Difficulties in Implementing Level Three Leadership in Cross-Cultural Management

“Examining Data from Japanese and American Subsidiaries in Thailand”
Timothy Dean Keeley
Professor International Management Kyushu Sangyo University Fukuoka, Japan

Level Three Leadership
Developed by:
James G. S. Clawson Professor of Business Administration The Darden Graduate School of Business University of Virginia

A quick view of

Level Three Leadership: Getting Below the Surface Third Edition (James G. Clawson,
Prentice-Hall, 2005)

Leadership is about affecting human activity, which can be thought of as occurring at three levels:

Level 1: Behavior Level 2: Thoughts Level 3: VABEs

Leadership is also about managing energy, first in yourself and then in others.

Targeting Level 1, 2 or 3 is about managing energy.

If your force at Level 1, you will get passive resistance.

Level 1: Behavior
simply what people do, that which we can observe

Level 1 Leadership
tries to manage behavior in isolation The tradition of scientific management Frederick Taylor‟s time motion studies assigned little importance to employees‟ inner thinking Level One Leadership does not seek input

here are the outcomes I expect. What do you think is the best way to achieve them?" .Level 2: Thoughts That which we are immediately aware of in ourselves. "Here's your job. our conscious processes Level 2 Leadership Focuses on employee thinking.

and expectations (VABEs). it has the potential of being far more powerful than level-one leadership. beliefs. .Level 3: VABEs At this level people hold a set of values. Level 3 Leadership Is aware of and influences people‟s values and basic assumptions. assumptions.

Cultural Influence on Organizational Behavior (VABEs) Economical Technological Setting Political Legal Setting Ethnic Background Religion Societal Culture: Customs Language Organizational Culture Personal – Values Assumptions Beliefs Expectations Organizational Behavior Level 3 Leadership Understands and Affects .

Behavior cues may vary greatly across cultures. Cultural differences usually lead to much greater differences in VABEs. .Leaders should be skilled in recognizing and clarifying VABEs in those they work with. The challenge is greatest in an international setting.

.The assessment of work-related VABEs of members from a different culture based on observed behavior may lead to erroneous conclusions. Assertion: Japanese managers in Japanese subsidiaries in Thailand appear to have particular difficulties in understanding the VABEs of their Thai employees. This appears to be a factor in the low integration of locals in formal leadership positions of Japanese foreign subsidiaries.

Malaysia.Keeley (2001) empirically demonstrated a lowlevel of integration of HCN (host country national) managers in a multi-country study involving 83 Japanese subsidiaries in Thailand. Singapore and Australia. Communication 35 IHRM 42 HCN Integration Business Culture 33 Formal Leadership Positions Understanding VABEs .

(List) Likert scale: one = „completely Japanese‟ and five = „completely local‟ (3 = equally Japanese/Local) The Japanese data yielded a mean of 2.64.38. local managers or Japanese managers (16 items). .HCN Integration Respondents were asked who mainly made decisions. while that for the local data was 2.

Focused on local understanding of Japanese business practices and culture as well as Japanese understanding of local business practices and culture. 5= highest).83. .Business Culture Eight-item scale: issues related to business practices and culture (1 = lowest.82. (List) The Japanese data yielded a mean of 2. while that for the local data was 2.

For American firms the same questionnaires were used. Expectations and Behavior at Japanese and American Firms in Thailand Data gathered in July 2002 for the Japanese firms and May 2003 for the American firms in Thailand. however. One in Thai with 84 questions. Assumptions. For Japanese firms. the questionnaire for expatriates was in English rather than Japanese. . Beliefs.Values. 1 questionnaire in Japanese with 88 questions.

136 responses from Japanese managers and 175 responses from Thai managers. . 27 responses from American managers and of 22 responses from Thai managers.Japanese firms: 95 subsidiaries yielding a response rate of 19%. American firms: 26 subsidiaries yielding a response rate of 17%.

) Thai and Japanese (American) managers were asked to give their impression of Thai and Japanese (American) employees for each item. . Attitudes and Behavior Scale The following questions were in both the Thai and expatriate (Japanese and American) questionnaires.Positive Work-Related Habits. Questions are based on a 7-point Likert scale (7 is strongly agree and 1 is strongly disagree.

