Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air, gas or water stream, without the use of filters, through

vortex separation. Rotational effects and gravity are used to separate mixtures of solids and fluids.

PRINCIPLE  A high speed rotating (air)flow is established within a cylindrical or conical container called a cyclone. beginning at the top (wide end) of the cyclone and ending at the bottom (narrow) end before exiting the cyclone in a straight stream through the center of the cyclone and out the top. .  Air flows in a spiral pattern.

In a conical system. Larger (denser) particles in the rotating stream have too much inertia to follow the tight curve of the stream and strike the outside wall.  . separating smaller and smaller particles. as the rotating flow moves towards the narrow end of the cyclone the rotational radius of the stream is reduced. falling then to the bottom of the cyclone where they can be removed.

defines the cut point of the cyclone. This is the size of particle that will be removed from the stream with a 50% efficiency. and smaller particles with a lower efficiency. Particles larger than the cut point will be removed with a greater efficiency.   . together with flow rate. The cyclone geometry.

 Diesel can emit up to 100 times more particulate matter than gasoline engine.  The reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engine is one of the most challenging problems associated with the exhaust pollution control. .

1 μm to 1 μm) can easily enter the human respiratory system and are capable of causing cancer because of their association with absorbed and condensed carcinogenic compounds. such as. It is also associated with eye irritation. visibility reduction. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH). Such emissions (in the agglomerated particle size range of 0. Nitro-PAH and sulfates. material soiling and degradation.  .

20 g/bhp-hr 0.30 g/bhp-hr 0.75 g/bhp-hr Regulation Levels 0.72 g/bhp-hr 0.045 g/bhp-hr 85% .60 g/bhp-hr 16.Diesel Uncontrolled Emissions and SCAQMD Emissions Limits Emissions Baseline Levels 8.60 g/bhp-hr % Reduction Required 93.15 g/bhp-hr 25% PM 0.7% HC 0.2% NOx CO 0.

is a technical problem to be tackled.regeneration problem and energy demands. cost.  . The reduction of particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions from diesel engine. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from design complexity. without eroding its fuel conversion efficiency.

Cyclone separator being a non-contact type particulate removal system exerts less back pressure to the diesel engine combustion. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) hold out the prospects of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions but the question of the reliable regeneration of filters still remains a difficult hurdle to be solved.  .

 The result shows good agreements with existing cyclone and diesel particulate flow characteristics . simple construction gives high collection efficiencies and reduced regeneration problems.  Cyclone separator with low initial cost. Very few studies have been done on cyclone separator as a diesel soot particulate filter.

 The most common types of centrifugal. created near the bottom of the cyclone. collectors in use today are: Single-cyclone separators 1)  They create a dual vortex to separate coarse from fine dust. The inner vortex. . spirals upward and carries finer dust particles. The main vortex spirals downward and carries most of the coarser dust particles. or inertial.

as shown in the figure  . operating in parallel and having a common gas inlet and outlet. consist of a number of small-diameter cyclones. Multiple-cyclone separators Also known as multiclones.

 Multiclones operate on the same principle as cyclones—creating a main downward vortex and an ascending inner vortex. The pressure drop of multiclone collectors is higher than that of single-cyclone separators. . The longer length provides longer residence time while the smaller diameter creates greater centrifugal force.  Multiclones are more efficient than single cyclones because they are longer and smaller in diameter. These two factors result in better separation of dust particulates.

Characteristics of dust . . operation. effectiveness. Sticky material can adhere to collector elements and plug passages. operating. construction. and capital. and maintenance costs. Dust collectors vary widely in design. space requirements.Moderate to heavy concentrations of many dusts can be abrasive to dry centrifugal collectors.   Hygroscopic material can blind bag collectors.

. the nature of the dust. highcost equipment.The degree of dust collection required depends on its potential as a health hazard or public nuisance. the plant location. the allowable emission rate. Degree of dust collection required . and so forth. its salvage value.  The selection of a separator should be based on the efficiency required and should consider the need for high-efficiency.

particle size (particles with larger mass being subjected to greater force). Cyclone separator efficiencies depend on. time that the force is exerted on the particles 1. 2. . force exerted on the dust particles and. 3.

1 to 6 grains per cubic foot) and high pressure drop of 6 to 10 inches w.  Small diameter cyclones have high dust collection efficiencies at low dust loads (0. Cyclone scan be designed with either large or narrow diameters depending on the application.c.  . (water column).

ft) with low pressure drops (1. They are not very efficient at low dust loads. Owing to the small diameter they have the tendency to plug at high dust loads.) efficiently.  .c. Large diameter cyclones can handle high dust loads (50-100 grains per cu.5 to 3 inch w.

3. small diameters have higher forces than larger diameter cyclones smooth transition ensures maximum efficiency. . To improve efficiencies. 2. high narrow inlets reduce distances traveled by dust to the wall and thereby improve collection efficiencies 1. design considerations are.

 Performance characteristics of a cyclone are determined by its proportions and size and by the properties and flow rates of the air and dust. and total efficiency (total collected weight percent). Performance is described by pressure drop (energy consumption).  . fractional efficiency (weight percent collected of any particle size).

and in the cement industry as components of kiln preheaters. Cyclones are also used in oil industries to separate oils and gases. Some are small enough to be worn clipped to clothing and are used to separate respirable particles for later analysis.   . Smaller cyclones are used to separate airborne particles for analysis. Large scale cyclones are used in sawmills to remove sawdust from extracted air.

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