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introduction

The ozone layer is a deep layer in the stratosphere, encircling the Earth, that has large amounts of ozone in it. The layer shields the entire Earth from much of the harmful ultraviolet radiation that comes from the sun. Interestingly, it is also this ultraviolet radiation that forms the ozone in the first place. Ozone is a special form of oxygen, made up of three oxygen atoms rather than the usual two oxygen atoms. It usually forms when some type of radiation or electrical discharge separates the two atoms in an oxygen molecule (O2), which can then individually recombine with other oxygen molecules to form ozone (O3). The ozone layer became more widely appreciated by the public when it was realized that certain chemicals mankind manufactures, called chloroflurocarbons, find their way up into the stratosphere where, through a complex series of chemical reactions, they destroy some of the ozone. As a result of this discovery, an international treaty was signed in 1973 called the Montreal Protocol, and the manufacture of these chemicals was greatly reduced. The ozone layer has since begun to recover somewhat as a result of these efforts, but there is some science which now suggests that the major volcanic eruptions (mainly El Chichon in 1983 and and Mt. Pinatubo in 1991) which have occurred since we started monitoring ozone with satellites in the late 1970's, could have also contributed to the ozone depletion. While stratospheric ozone, which protects us from the sun, is good, there is also ozone produced near the ground, from sunlight interacting with atmospheric pollution in cities, that is bad. It causes breathing problems for some people, and usually occurs in the summertime when the pollution over a city builds up during stagnant air conditions associated with high pressure areas.

The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is composed of Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%). Oxygen is essential to life because it allows us to breathe. Some of the oxygen has changed over time to ozone. The the ozone layer filters out the sun's harmful rays. Recently, there have been many studies on how humans have caused a hole in the ozone layer. Humans are also affecting Earth's atmosphere through the greenhouse effect. Due to increases in gases, like carbon dioxide, that trap heat being radiated from the Earth, scientists believe that the atmosphere is having trouble staying in balance creating the greenhouse effect . The Ozone Hole. Pollution. Skin Cancer. Why does the topic of ozone make the news so much? How important is the ozone in our atmosphere? Why are scientists so concerned about its increase near the surface of the Earth and its disappearance higher up in the atmosphere? First things first - what is ozone? Ozone is made of three oxygen atoms (O3). The oxygen in our atmosphere that we breathe is made up of two oxygen atoms (O2). When enough ozone molecules are present, it forms a pale blue gas. Ozone has the same chemical structure whether it is found in the stratosphere or the troposphere. Where we find ozone in the atmosphere determines whether we consider it to be "good" or "bad"! In the troposphere, the ground-level or "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that damages human health, vegetation, and many common materials. It is a key ingredient of urban smog. In the stratosphere, we find the "good" ozone that protects life on Earth from the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays. We have good reason to be concerned about the thinning of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. We also have good reason to be concerned about the buildup of ozone in the troposphere. Although simplistic, the saying "Good up high and bad near by," sums up ozone in the atmosphere.

NAME OF THE PROJECT

STUDY OF OZONE LAYER DEPLETION

MEANING: Belt of ozone gas 15 to 50 kilometers above the earth's surface where ozone is present in concentrations of a fewparts per million. This layer blocks (absorbs) ultraviolet part of the solar radiation (which causes skin cancer) from reaching the earth's surface. Ozone depleting substancesthin this layer resulting in large areas (called ozone Holes) having half or less ozone than normal to appear. In 1985, the UK researchers in Antarctica discovered thinning of ozone layer has been occurring since 1979. By 1988 it was established that the layer was thinning fast over the entire globe. Also called ozone shield.

DEFINITION: A region of the upper atmosphere, between about 15 and 30 kilometers (10 and 20 miles) in altitude, containing a relatively high concentration of ozone that absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation in a wavelength range not screened by other atmospheric components. Also called ozonosphere.