” (3) “Tend to meet deadlines.” (7) “Feel responsible only for their own assigned work” (reverse-coded in the analysis).” (6) “Share information freely with other people in the company.Questions are preceded with the words “Thai employees” for one set of these questions and “Japanese (American) employees” for another set of the same questions: (1) “Tend to arrive to work on time.” (2) “Think that company responsibilities are more important than personal matters. .” (5) “Are quite willing to help with tasks that they are not directly responsible for.” (4) “Think that they should work overtime to finish their work when necessary.

= .9 or below % 4.9 or below 24% % 4.6895 .7% 96.1470 . .3697 5.5674 6. Std. Error % 3.0563 4.5850 .2% About T Difference: .8737 .1. Attitudes and Behavior Scale American Subsidiaries Data Sets Mean N Std.3% 0% 95.9% 3. = . Dev.0.4% 2.0.530E-02 5.4092 Table 1b: Positive Work-Related Habits.6603 .3% 63.Table 1a: Positive Work-Related Habits.0% 59.1944 133 174 133 .3% 14% 93.1681 .14 or above Thai (TH data) Thai (AM data) American (TH data) American (AM data) 5.6% 100% About T Difference: .7530 .3668 4.2831 5.1126 4.5% 25.1429 22 27 22 27 .1148 .9% 27.0.920E-02 77. Error 6.6005 .9220 Std.1280 .5682 5. Dev.1.006E-02 4.6902 N 175 Std.3205 About J Difference: + 0. Attitudes and Behavior Scale Japanese Subsidiaries Data Sets Thai (TH data) Mean 4.5747 Total Diff.14 or above 68% Thai (JP data) Japanese (TH data) Japanese (JP data) 3.6895 About A Difference: .970E-02 % 3.0887 Total diff.

The data begs the questions about: The big difference between J view of T and T view of J …: T and J ratings of J are so close together for some items in which T and J ratings of T are so far apart! The difference between T and A view of each other is not so far apart for these same items… Examine the items of large differences and propose explanations: .

04 1.14 .3% 11.7% 4.81 N 21 27 21 27 Std.11 8.06 0.5% 59.6% 93.23 .1% 82.0.53E-02 9.” (AM) Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (AM data) American (TH data) American (AM data) Mean 4.4% 66. 73 About J Difference: .30 .86 173 136 173 136 1.26 0.71 2.41 1. 1.27 .0. Error .1% % 5 or above 66.” (JP) Data Sets Mean N Std.41 5.3% 42.1.76 4.1% 1. Dev.6% About T Difference: .0% 9.98 5.45 Table 2b: “Think that company responsibilities are more important than personal matters.19 % 3 or below 14. Dev.96 Std.7% About T Difference: .32E-02 22.Table 2a: “Think that company responsibilities are more important than personal matters.24 .5% 69.98 1.11 0.6% 14.61 About A Difference: . Error % 3 or below % 5 or above Thai (TH data) Thai (JP data) Japanese (TH data) Japanese (JP data) 4. Std.3% 34.0.15 4.67 4.7% 42.56 1.

Japanese expect employees to stay with the group even when an individual cannot contribute.” Japanese stay late when boss stays late sacrificing personal life (even if no work to do).“Think that company responsibilities are more important than personal matters. And other irrational overt behavioral signals Viewed from US and Thai cultural norms To demonstrate commitment Leads to high scores on the scale for J by T .

American and Thai expectations behavioral cues seem closer together. sticks and . Thais expect work to be sanuk (fun). Japanese and Thai measuring (behavioral cues) are very different.Japanese tend to live to work while Thais mainly work to live.

