STABILIZERS AND EMULSIFIERS  BY DEEPA.Tech(DM) .M.B.G MDK801 Jr.

Contents Introduction Meaning Role of stabilizers and emulsifiers used stabilizers and emulsifiers and limitations Commonly Advantages Conclusion .

Stabilizers are a group of water-soluble or water-dispersible biopolymers used in small amounts (0.Introduction      Additives are those which are added to products to improve the body. Similarly emulsifiers are triglycerides having the capacity to maintain the emulsion of constituents. water ices. sorbets. .2 to 0. There are so many additives among that the important are stabilizers and emulsifiers. The stabilizers are mostly hydrocolloids having the capacity to hold moisture and increases the viscosity of products. texture and mouth feel of food products.5%) in ice cream. fermented dairy foods.

since they are added in very small quantities.especially during storage of icecream.they have negligible food value and flavour.  .Meaning Stabilizers are those used to prevent the formation of objectionable large ice crystals in icecream.

Stabilizers interfere with the ice crystallization and limit the growth of large crystals. . The viscosity of the mix is also increased as a result of interaction between gum-type stabilizers and partly denatured proteins. Stabilizers act either by increasing nucleation and reducing the rate of growth. Results in the smoother body of the product.Role of Stabilizers. The three-dimensional network formed binds. restrict the movement of water in the frozen product and thus minimizes the potential for formation of large crystal during the temperature fluctuations.

Gelatin Gelatin forms gel in the mix and prevents formation of large ice crystals. it contributes smoothness in texture and firmness in body. though gelatin is incomplete protein. yet amino acids contribute to food value and is a widely used stabilizer.Commonly used stabilizers in icecream 1. Concentrating of gelatin used in icecream varies with the animal source from which gelatin is obtained. .

18%. 3. Agar-agar: this is extracted from red algae (seaweed). Pectin: This is carbohydrate obtained from citrus fruit.45%. CMC: Carboxymethyl cellulose has high water holding capacity and can be easily dissolved in mix. It is used at the rate of 0.and often used in combination with carageenan. It is used at the rate of 0. Carageenan: This is extracted from carageenan. It is used at the rate of 0. . Guar-gum: This carbohydrate is obtained from a legume. 4. It is useful for sherbets and ices.2.it is used along with the stabilizer.20%. 5. It is suitable for sherbets and ices. 6.seaweed. It doesn't form as firm gel as gelatin and other vegetable stabilizers but has a good use in ice-cream.

e. 2. .g.Advantages:1.Excess body and melting resistance. 2.:-Guar-gum. orthodox vegetarians object to its use in icecream. Limitation:1.Sodium algenate/dariloid(modified form)-this of vegetable origin and widely used.Very effective in giving body to the product.gelatin-of animal source.Very effective in smoothening the texture.g.-this of Indian origin.:. e.

water is usually one of the component and other is an oil or liquid insoluble in water. are substances which tend to concentrate in the interface between the fat and the plasma and reduce the surface tension of the system. therefore. The emulsion composed of water and oil are not stable and need a substance.    . emulsifier is to stabilize the system. Emulsifiers.Emulsifiers  Emulsifiers is known as dispersion of tiny droplets of one liquid to another liquid. Emulsion is composed of water and other is an oil or liquid insoluble in water.

to prevent operations 2.e.  the dispersion of the fat globule in mix is due to the fact that one portion of the emulsifier molecule is soluble in fat. lipophillic and hydrophilic group. the other in water i.to cause soft and smooth characteristics in the body and texture of the finished product. these are 1. 3. .Emulsifiers in cheese  The emulsifiers has very important roles to play in the processed cheese.To produce desirable melting and slicing properties in the finished cheese.

Emulsifiers act as surface active agents and reduce the energy required to maintain the integrity of the fat globules.Role of Emulsifiers. Added emulsifiers more effective than milk proteins due to their smaller molecular size and greater mobility. while the hydrophilic portion of the glycerol portion enters the water phase. Destabilize the fat globule. In an emulsifier such as glycerol monostearate. lipophillic portion of the molecule. This permits the degree of clustering and prevents rapid melting. the fatty chain enters the fat phase. .

lactate. Sodium tartarate. Sodium ortho phosphate(Na4HPo4).Examples of emulsifiers The following is a list of chemicals used as emulsifier Sodium citrate.malate and gluconate. Sodium metaphosphate(NaPo3). Sodium potassium tartarate (rochelle salt) Trisodium ortho phosphate(Na3Po4). .

It is used at rate of 0.3% by weight of cheese.5-3% by weight of cheese.it has best general all round qualities. Disodium phosphate(Na2HPO4):-it is least expensive .Commonly used emulsifier for processed cheese and related products:- Sodium citrate(2Na3C6H5O7/11H2o) :.it has good melting and firming properties.5-0. .versatile. produces firm cheese with good melting and is inexpense. The amount of stabilizer varies from 0.

It helps in producing good slicing in combination with other emulsifiers. The poly/derivatives are effective in producing dryness. It is used in small amounts. Two types of emulsifiers are use in manufacture of icecream. . The mono glycerides improves fat dispersion and whipping ability and have a moderate effect on stiffness and the melting rate.Trisodium phosphate(Na3Po4):-it is highly alkaline. It is least soluble. Sodium hexa meta phosphate:it produces tart flavour and very firm body but not an easily melted product. Mono and diglycerides -derived by the chemical reaction of naturally occurring glycosides and poly oxy ethylene derivatives of hexa hydric alcohols. glycols and glycol esters. stiffness and increasing the melting time.

3.Improves whipping quality of mixture.Advantages of emulsifiers. 2.Tends to shrinkage defect.Excess body and melting resistance. 1. 3.Homogenization milk is essential. 2. 1. Limitation.Gives smoother body and texture.Reduces whipping time. .

These stabilizers and emulsifiers will not add to the nutritive value of product.conclusion  These stabilizers and emulsifiers play an important role in consumer acceptance by improving body texture and mouth feel of the food product. but they add to its total solids.  .