DERIVATION
Chemically, the ozone molecule consists of three atoms of oxygen arranged in the shape of a wide V. Its formula is O 3 (the more familiar form of oxygen that one breathes has only two atoms of oxygen and a chemical formula of O 2 ). Gaseous ozone is bluish in color and has a pungent, distinctive smell. In fact, the name ozone is derived from the

Greek word ozein, meaning "to smell or reek." The smell of ozone can often be noticed near electrical

transformers or nearby lightning strikes. It is formed in these instances when an electrical discharge breaks an oxygen molecule (O 2 ) into free oxygen atoms (O), which then combine with O 2 in the air to make O 3 . In addition to its roles in the atmosphere, ozone is a chemically reactive oxidizing agent that is used as an air purifier, a water sterilizer, and a bleaching agent.

Importance of ozone layer


The ozone molecules in the stratosphere and the troposphere are chemically identical. However, they have very different roles in the atmosphere and very different effects on humans and other living beings, depending on their location. A useful statement summarizing ozone's different effects is that it is "good up high, bad nearby." In the upper atmosphere, stratospheric ozone plays a beneficial role by absorbing most of the sun's biologically damaging ultraviolet sunlight (called UV-B), allowing only a small amount to reach the earth's surface. The absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone creates a source of heat, which actually defines the stratosphere (a region in which the temperature rises as one goes to higher altitudes). Ozone thus plays a key role in the temperature structure of the earth's atmosphere. Without the filtering action of the ozone layer, more of the sun's UV-B radiation would penetrate the atmosphere and reach the earth's surface. Many experimental studies of plants and animals and clinical studies of humans have shown that excessive exposure to UV-B radiation has harmful effects. Serious long-term effects can include skin cancers and eye damage. The UV-absorbing role of stratospheric ozone is what lies behind the expression that ozone is "good up high." In the troposphere, ozone comes into direct contact with life-forms. Although some amount of ozone is naturally present in the lower atmosphere, excessive amounts of this lower-atmospheric ozone are undesirable (or bad ozone). This is because ozone reacts strongly with other molecules, including molecules that make up the tissues of plants and animals. Several studies have documented the harmful effects of excessive ozone on crop production, forest growth, and human health. For example, people with asthma are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ozone. Thus, ozone is "bad nearby."

Reason for depletion of ozone layer


Human activities that add nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds to that atmosphere, such as the fossil fuel burning associated with power-generating plants and vehicular exhaust, are contributing to the formation of larger amounts of ozone near the earth's surface. This ozone is a key component of photochemical smog, a familiar problem in the atmosphere of many cities around the world. Higher amounts of surface-level ozone are increasingly being observed in rural areas as well. Thus, the environmental issue is that human activities can lead to more of the bad ozone.

Initially, theories about the cause of ozone-layer depletion abounded. Many factors were suggested, from the sun to air motions to human activity. In the 1970s and 1980s, the scientific evidence showed conclusively that humanproduced chemicals are responsible for the observed depletions of the ozone layer. The ozone-depleting compounds contain various combinations of carbon with the chemical elements chlorine, fluorine, bromine, and hydrogen (the halogen family in the periodic table of the elements). These are often described by the general termhalocarbons. The compounds include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs which are used as refrigerants, foamblowing agents, electronics cleaners, and industrial solvents) as well as halons (which are used in fire extinguishers). The compounds are useful and benign in the troposphere, but when they eventually reach the stratosphere, they are broken apart by the sun's ultraviolet radiation. The chlorine and bromine atoms released from these compounds are responsible for the breakdown of stratospheric ozone. The ozone destruction cycles are catalytic, meaning that the chlorine or bromine atom enters the cycle, destroys ozone, and exits the cycle unscathed and therefore able to destroy another ozone molecule. In fact, an individual chlorine atom can destroy as many as 10,000 different ozone molecules before the chlorine atom is removed from the stratosphere by other reactions.

They use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV) to measure the ozone levels.