3% 87.95 1.7% 66.6% 91.31E-02 .36 4.22 N 22 27 Std.17 5.0.12 7.9% 4.52 N 175 133 173 133 Std.83 5.45 Std.1% 42.Table 3a: “Tend to meet deadlines.8% % 5 or above 72.78 22 27 .0% .1. Error .15 0% 7.3% American (TH data) American (AM data) 5.” (JP) Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (JP data) Japanese (TH data) Japanese (JP data) Mean 5.0.33 1.4% 90.28 % 3 or below 9.1% 34. 1.04 .20 .6% % 5 or above 59.80 .17 3.52E-02 % 3 or below 9.17 . Dev.80 .2.14 About A Difference: .00 About J Difference: .82 5. .61E-02 7.00 .31 Table 3b: “Tend to meet deadlines.23 1. Error 9.2% About T Difference: .9% 77.8% About T Difference: . Dev.” (AM) Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (AM data) Mean 5.6% 20.87 Std.

“Tend to meet deadlines.” For Japanese Difference Differences between J and T national culture in relation to time and uncertainty avoidance. T meet real implicit (honne) deadline even when they miss the explicit (tatemae) deadline. . T think J managers set deadlines earlier than they need be.

one segment leads to the next step. H. S. even relentless. (1997). Projects are often completed in a flurry of last minute effort. Thais do not always perceive the same connection between certain individual tasks. Working with the Thais: A Guide to Managing in Thailand. Bangkok: White Lotus. and so forth. Holmes. The preferred work pattern is steady. .For American Difference (and Japanese) Work is treated in the West as a continuous series of interrelated activities. and Tangtongtavy.

17 . .6% About T Difference: .1% 32.19 % 3 or below 0% 33.79 .41 .63 5.Table 4a: “Think they should work overtime to finish their work when necessary.01 1.00 4.0% 94.3% 18.86 5.01 N 175 133 174 133 Std.19 .20 Table 4b: “Think they should work overtime to finish their work when necessary. Error .5% 51.29 4.” (JP) Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (JP data) Japanese (TH data) Japanese (JP data) Mean 5.21 6.2% 0% % 5 or above 95.1% 96. Dev.23 About A Difference: + 0.14 6.1.56 .02E-02 6.7% About T Difference: .15 6.6% 0% % 5 or above 77.6% 92.77 1.30 .14 About J Difference: + 0.21 1.9% 63.96 Std.19 .0. 1.74 Std. Error 9.” (AM) Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (AM data) American (TH data) American (AM data) Mean 5.45E-02 % 3 or below 9. Dev.81 N 22 27 22 28 Std.4% .13E-02 .1% 22.

Working overtime is very common in Japan Expectations are that subordinates stay late when their boss stays late. a survey conducted by the Japanese Trade Union Confederation (Rengo) 2003 . The Japanese Supreme Court has upheld a ruling that a company can sack any member of staff if they refuse to work overtime! Over 50% of unionized workers in Japan work overtime without pay on an average of 29.6 hours per month.

0% 69.40 5. Error E8.1% 8.35 1.27 .19 N 22 27 Std.10 9.74 Table 5b: “Think that it is important to have a friendly and pleasant work environment .10 .7% 53. Dev.88 Std.9% About T Difference: + 0.8% 19.95 6.0.32 About J Difference: .14 .19 31.24 4. .16 1.00E-02 % 3 or below 5.6% American (TH data) American (AM data) 4.” (AM) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (AM data) Mean 5.76-02 .40 .65 .14 N 174 136 174 133 Std.27 1. 1.0.23 4.0% 4.01 .9% About T Difference: .0.56 5.4% 51.17 1.63 22 27 1.” (JP) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (JP data) Japanese (TH data) Japanese (JP data) Mean 5.04 Std. Error . Dev.Table 5a: “Think that it is important to have a friendly and pleasant work environment .17 % 3 or below 0% 0% % 5 or above 100% 92.8% 7.5% % 5 or above 81.4% 26.7% 50.24 About A Difference: .

0.24. The Americans are saying yes! We see Thais think work should be fun + 0.0. Different concepts of what constitutes “friendly and pleasant” work environment.Japanese do not think it is as important to Thais as Thais think it is . a Different concepts of what constitutes a “proper and productive” work environment. . Thais do not think it is as important to Japanese as Japanese think it is .40. Thais do not think it is as important to Americans as Americans think it is .40.0.74.

