By

A.Sravya
 Given some knowledge of how certain objects may
appear and an image of a scene possibly
containing those objects, report which objects are
present in the scene and where.

 Image panoramas
 Image watermarking
 Global robot localization
 Face Detection
 Optical Character Recognition
 Manufacturing Quality Control
 Content-Based Image Indexing
 Object Counting and Monitoring
 Automated vehicle parking systems
 Visual Positioning and tracking
 Video Stabilization

 Pattern or Object: Arrangement of
descriptors(features)
 Pattern class: Family of patterns that share some
common properties
 Pattern Recognition: Techniques for assigning
patterns to their respective classes
 Common pattern arrangements:
1. vectors – ( for quantitative descriptors)
2. strings 3. trees – (for structural descriptors)
 Approaches to pattern recognition
 Decision – theoretic  quantitative descriptors
 Structural  qualitative descriptors

where
x
i
represents the ith descriptor
n is no: of descriptors associated with the pattern
Example : Consider 3 types of iris flowers- setosa,virginica and versicolor
Each flower is described by petal length and width .
Therefore the pattern vector is given by:
 Here is another example of pattern vector
generation.
 In this case, we are interested in different types of
noisy shapes.

 Recognition problems in which not only quantitative
measures about each feature but also the spatial
relationships between them determine class
membership, are solved by structural approach

Example: Fingerprint recognition

 Strings

 String descriptions generate patterns of objects whose
structure is based on relatively simple connectivity of
primitives usually associated with boundary shape

 String of symbols w =……..abababab……….

 Tree descriptors more powerful than strings
 Most hierarchical ordering schemes lead to tree
structures
Example:

Based on the use of decision functions ( d(x) )
Here we find W decision functions d
1
(x), d
2
(x),....... d
W
(x) with the property
that, if a pattern x belongs to class ω
i
, then
i j W j d d
j i
= = > ; ,..., 2 , 1 ) ( ) ( x x
The decision boundary separating class and is given by
0 ) ( ) ( or ) ( ) ( = ÷ = x x x x
j i j i
d d d d
Now the objective is to develop various approaches for finding decision
functions that satisfy Eq(1)
1
 Here we represent each class by a prototype
pattern vector
 An unknown pattern is assigned to the class to
which it is closest in terms of a predefined
approach

 The two approaches are:

 Minimum distance classifier – calculate the
Euclidean distance

 correlation
Prototype pattern vector
Calculate the Euclidean distance between the unknown vector and the
prototype vector

Distance measure is the decision function
…….large numerical value
Decision boundary b/w classes and is
….perpendicular bisector
If d
Ij
(x) > 0, then x belongs to

If d
Ij
(x) < 0, then x belongs to
i
e
j
e
 Correlation is used for finding matches of a sub image w(x,y)
of size J X K within an image f(x,y) of size M X N
 Correlation between w(x,y) and f(x,y) is given by

1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0
, 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 for
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
÷ =
÷ =
+ + =
¿¿
N y
M x
t y s x w t s f y x c
s t
 The maximum values of c indicates the
positions where w best matches f

 This is a probabilistic approach to pattern
recognition
 Average loss

The classifier that minimizes the total average loss is
called the Bayes classifier
Bayes classifier assigns an unknown pattern x to class if
i
e
Loss for a correct decision is assigned ‘0’ and for incorrect decision ‘1’
Further simplified to
Finally
….Bayes Decision Function
BDF depends on the pdfs of the patterns in each class and the
probability of occurrence of each class

Sample patterns are assigned to each class and then necessary
parameters are estimated

Most commonly used form for is the Gaussian pdf
Bayes decision function for Gaussian pattern classes is
) (
2
1
) ( ) | ( ) (
2
2
2
) (
j
m x
j
j j j
p e p x p x d
j
j
e
o t
e e
o
÷
÷
= =
here n = 1 & W = 2
 In n-dimensional case
Bayesian decision function for gaussian pattern classes under 0-1
loss function
•BDF reduces to minimum distance classifier if:
1. Pattern classes are Gaussian
2. All covariance matrices are equal to the identity matrix
3. All classes are equally likely to occur
• Therefore minimum distance classifier is optimum in Bayes
sense if the above conditions are satisfied
Neural network: information processing paradigm inspired by
biological nervous systems, such as our brain
Structure: large number of highly interconnected processing
elements (neurons) working together

Neurons are arranged in layers
Each neuron within the network is usually a simple processing unit
which takes one or more inputs and produces an output. At each
neuron, every input has an associated weight which modifies the
strength of each input. The neuron simply adds together all the inputs
and calculates output.
 Neurons: Elemental nonlinear computing elements
 We use these networks for adaptively developing
the coefficients of decision functions via successive
presentations of training set of patterns
 Training patterns: Sample patterns used to
estimate desired parameters
 Training set: Set of such patterns from each class
 Learning or Training: Process by which a training
set is used to obtain decision functions
 Perceptron model basic model of a neuron
 Perceptrons are learning machines

Another way :
then
If ω
2
and
This algorithm makes a change in w
only if the pattern being considered at
the k
th
step in the training sequence is
misclassified
 This method minimizes the error between
the actual and the desired response

From gradient descent algorithm
Changing weights reduces the error by
a factor
 We focus on decision functions of multiclass pattern recognition
problems, independent of whether the classes are separable or not
























 Activation element is a sigmoid function
Input to the activation element of each node in layer J

The outputs of layer K are

The final sigmoid function is
 We begin by concentrating on the output layer
 The process starts with an arbitrary set of weights through out
the network
 Generalized delta rule has two basic phases:
 Phase 1
 A training vector is propagated through the layers to compute
the output O
j
for each node
 The outputs O
q
of the nodes in the output layer are then
compared against their desired responses r
p
, to generate the
error terms δ
q
 Phase 2
 A backward pass through the network during which the
appropriate error signal is passed to each node and the
corresponding weight changes are made

Thank you

Given some knowledge of how certain objects may appear and an image of a scene possibly containing those objects, report which objects are present in the scene and where.