Effects of ozone layer depletion


Effects on Human Health: UVB causes nonmelanoma skin cancer and plays a major role in malignant melanoma development. In addition, UVB has been linked to cataracts -- a clouding of the eyes lens. All sunlight contains some UVB, even with normal stratospheric ozone levels. It is always important to protect your skin and eyes from the sun. Ozone layer depletion increases the amount of UVB and the risk of health effects.

Effects on Plants
Physiological and developmental processes of plants are affected by UVB radiation, even by the amount of UVB in present-day sunlight. Despite mechanisms to reduce or repair these effects and a limited ability to adapt to increased levels of UVB, plant growth can be directly affected by UVB radiation. Indirect changes caused by UVB (such as changes in plant form, how nutrients are distributed within the plant, timing of developmental phases and secondary metabolism) may be equally, or sometimes more, important than damaging effects of UVB. These changes can have important implications for plant competitive balance, herbivory, plant diseases, and biogeochemical cycles.

Effects on Marine Ecosystems


Solar UVB radiation has been found to cause damage to early developmental stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians and other animals. The most severe effects are decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development. Even at current levels, solar UVB radiation is a limiting factor, and small increases in UVB exposure could result in significant reduction in the size of the population of animals that eat these smaller creatures.

Actions to Protect the Ozone Layer


Governments and industry acted quickly on the scientific information. Through a 1987 international agreement known as the Montral Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, governments decided to eventually discontinue production of CFCs (known in the United States by the industry trade name "Freons"), halons, and other halocarbons (except for a few special uses). Concurrently, industry developed more ozone-friendly substitutes for the CFCs and other ozone-depleting halocarbons. If nations adhere to international agreements, the ozone layer is expected to recover by the year 2050. The interaction of science in identifying the problem, technology in developing alternatives, and governments in devising new policies is thus an environmental "success story in the making." Indeed, the Montral Protocol serves as a model for other environmental issues now facing the global community.

Ways to Reduce the Amount of Ozone layer depletion


Ozone pollution at the earth's surface is formed within the atmosphere by the interaction of sunlight with chemical precursor compounds (or starting ingredients): the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) the efforts of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce ozone pollution are therefore focused on reducing the emissions of the precursor compounds. VOCs, a primary focus of many regulations, arise from the combustion of fossil fuel and from natural sources (emissions from forests). Increasingly, attention is turning to reducing the emissions of NO x compounds, which also arise from the combustion of fossil fuels. The use of cleaner fuels and more efficient vehicles has caused a reduction in the emission of ozone precursors in urban areas. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (which is 120 parts per billion or ppb, meaning that out of a billion air molecules, 120 are ozone). In 1999 there were thirty-two areas of the country that were in violation of the ozone standard, down from 101 just nine years earlier. An additional, more stringent ozone standard proposed by the EPA to protect public health.

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Bibliography
World Meteorological Organization. (2003). Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 47. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. "Cycles of the Earth and AtmosphereModule Review." Available from http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1.htm .

Study of impact of natural disaster like earthquake on enviornment


Introduction A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide) World is undergoing through several environmental crises. The population is on ever increasing trend exerting tremendous pressure on our natural resources. We have come to a situation where the fate of human civilization is at the verge of extinction. Traditional water springs are drying up, atmosphere is getting polluted, agriculture productivity is declining due to the degradation in soil fertility. Today the incidence of soil erosion, landslides and shifting of river courses are getting more frequent then what it used to be earlier. Millions of people and many developmental activities are getting affected by the above calamities all over the world.

Name of the project

earthquake
Def:A sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action. Meaning: An earthquake is a sudden movement of the earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a period of time.