00 6.” (JP) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (JP data) Mean 5.14 N 173 133 Std. Error 9.89 9.4% % 5 or above 77. 1.11 . Dev.37 About A Difference: .19 N 22 27 22 27 Std.3% About T Difference: + 0.22 About J Difference: .0% 77. Dev.23 173 133 1.82 .31 .4% About T Difference: .74E-02 19.92E-02 7.37 3.5% 22.11 Std.54 5.0.” (AM) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (AM data) American (TH data) American (AM data) Mean 6.22 1.36 5.9% 100% 22.0% 4.7% 33.68 4.3% 50.41 .2% % 5 or above 90.8% Japanese (TH data) Japanese (JP data) 4.17 .0.0% 72. .31E-02 .25 Std.21 % 3 or below 0% 0% 45.11 % 3 or below 8.0% 2.56 1.69 Table 6b: “Think that it is important to maintain harmony in the office.Table 6a: “Think that it is important to maintain harmony in the office.09 1.0.23 . Error .

” . Both Thai and Americans realize the big difference here between Thai (6.Maintaining harmony is very important in both Japanese and Thai society. Both Japanese and American managers give higher overall ratings to Thai managers for “ability to maintain harmony in the workplace.68/4.37) and American (3.00/6. Interview opinions of Japanese managers indicate it is even more important in Thai society.19) culture.

49E-02 Std. Deviation 1.9 or below 7.98 N 27 134 % 3.” 7 = “Thai much better.” (% of Responses) Mean American Japanese 5.28 . Error .4% 19.”6 = “Thai better.8% 33.25 8.37 4.Graph/Table 1: Ability to Maintain Harmony in the Workplace 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Japnese Data American Data 1 = “Expatriate much better.” 3 = Expatriate somewhat better.” 2 = Expatriate better.6% A Thai strength * Opinions of Japanese and American Managers .” 5 = “Thai somewhat better.4% % 5 or above 77.” 4 = “ same.16 Std.

36 4.5% About T Difference: .88 .” (JP) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (JP data) Japanese (TH data) Japanese (JP data) Mean 4.6% About T Difference: .0.01 Std.5% % 5 or above 81.17 23.21 . Error 9.22 % 3 or below 4. Dev.4% 0.31 6. 1.56 About J Difference: + 0.87 Std.3% 13.8% 7.” (AM) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Mean 5.40 N 175 133 174 133 Std. = .32 .89 .28 . Error .2.87 3.09 5.47E-02 .5% % 5 or above 58.54E-02 % 3 or below 10.1% 86. = .8% Thai (AM data) American (TH data) American (AM data) 4.31 Total diff.69 Total diff.25 1.6% 1.67 26 22 27 1.2% 40.9% 55.73E-02 7.1% 31.4% 69. 1.0.61 .1. Dev.96 4.2% 93.55 N 22 Std.9% 54.29 .59 About A Difference: .0.67 .11 6.25 Table 7a: “Tend to be loyal to the company.Table 7a: “Tend to be loyal to the company.

Japanese express loyalty and commitment though exaggerated behavior: Staying with the group even when they cannot contribute to work being done. Sacrificing their private time (life) even when it is not really that necessary. Staying late at work Not taking their full vacation .

41 5.21 Table 8b: “Show a lot of commitment to the company.65 133 .19 3.0% % 5 or above 58.2% 22.67 .21 1.80 N 175 Std.4% % 5 or above 99.7% 16.Table 8a: “Show a lot of commitment to the company.0% 1.10 7.86 133 174 1.77 4.88 Std.31 About A Difference: .02 .14 .39 About J Difference: + 0.9% 7.0% About T Difference: . Error 9.22 .9% 69.19 .4% About T Difference: .10E-02 % 3 or below 12.1.20 Std.3% Thai (JP data) Japanese (TH data) 3. Error .02 .9 .17 % 3 or below 0% 23.10E-02 1.” (AM) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Thai (AM data) American (TH data) American (AM data) Mean 5.50 5.8% Japanese (JP data) 5. .2% 86. Dev.7% 70.67 N 22 27 22 .82 7.5% 91.0. Dev.1% 40.0.27 Std.” (JP) Both Data Sets Thai (TH data) Mean 4.76E-02 50. 1.96 1.

The following questions were only included in the Thai questionnaires for Japanese and American subsidiaries. The data gives and indication of Thai employees‟ view of the expatriates‟ understanding of Thai culture and the Thai‟s understanding of Japanese (American) culture. .

