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Carbon nano tubes are fullerene-related structures which consist of graphene cylinders closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings
What are Carbon Nanotubes ?
Carbon nanotubes are fullerene-related structures which consist of graphene cylinders closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings
of a type which had never previously been observed .Discovery They were discovered in 1991 by the Japanese electron microscopist Sumio Iijima who was studying the material deposited on the cathode during the arc-evaporation synthesis of fullerenes. He found that the central core of the cathodic deposit contained a variety of closed graphitic structures including nanoparticles and nanotubes.
There are three types of carbon nanotubes: armchair.. . When produced in materials. the three types of carbon nanotubes are obtained. carbon nanotubes with many different radii can be found (depending on how large is the graphene area that is folded onto a cylinder). The cylinders are typically closed at their ends by semi-fullerene-like structures. These differ in their symmetry.multiwalled carbon nanotubes. or one of smaller radius inside others of larger radii . Within a particular type. carbon nanotubes pack either in bundles (one next to another within a triangular lattice) . These tubes can be extremely long (several hundreds of nanometers and more).single-walled carbon nanotubes. zig-zag and Chiral (helical) nanotubes. Depending on how the graphene plane is 'cut' before rolled up. Some consider them as special cases of fullerenes.Carbon Nanotubes: • This is a nanoscopic structure made of carbon atoms in the shape of a hollow cylinder. Namely. Carbon nanotubes were discovered by Sumio Ijima in 1991. the carbon nanotubes can be thought of as graphene planes 'rolled up' in a cylinder (the closing ends of carbon nanotubes cannot be obtained in this way).
. By this way it can be identified whether if the carbon atoms are arranged in a zig-zag.The way to find out how the carbon atoms are arranged in a molecule can be done by joining the vector coordinates of the atoms. armchair or in a helical shape.
a (9. 0) zigzag nanotube (middle) and a (10. Shown here is a (5. .• Nanotubes are formed by rolling up a graphene sheet into a cylinder and capping each end with half of a fullerene molecule. 5) chiral nanotube. The diameter of the nanotubes depends on the values of n and m. 5) armchair nanotube (top).
Discovery They were discovered in 1991 by the Japanese electron microscopist Sumio Iijima who was studying the material deposited on the cathode during the arc-evaporation synthesis of fullerenes. He found that the central core of the cathodic deposit contained a variety of closed graphitic structures including nanoparticles and nanotubes. of a type which had never previously been observed .
Synthesis Arc discharge method Connect two graphite rods to a power supply. use the laser pulses rather than electricity to generate carbon gas from which the NTs form. heat to 600 C. and throw switch. try various conditions until hit on one that produces prodigious amounts of SWNTs Primarily SWNTs. As gas decomposes it frees up carbon atoms. long length Tubes tend to be short with random sizes and directions NTs are usually MWNTs and often riddled with defects . with a large diameter range that can be controlled by varying the reaction temperature By far the most costly. At 100 amps. which recombine in the form of NTs Laser ablation (vaporization) Blast graphite with intense laser pulses. and slowly add a carbon-bearing gas such as methane. because requires expensive lasers Can produce SWNT and MWNTs with few structural defects Easiest to scale to industrial production. carbon vaporizes in a hot plasma. Chemical vapor deposition Place substrate in oven. place them millimeters apart.
• Molecular and Nanotube Memories Nanotubes hold promise for non-volatile memory. researchers and engineers need a set of tools -. In order to capitalize on these properties. with one projecting a low-cost memory based on molecule-sized cylinders by end 2004 that will have capacities appropriate for the flash memory market. dissolve and otherwise manipulate nanotubes.that will allow them to cut. thermal conductivity as high as diamond. and as much as 100 times the strength of steel at one-sixth the weight. . These approaches offer non-volatile memory and if the predicted capacities of up to 1Tb can be achieved at appropriate cost then hard drives may no longer be necessary in PCs. Similar promises have been made of molecular memory from several companies. which exhibit electrical conductivity as high as copper.Uses of Carbon NanoTubes • carbon nanotubes. sort. and terabit capacity memories ultimately possible.in this case. chemical processes like pyrolytic fluorination -. with a commercial prototype nanotube-based RAM predicted in 1-2 years.
Some applications of Carbon Nanotubes include the following • Micro-electronics / • Semiconductors • Conducting Composites • • • • Controlled Drug Delivery/release Artificial muscles Supercapacitors • Nanotube actuator Molecular Quantum wires Hydrogen Storage Noble radioactive gas storage Solar storage Waste recycling Electromagnetic shielding Dialysis Filters Thermal protection Nanotube reinforced composites Reinforcement of armour and other materials Reinforcement of polymer Avionics Collision-protection materials Fly wheels" • Batteries • Field emission flat panel displays • Field Effect transistors and • Single electron transistors • Nano lithography .
chirality/twist. length.Future Uses of CNTs • Nano-Electronics – Nanotubes can be conducting or insulating depending on their properties • Diameter. and number of walls – Joining multiple nanotubes together to make nanoscale diodes – Max Current Density: 10^13 A/cm^2 .
The Space Elevator • The Idea – To create a tether from earth to some object in a geosynchronous orbit.000-miles (100. Objects can then crawl up the tether into space.000kilometers) – 20+ tons . – Saves time and money • The Problem – 62.
The Space Elevator • The Solution: Carbon Nanotubes – 10x the tensile strengh (30GPa) • 1 atm = 101.325kPA • 10-30% fracture strain • Further Obstacles – Production of Nanofibers • Record length 4cm – Investment Capital: $10 billion .