Types of Disaster EarthquakeEarthquake is an unexpected and rapid shaking of earth due to the breakage and shifting of underneath layers of Earth. Earthquake strikes all of a sudden at any time of day or night and quite violently. It gives no prior warning. If it happens in a populated area, the earthquake can cause great loss to human life and property. TornadoTornado is one of the most violent storms on earth. It seems like a rotating and funnel shape cloud. It expands from the thunderstorm to the ground in the form of whirl winds reaching around 300 miles per hour. The damage path could move on to one mile wide and around 50 miles long. These storms can strike quickly without any warning. FloodFlood is also one of the most common hazards in the United States and other parts of the world. The effects of a flood can be local to a neighborhood or community. It can cast a larger impact, the whole river basin and multiple states could get affected. Every state is at its risk due to this hazard. Water DamageWater damage has a huge effect on your home, its neighborhood and your city. It is very much necessary that you should prepare for water damage. You must know what should be done during and after water damage.

WildfireWild forest areas catching fire is a very big problem for the people who live around these areas. The dry conditions caused several times in the year in different parts of United States can increase the possibility for wildfires. If you are well prepared in advance and know how to protect the buildings in your area, you can reduce much of the damage caused by wildfire. It is everyones duty to protect their home and neighborhood from wildfire. HurricaneHurricane also like the tornado is a wind storm, but it is a tropical cyclone. This is caused by a low pressure system that usually builds in the tropical. Huricanes comes with thunderstorms and a counterclockwise spread of winds near the surface of the earth. Winter FreezeWinter freeze storms are serious threats for people and their property. They include, snow, frozen rain, strong winds and extreme cold. Many precautions have to be taken in order to protect yourself, your family, home or property. LightningLightning is a much underestimated killer. Lightning is an abrupt electric expulsion which comes from cloud to cloud or from cloud to earth followed by an emission of light. Lightning is a common phenomenon after heavy rain and can also occur around 10 miles off from rainfall. Most lightning victims are people who are captivated outdoors in summer during the afternoon and evening. VolcanoVolcano is a mountain that has an opening downwards to the reservoir of molten rock towards the surface of earth. Volcanoes are caused by the accrual of igneous products. As the pressure caused by gases in the molted rock becomes intense, the eruption takes place. The volcanic eruption can be of two kinds, quiet or volatile. The aftermaths of

a volcano include flowing lava, flat landscapes, poisonous gases and fleeing ashes and rocks.

Meaning of natural disaster


A natural disaster is the consequence of the combination of a natural hazard (a physical event e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide) and human activities. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack of appropriate emergency management, leads to financial, structural, and human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement. The degree of potential loss can also depend on the nature of the hazard itself, ranging from wildfires, which threaten individual buildings, to impact events, which have the potential to end civilization

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Seismometers are instruments that measure motions of the ground, including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other seismic sources. Records of seismic waves allow seismologists to map the interior of the Earth, and locate and measure the size of these different sources.

CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKE: An Earthquake is a sudden tremor or movement of the earth's crust, which originates naturally at or below the surface. The word natural is important here, since it excludes shock waves caused by French nuclear tests, man made explosions and landslides caused by building work. There are two main causes of earthquakes. Firstly, they can be linked to explosive volcanic eruptions; they are in fact very common in areas of volcanic activity where they either proceed or accompany eruptions. Secondly, they can be triggered by Tectonic activity associated with plate margins and faults. The majority of earthquakes world wide are of this type.

Terminology An earthquake can be likened to the effect observed when a stone is thrown into water. After the stone hits the water a series of concentric waves will move outwards from the center. The same events occur in an earthquake. There is a sudden movement within the crust or mantle, and concentric shock waves move out from that point. Geologists and Geographers call the origin of the earthquake the focus. Since this is often deep below the surface and difficult to map, the location of the earthquake is often referred to as the point on the Earth surface directly above the focus. This point is called the epicentre. The strength, or magnitude, of the shockwaves determines the extent of the damage caused. Two main scales exist for defining the strength, the Mercalli Scale and the Richter Scale. Earthquakes are three dimensional events, the waves move outwards from the focus, but can travel in both the horizontal and vertical plains. This produces three different types of waves which have their own distinct characteristics and can only move through certain layers within the Earth.

Manmade: Geologists and seismologists agree earthquakes can be induced in five major ways: fluid injection into the Earth, fluid extraction from the Earth, mining or quarrying, nuclear testing and through the construction of dams and reservoirs.

