Cultural Diversity

Dr. Shohail Choudhury

Layout 1 2 3 4 For Cultural Diversity Organisational Culture Multicultural Organisation diversity in workplace 5 6 7 8 Hofstede’s five value dimensions Project Globe Hofstede’s arguments Case Study 2 .

For Cultural Diversity Arguments in favour of cultural diversity in organisations Cultural diversity builds strength for dealing with global markets. Success is facilitated by a perspective that considers diversity to be an opportunity for everyone in an organization to learn from each other how better to accomplish their work and an occasion that requires a supportive and cooperative organizational culture as well as group leadership and process skills that can facilitate effective group functioning. Ethnic diversity builds strength for dealing with diverse customers. 3 . systemic approach and longterm commitment. Diverse work teams are high in creativity and innovation. To be successful in working with and gaining value from diversity requires a sustained. Diverse workforces attract new highly talented members.

Organisational Culture Inclusivity Culture Multicultural Organisation • How open the organization is to someone who can do the job • A shared set of beliefs. values and patterns of behavior common to group of people • Organization based on pluralism and operates with respect for diversity • Groupings of people based on shared demographics and job identities • The belief that one’s sub-cultural group or membership is superior to all others Organisational Subcultures Ethnocentrism 4 .

Characteristics of a Multicultural Organisation Pluralism • Members of minority and majority cultures influence key values and policies. • Members of minority and majority cultures avoid destructive conflicts. Structural integration Informal network integration Absence of prejudice and discrimination Minimum inter-group conflict • Training and task force activities support goal of eliminating culture-group biases. • Mentoring and support groups assist career development of minority-culture members. • Minority-culture members are well represented at all levels and in all responsibilities. 5 .

Managing diversity in workplace Building an inclusive work environment that allows everyone to reach their potential 6 .

first in the late 1960s and continuing through the next three decades.000 IBM employees in 40 different countries. The original study was based on an employee survey involving 116. Hofstede five value dimensions on which countries differed.Culture and structure Hofstede’s findings One of the important studies Attempted to study impact cultural differences on management Conducted by Geert Hofstede. The survey asked people of their preferences in terms of management style and work environment. 7 .

Hofstede’s five value dimensions Diversity among global cultures Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualismcollectivism Masculinity-femininity Long Term Orientation • The degree to which a society accepts unequal distribution of power • The degree to which a society tolerates risk and uncertainty • The degree to which a society emphasizes individuals and their self-interests • The degree to which a society values assertiveness and materialism • The degree to which a society values short term or long term goals 8 .

Global cultures and value dimensions 9 .

Project Globe 10 .

A higher proportion of supervisory personnel (narrow span of control). and organisation. More centralised decision making. Hofstede argued. Hofstede questioned whether American theories could be applied abroad and discussed the consequences of cultural differences in terms of motivation. Leaders would obeyed as authorities. organisations in countries with high power distance would tend to have More levels of hierarchy.Hofstede’s arguments Given the value differences. Status and power would serve as motivators. 11 . leadership.

Characteristics of a Multicultural Organisation 12 .

Greater amount of written rules and organisation. organising. 13 . The role of leadership would be more one of planning. Greater importance attached to specialisation in terms of technical competence. coordinating. and controlling.Hofstede’s arguments In countries with high uncertainty avoidance Organisation more formalised. Managers would avoid risk and would be motivated by stability and security.

Consensus and cooperation more valued than individual initiative and effort.Hofstede’s arguments In countries with high collectivist orientation Preference for group as opposed to individual decision making. The role of leadership is to facilitate team effort and integration. Motivation derives from sense of belonging. and rewards are based on being part of the group (loyalty and tenure). to foster a supportive atmosphere. and to create necessary group culture. 14 .

The role of leadership is to ensure bottom-line profits in order to satisfy shareholders. Motivation will be based on accumulation of money and things rather than quality of life. Hofstede’s also found country clusters. and to demonstrate concern to social responsibility. the role of the leader would be to safeguard employee well-being.Hofstede’s arguments In countries ranked high on masculinity Management style is likely to be more concerned with task accomplishment than nurturing social relationships. 15 . In a more feminine cultures.

Characteristics of a Multicultural Organisation 16 .

Case Study 17 .

Thank you! 18 .

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