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Why are We Worried about Energy?

Recent issues of leading periodicals dedicated to energy and climate change

Feb, 2007

1
Oct, 2006 Sep, 2006 Feb, 2007

India Energy Scenario


6th Rank in total consumption of commercial energy Per capita energy < 300 kgoe (World average ~ 1500 kgoe)

Break-up Fuel wise


Nucl - 1% Oil - 31% Coal - 55% Nat gas-6%

Hydro- 7% Coal Hydro Oil Nuclear Natural gas

Coal WILL Remain as Baseload


Coal
High CO2 Abundant Cheap Fuel

Natural Gas
Moderate CO2 Constrained Supply High Priced Fuel

Solar
High Capital Costs Low Availability

Wind
Transmission Low Availability

Biomass
Expensive Fuel Logistics

Nuclear
Nuclear Waste High Capital Costs License Expiration

Coping with Global Warming


Greenhouse Gases Earth Interactions
Air interaction

S C I E N T I F I C

CAUSE

EFFECT

Mitigation Strategy

Global Warming

Climate Change Impacts -Adaptation

Renewable sources Energy Efficiency Clean Coal Technology CCS

Crop Productivity Frequent Disasters Water Scarcity Vector borne diseases

P R E D I C T I V E

05.08.08

Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in

USA: Overview of the FutureGen Programme

Super critical Carbon Sequestration

Gasification with Cleanup Separation

H2 Production

Optimized Turbines

System Integration

Capture Technology Development


PreCombustion

Convert Syngas to H2 (IGCC)

PostCombustion

Flue Gas Cleanup

Oxyfuel Combustion

Pure Oxygen Combustion

3-D Pie Chart


PreCombustion Pre-Combustion Oxy fuel combustion
Capture Technology Development

Post combustion

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IGCC Overview

IGCC Cleaner By Design


Treats 1/100th volume CO2 concentration 4050% in syngas (IGCC) vs 14% in flue gas (PC) 25% cost premium vs SCPC

In Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants, gasification converts low cost fuels, like coal, into a high value, natural-gas-like fuel called synthesis gas (syngas) to fuel a combined cycle system. In pulverized coal (PC) plants, coal is fed into a boiler, which combusts the coal, followed by post combustion pollution controls.

IGCC vs. conventional coal plants


An IGCC places the chemical plant in the front end of plant. In contrast, a conventional coal plant is less efficient because it places a chemical plant at the back end, attempting to capture pollutants after combustion and much dilution.

IGCC: Emissions Approaching Natural Gas


0.16

0.15
Lb/MMBTU

PM10 SO2 NOx

Hg % Captured 90%+ 50 90%

0.10 0.05

0.09

Average Recent Permit Data


0.04

0.03

Best Individual Plant


0.017 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.002

0.00

Advanced IGCC NGCC Source: GE internal data, average of 30 US PC/SCPC permits granted, applications and publicly
reported emissions

PC IGCC Hg
30-40% Less

IGCC Environmental Benefits Versus Best in Class Supercritical Pulverized Coal


33% less NOx 75% less SOx 40% less PM10 90% + Hg removal 30% less water CO2 capture ready

PC IGCC Water Usage

Coal Gasification: Carbon capture


Coal Coal Gasifier Syngas Gas Clean Up Shift Reactor
CO2 to Storage

Gas Turbine + HRSG

Steam/Air/O2

Conventional Coal Combustion Efficiency (HHV) Capital Cost ($/kW) Capital Cost with CO2 Cost of Generation Cost of Generation with CO2 Capture 36% $ 1135/kW $ 2350/kW 4.1 /kWh 21.5 /kWh

Coal Gasification 40% $ 1664/kW $ 2279/kW 5.6 /kWh 8.2 /kWh

Source: IECM, Carnegie Mellon University

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Impact of Adding CO2 Capture


Pulverized Coal Capital Cost Efficiency Cost of Electricity +65% to 75% -30% to -35% +50% IGCC +30% to 40% -18% to -22% +30% NGCC +85% to 90% -20% to -25% +60%

Source: AEP, EPRI, and US DOE

Coal Based IGCC Plants in Operation


Project/ Location Wabash River, IN Tampa Electric, FL Nuon
(Formerly Demkolec)

Combustion Gasification Turbine Technology GE 7 FA E Gas


(ConocoPhillips)

Net Output MW 262

Start-Up Date Oct 1995

GE 7 FA Siemens V 94.2

Texaco
(GE Energy)

250 253

Sept 1996 Jan 1994

Shell
(Offered jointly with KruppUhde)

Buggenum Netherlands ELCOGAS Puertollano Spain

Siemens V 94.3

Prenflo
(Offered jointly with Shell)

300

Dec 1997

IGCC Environmental Control


Sulfur is removed (99.5-99.99%) from syngas using commercial gas processing technology. NOx emissions are controlled by firing temperature modulation in the gas turbine. Possible addition of SCR if needed. Particulates are removed from the syngas by filters and water wash prior to combustion so emissions are negligible. Current IGCC designs available with SCR to achieve ~3ppmv each of SOx, NOx. Mercury >90% removed from the syngas by absorption on activated carbon bed. Water use is lower than conventional coal (70-80%). Byproduct slag is vitreous and inert and often salable. CO2 under pressure takes less energy to remove than from PC flue gas at atmospheric pressure. (Gas volume is <1% of flue gas from same MW size PC).

Igcc in india

Ntpc efforts
Studies awarded for CO2 capturing Development of marine algae

Separate set up for IGCC research

NTPC has set aside 1% profit on R&D for green power

Conclusions
Energy in fundamental transition Lots of options
Generation Improvements in T&D Conservation and efficiency standards

Challenge is to pick the winners Nuclear and Solar need aggressive push

Photo: Courtesy Tampa Electric Company (TECO).

IGCC Schematic
Feeds Gasification Gas Refining End-products
Combustion Turbine
Oxygen

Electricity
HRSG

Steam

Syngas
MERCURY SULFUR /CO2 REMOVAL

Chemicals Hydrogen

Syngas

REMOVAL

Ammonia

Coal

Syngas

H S 2

Methanol

SULFUR RECOVERY

Sulfur

Solids

Mercury

CO2 Sequestration Option

Cycle Diagram
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A FUT GEN

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Clean Coal - Technologies available now


1. Advanced Supercritical Technology 2. Synthetic Gas coupled to a CCGT = IGCC 3. Bio-mass 4. Feed water heating 5. Oxy- firing 1 & 2 offer the most practical current options - efficiency improvement reduction in C02 - better for carbon capture

Advanced Supercritical Pulverised Coal Boiler/Steam Turbine 400-1000MW

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle 250-900MW

Courtesy: Doosan Babcock

Generating Technology Options: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Plants