9% 22.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3. Dev.32 N 174 22 Std.Graph/Table 2: Japanese (American) culture is difficult to understand.53 . Dev. Error .91 3.60 1.12 .29 % 3 or below 38.8% .7% 54.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3.97 5. 1. AM culture seems better understood by Thais Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.9% 4. Error .36 Std.36 N 173 22 Std.5% % 5 or above 43.12 . 1.99 Std. Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.7% Graph/Table 3: You understand Japanese (American) culture.5% % 5 or above 32.7% 81.21 % 3 or below 33.

2% 0% % 5 or above 30. Smaller language barriers at AM Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co. 1.11 % 3 or below 55.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3.3% .39 % 3 or below 39.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3. Dev.5% 100% Graph 5: Differences between Thai and Japanese (American) culture make communication with your Japanese (American) bosses difficult. Dev. 1.Graph/Table 4: You understand Japanese (English) well.94 .69 1.23 N 174 22 Std.13 .4% 59. Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.21 6.53 Std. Error .7% 27.81 Std.15 . Error .1% % 5 or above 37.05 N 175 22 Std.96 3.

15 % 3 or below 23.41 5.4% 95. .5% The scores are much higher for Thais working at American companies.41 . Error .Graph/Table 6: You understand the Japanese (American) way of management.6% 0% % 5 or above 53. Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.64 N 174 22 Std.11 . 1.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 4.73 Std. Dev.

3% % 5 or above 34.4% 71.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3. About 1 out of 5 Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.Graph/Table 7: Your Japanese (American) boss understands Thai language well.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3.87 4.7% 19.41 % 3 or below 59.9% 47. Dev. 1. Error .30 % 3 or below 40% 14.0% Graph/Table 8: Your Japanese (American) boss understands Thai culture well.11 .35 Std. Error .11 . 1.24 2.6% .51 1. Dev.67 N 175 21 Std. Less than half Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.46 1.57 N 175 21 Std.4% % 5 or above 21.86 Std.

Error .8% 47.29 N 174 21 Std.44 1.38 Std. renders another person the needed help of favor. or indebted goodness.30 % 3 or below 32.2% 14. Suntaree Komkin. Dev.78 3.11 . and the latter‟s remembering the goodness done and his ever-readiness to reciprocate the kindness. 1.6% % 5 or above 28.3% 1 out of 6 Bunkhun. “Psychology of Thai People” .) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3.Graph/Table 9: Your Japanese (American) boss understands Bunkhun 1 out of 3 Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co. out of sheer kindness and sincerity. is a psychological bond between someone who.

7% 27. 1. Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.3% % 5 or above 57.Graph/Table 10: You feel Katanyoo Rookhun towards Japanese (American) boss.4% 59.92 Std. The feeling of “gratitude and indebtedness.50 N 175 22 Std.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 5.19 1.” .1% Engendered in slightly over half the Thais The first aspect of bunkhun.41 % 3 or below 5.01E-02 . Dev. Error 9.07 4.

54 Std.6% 23. The quality of being “merciful and kind.81 N 175 21 Std.” .97E-02 .8% % 5 or above 57.34 % 3 or below 12.4% Rendered by slightly over half of the expatriate bosses.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 4.7% 52. Error 9. 1.Graph/Table 11: Your Japanese (American) boss practices Mettaa Karunaa towards his subordinates. The second aspect of bunkhun.32 1. Dev. Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.75 4.

38 Std.29 N 172 22 Std.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 4.30 % 3 or below 13. 1.Graph/Table 12: Your Japanese (American) boss shows Henjai to his subordinates Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co. Dev. his/her duties and burdens.” Showing and understanding and empathy for the subordinate.5% % 5 or above 57.32 1.7% Done by slightly over half of the expatriate bosses.1% 66. .10 . Error . “To see into the heart.7% 9.66 5.

41 1.Graph/Table 13: Your Japanese (American) boss understands (is sensitive to) the needs of his subordinates. describes slightly over half of the expatriate bosses.7% Likewise. Error . Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.4% 14.1% 66.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 4.11 .30 % 3 or below 19.3% % 5 or above 53.05 N 175 21 Std.36 Std.49 5. Dev. 1. .

