Saluran pankreas 12.Esofagus 9.Sublingualis (bawah lidah) 5.Faring 7.Rektum 24.Hati 13.Kolon descenden 20.Lambung 11.Parotis 3.Kolon 17.Kolon transversum 18.Kelenjar ludah 2.Kantung empedu 14.Sekum 22.Rongga mulut 6.Ileum 21.Saluran empedu 16.Lidah 8.

Small intestine (20) : absorption of. 17. 18. 19. and fat. 23) : The food that is not absorbed by small intestine will through this. . protein.Organ-organ sistem pencernaan berdasarkan diagram gambar diatas adalah : • • • • • • • Rongga mulut (5) : chewing and swallowing foods to be easier form to digest Pharinx (6) : The digested food then it will enter into the throat through pharinx Throat (8) : The entering food from throat to stomach is caused by peristaltic movement. carbohydrate. Stomach (10) : In stomach food stired and formed porridge called kim. 21. Large intestine (16. Anus (24) : Is a hole that is final end of digestive tract. 22.

Abdomens accesories .Pancretic .

.• Pancreatic Among other functions. These enzymes break down proteins. fats and carbs. the first segment of small intestine. the pancreas is the main factory for the digestive enzymes are released into the duodenum.

.Liver .

. but two of its main functions in the digestive system is made and issued an important ingredient called bile and processing of blood that comes from the small intestine containing the nutrients just absorbed. This purifies the heart blood of many impurity-impurity before walking into the entire body.• Liver Liver has various functions.

Gall bladder ..

it carries waste from the liver that can not pass through the kidneys. it helps to absorb fats in the diet and secondly. Made in the liver bile flow into the small intestine via bile channels. If the intestine does not need it.• Gall bladder Gallbladder is a storage bag for a more bile. . Bile serves two main purposes. bile flows into the gallbladder where he waited for a signal from the gut that there was food. First.

This stimulus causes the appearance of pushing for defecation. If stomach contains food it appear the stimuli from stomach continued to colon. in colon also happens the regulation of water level. This stimuli is called gastrocholic stimuli. The food we eat is not all absorbed will enter into colon and in the colon. the waste of food will be rottened by Escherichia coli bacteria found in colon. Besides. .Absorption in large intestine Large intestine consist of thick intestine (colon) and intestine axis (rectum).

PHYSIOLOGY .

or processes that physically mix or break foods down into smaller fragment.Generally function of digestive processes • Digestive system activities include six functional processes: ingestion or food intake. and defecation. or food breakdown by enzymatic action. or movement of food through the tract. mechanical digestion. or transport of products of digestion through the intestinal mucosa into the blood. chemical digestion. absorbtion. . propulsion. or elimination of undigested redsidues (feces) from the body.

Regulation mekanism of digestion .

foods changes to be kim and will saved until some hours. Food enter the mouth and then food will chew and swallow it into smaler part. and then large intestine.• Digest process begin from oral cavity. food through the esophagus and then through the pharynx. In pharinx foods were moved to stomach by peristaltic. After that. And in stomach.. foods will through the small intestine. After that. And the last is defecation in anus. .

which is initiated volumtarily. the peristaltic waves are so powerful that food and fluids will reach your stomach even if you stand on your head. . Peristaltis is the major means of propulsion. In fact.• 1 Propulsion ( penelanan) • Propulsion is the process that moves food through the alimentary canal. It includes swallowing. From the time food enters the pharynx. and peristaltis. Its net effect is to squeeze food along the pathway from one organ to the next. its movement is completely reflexive. involves alternate waves of contractions and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls. but some mixing occures as well.

Segmentation mixing food mixes food with digestive juice and increases the rate of absorption by repeatedly moving defferent part of the food mass over the intestinal wall . or rhytmic local constictions of the intestine.Two kinds of propulsion A. Mechanical digestion Mechanical digestion physically prepares for chemical digestion by enzimes. churning in yhe stomach. and segmentation. Mechanical digestion processes includes chewing mixing of food with saliva by the tongue.

Chemical digestion Chemical digestion is a catabolic process in which large food molecules are broken down to their monomers (chemical building block). Chemical digestion is accomplished by anzymes secreted by various glands into the lumen of the alimentary canal. The enzymatic break down of foodstuffs begins in the mouth and is essentially complete in the small intestine. which are small enough to be absorbed by the GI tract lining.B. .

minerals. . The small intenstine is the major absorptive side. these substances must first enter the mucosa cells by active or passive transport processes.• 4 absorption Absorption is the transport of digestive end products (plus vitamins. 5 Defecation Defacation is the elimination of indisgetible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces. For absorptions to accure. and water) from the GI tract lumen to the blood or lymphs.

Interaction between digestive system and the other body system • Digestive system is absolutely hace contact and interaction to the other body system. . Example. digestive system with respiratory system. If respiratory system is disturbed. digestive system will also disturbed.

TERMOREGULATION • Human thermoregulation centered on the anterior hypothalamus. 1997). . namely thermoreseptor. there are three components or compilers regulator of heat-regulating system. hypothalamus. Thermo: Heat Regulation: Regulation physiological thermoregulation is an arrangement of the balance of human body heat production and heat loss so the temperature can be maintained in constant body Heat is kinetic energy of molecular motion The human body is an organ that is able to produce heat independently and is not dependent on ambient temperature. and efferent nerves as well as thermoregulation (Swenson.

such as growth hormone (growth hormone and testosterone). 5. and sympathetic stimulation on cells. 4.• Body temperature resulting from: 1. BMR) 2. especially when the temperature decreases. norepineprine. . Extra metabolism due to the influence epineprine. Reserve rate of metabolism caused muscle activity (including muscle contraction caused shivers). Extra metabolism due to increased chemical activity within the cell itself. Additional metabolic hormones thyroxine and the effect of a small portion of other hormones. Basal metabolic rate (basal metabolic rate. 3.

• BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION Based on the temperature distribution in the body. This temperature is usually maintained relatively constant (around 37 ° C). abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity. the temperature found on the network. known as core temperature (core temperature). and fat. sub-cutaneous tissue. thoracic. such as cranial. This temperature can typically fluctuate by 30 ° C to 40 ° C. . In addition. which is contained in the skin temperature. there is surface temperature (surface temperature).

Environment . Activity 9. Thyroid hormone 5. Nutritional status 8. Organ disorders 10. Fever (inflammation) 7. Growth hormone 4.• FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE BODY TEMPERATURE 1. Sympathetic nerve stimulation 3. Basal metabolic rate 2. Sex Hormones 6.

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