Effects of earthquake:

Shaking and ground rupture Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures. The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from theepicenter, and the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reducewave propagation.[41] The ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration. Ground rupture is a major risk for large engineering structures such as dams, bridges and nuclear power stations and requires careful mapping of existing faults to identify any likely to break the ground surface within the life of the structure.[42]

Landslides and avalanches: Earthquakes, along with severe storms, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and wildfires, can produce slope instability leading to landslides, a major geological hazard. Landslide danger may persist while emergency personnel are attempting rescue.[43]

Fires: Earthquakes can cause fires by damaging electrical power or gas lines. In the event of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has started. For example, more deaths in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake were caused by fire than by the earthquake itself

.
Flood A flood is an overflow of any amount of water that reaches land.[47] Floods occur usually when the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, exceeds the total capacity of the formation, and as a result some of the water flows or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the body. However, floods may be secondary effects of earthquakes, if dams are damaged. Earthquakes may cause landslips to dam rivers, which collapse and cause floods

Human impact: an earthquake may cause injury and loss of life, road and bridge damage, general property damage, and collapse or destabilization (potentially leading to future collapse) of buildings. The aftermath may bring disease, lack of basic necessities, and higher insurance premiums. Earthquakes can also cause volcanic eruptions, bringing further problems

Animal sanctuary
An animal sanctuary is a facility where animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives. The mission of sanctuaries is generally to be safe havens, where the animals receive the best care that the sanctuaries can provide. Animals are not bought, sold, or traded, nor are they used for animal testing. The resident animals are given the opportunity to behave as naturally as possible in a protective environment.[1]

What to do to face earthquake Although, there is no guarantee of safety at the time of earthquake, one can identify the potential risk before time. Planning before hand can not only save your life but also of the people around you. If you face earthquake wisely and know what to do before, during and after earthquake, you can significantly reduce injuries and damage of property. Before the Earthquake Look for hazards in your home Tie the shelves firmly to the walls. Support the overhead light fittings. Repair the faulty electrical wiring and leaky gas links. Refurbish the deep cracks in ceilings or floor. Make family emergency plan and educate yourself and your family members about the disaster by contacting the local emergency management authorities. Have disaster supplies at hand, such as, flashlight, batteries, portable radio, First aid kit, emergency food, water, non-electric can opener, medicines, cash, credit cards, shoes etc. Develop your emergency communication plan and practice it with your family. Make your out-of-state friend or relative your "family contact" in case of emergency. Work in your community to inform others with the knowledge you have and make hazard hunt programs and neighborhood emergency plans.

During the Earthquake Stay safe and minimize your movements and stay indoors till the shaking stops. The safe places can be under strong furniture, against inside wall, away from shelves and heavy furniture. When outdoor, stay in open area, away from trees, buildings, telephone polls, electric lines, bridges, street lights or elevated freeways. If in car, stop at safe place. Do not stop near or under trees, buildings, bridges and service wires. Stay in the vehicle. If caught under debris, do not move, light match or kick up dust. Use a cloth to cover your mouth. Make sound so that the rescuers can locate you. Avoid to shout as it may cause you inhale dangerous dust. After the Earthquake Be prepared for aftershocks. Listen to latest emergency information on the battery operated radio or TV. Stay off from risky areas. Come back home when authorities tell you to. If in coastal areas, beware of possible tsunamis. If there is any such warning, stay away from beach. Help the injured people especially the infants, elderly and disabled people. Give first aid when required. Do not move off seriously wounded people and call for help. Check for gas leaks, electric system damage, sewage and water lines damage and call for professional help.

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Bibliography

A sanctuary is not open to the public in the sense of a zoo; that is, the public is not allowed unescorted access to any part of the facility. A sanctuary tries not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation.

One of the most important missions of sanctuaries, beyond caring for the animals, is educating the public. The ultimate goal of a sanctuary should be to change the way that humans think about animal.

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