Error .) Thai (AM Co) Mean 3.53 2.12 .3% Results more favorable towards for Americans. Japanese consensus management? A “dictatorial” manager..66 Std.62 N 175 21 Std.9% 13.60 1. who makes decisions without consulting anyone. Dev.Graph/Table 14: Your Japanese (American) acts like Phu Phadetkan Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co. 1. .36 % 3 or below 48% 71.4% % 5 or above 26.

Both Data Sets Thai (JP Co.31 % 3 or below 28.11 .43 Std. .7% Japanese tend to practice consensus management mainly with other Japanese expatriates and those at the head office.4% 66. Error .15 4.Graph/Table 15: Your Japanese (American) boss sufficiently consults with you before making decisions.95 N 175 21 Std. 1.46 1. Dev.) Thai (AM Co) Mean 4.6% 19% % 5 or above 47.

A somewhat negative view of Thai managers‟ work-related behavior by Japanese managers is most likely a factor in the low degree of integration of the former group. Setting deadlines earlier than the actual deadline may be in line with Japanese VABEs but for the Thais it appears to be focusing on behavior only (Level 1).Conclusions and Implications The difficulty of understanding VABEs and managing them leads to Level 1 leadership. .

It allows an opportunity for expatriates to examine their own VABEs. Differences in VABEs are more apparent in a cross-cultural setting. . there does not seem to be any greater understand between these two groups than there is between Thai and Americans. Even though Japanese and Thai culture share many similarities.Assessment of VABEs based on observed behavior may lead to erroneous conclusions.

They try to manage solely from their own cultural perspective (with their VABEs unchanged). Many people struggle across-cultural boundaries since they cannot let go of their own VABEs. .In order to fairly judge the local managers it is necessary to sometimes let go of one‟s own VABEs.

. Expatriate leaders greater understand of the local VABEs and seeking to influence them. Local employees better understanding their own VABEs and those of the expatriates.Optimal leadership will come from: Expatriate leaders examining their own VABEs and modifying those that lead to a dysfunctional work environment.

9. investment in new facilities. most major decisions such as those concerning strategic of longterm issues. 5. most minor decisions such as those concerning day-to-day operational issues. purchase of production inputs. 10. production schedules. future products or services offered by the local subsidiary. 16.1. Decisions concerning pricing of products and services. Integration Scale Decisions concerning: the hiring of new employees promotion of employees and wage/salary increases. layoffs (dismissal) of employees at the subsidiary. production goals. 3. 13. 8. 7. 14. . 15. personnel training for local managers at the subsidiary. 2. 12. borrowing funds from local banks or financial institutions. 6. 11. etc. local advertising. sales goals. employee benefits such as vacation time. 4.

(reverse-coded) Our company has made a sufficient effort to teach local managers about Japanese culture and business practices. Differences between local values and culture and those of Japan often lead to conflicts.1. 3. 7. 2. (reverse-coded) Japanese culture is so unique that it is impossible for non-Japanese to fully understand it. 8. The Japanese managers have a sufficient understanding of the local culture. 5. 6. Our company has made a sufficient effort to teach Japanese managers about local culture and business practices. . (reverse-coded) It seems individualism is stronger in this country than in Japan. 4. (reverse-coded) The Japanese managers have a sufficient understanding of local business practices. Business Culture Scale There is an „Us versus Them‟ mentality between the local managers and the Japanese managers.

7. (reverse-coded) Japanese culture is so unique that it is impossible for non-Japanese to fully understand it. 5. 2. Differences between local values and culture and those of Japan often lead to conflicts.1. (reverse-coded) Our company has made a sufficient effort to teach local managers about Japanese culture and business practices. 8. 6. 3. (reverse-coded) The Japanese managers have a sufficient understanding of local business practices. . The Japanese managers have a sufficient understanding of the local culture. Business Culture Scale There is an ¶Us versus Them· mentality between the local managers and the Japanese managers. (reverse-coded) It seems individualism is stronger in this country than in Japan. Our company has made a sufficient effort to teach Japanese managers about local culture and business practices. 4.

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