    


  


Image panoramas Image watermarking Global robot localization Face Detection Optical Character Recognition Manufacturing Quality Control Content-Based Image Indexing Object Counting and Monitoring Automated vehicle parking systems Visual Positioning and tracking Video Stabilization

   

  

Pattern or Object: Arrangement of descriptors(features) Pattern class: Family of patterns that share some common properties Pattern Recognition: Techniques for assigning patterns to their respective classes Common pattern arrangements: 1. vectors – ( for quantitative descriptors) 2. strings 3. trees – (for structural descriptors) Approaches to pattern recognition Decision – theoretic  quantitative descriptors Structural  qualitative descriptors

virginica and versicolor Each flower is described by petal length and width .where xi represents the ith descriptor n is no: of descriptors associated with the pattern Example : Consider 3 types of iris flowers. Therefore the pattern vector is given by: .setosa.

.

.

.

. we are interested in different types of noisy shapes. In this case.  Here is another example of pattern vector generation.

are solved by structural approach Example: Fingerprint recognition  Strings  String descriptions generate patterns of objects whose structure is based on relatively simple connectivity of primitives usually associated with boundary shape . Recognition problems in which not only quantitative measures about each feature but also the spatial relationships between them determine class membership.

abababab……….. String of symbols w =……. .

  Tree descriptors more powerful than strings Most hierarchical ordering schemes lead to tree structures Example: .

...... then d i ( x)  d j ( x) j  1. W . j  i 1 The decision boundary separating class and is given by d i (x)  d j (x) or d i (x)  d j (x)  0 Now the objective is to develop various approaches for finding decision functions that satisfy Eq(1) ..2.. d2(x)..Based on the use of decision functions ( d(x) ) Here we find W decision functions d1(x). if a pattern x belongs to class ωi .. dW(x) with the property that..

  Here we represent each class by a prototype pattern vector An unknown pattern is assigned to the class to which it is closest in terms of a predefined approach   The two approaches are: Minimum distance classifier – calculate the Euclidean distance correlation  .

Prototype pattern vector Calculate the Euclidean distance between the unknown vector and the prototype vector Distance measure is the decision function …….large numerical value .

then x belongs to If dIj(x) < 0.Decision boundary b/w classes and is ….perpendicular bisector If dIj(x) > 0. then x belongs to i j .

.

. t ) w( x  s.M  1. y  t ) s t for x  0.y) is given by c( x...2.  Correlation is used for finding matches of a sub image w(x..y) of size J X K within an image f(x. y  0. y )   f ( s...N  1 .1..y) of size M X N Correlation between w(x.1.y) and f(x..2.

 The maximum values of c indicates the positions where w best matches f .

  This is a probabilistic approach to pattern recognition Average loss The classifier that minimizes the total average loss is called the Bayes classifier .

Bayes classifier assigns an unknown pattern x to class  i if Loss for a correct decision is assigned ‘0’ and for incorrect decision ‘1’ .

Further simplified to Finally ….Bayes Decision Function BDF depends on the pdfs of the patterns in each class and the probability of occurrence of each class Sample patterns are assigned to each class and then necessary parameters are estimated Most commonly used form for is the Gaussian pdf .

Bayes decision function for Gaussian pattern classes is d j ( x)  p( x |  j ) p( j )  1 2  j  ( xm j )2 2 2 j e p( j ) here n = 1 & W = 2 .

 In n-dimensional case Bayesian decision function for gaussian pattern classes under 0-1 loss function .

Pattern classes are Gaussian 2. All covariance matrices are equal to the identity matrix 3.•BDF reduces to minimum distance classifier if: 1. All classes are equally likely to occur • Therefore minimum distance classifier is optimum in Bayes sense if the above conditions are satisfied .

such as our brain Structure: large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working together Neurons are arranged in layers .Neural network: information processing paradigm inspired by biological nervous systems.

.Each neuron within the network is usually a simple processing unit which takes one or more inputs and produces an output. The neuron simply adds together all the inputs and calculates output. At each neuron. every input has an associated weight which modifies the strength of each input.

       Neurons: Elemental nonlinear computing elements We use these networks for adaptively developing the coefficients of decision functions via successive presentations of training set of patterns Training patterns: Sample patterns used to estimate desired parameters Training set: Set of such patterns from each class Learning or Training: Process by which a training set is used to obtain decision functions Perceptron model basic model of a neuron Perceptrons are learning machines .

.

Another way : .

then If ω2 and This algorithm makes a change in w only if the pattern being considered at the kth step in the training sequence is misclassified .

 This method minimizes the error between the actual and the desired response From gradient descent algorithm .

Changing weights reduces the error by a factor .

 We focus on decision functions of multiclass pattern recognition problems. independent of whether the classes are separable or not .

 Activation element is a sigmoid function Input to the activation element of each node in layer J The outputs of layer K are The final sigmoid function is .

to generate the error terms δq Phase 2 A backward pass through the network during which the appropriate error signal is passed to each node and the corresponding weight changes are made .        We begin by concentrating on the output layer The process starts with an arbitrary set of weights through out the network Generalized delta rule has two basic phases: Phase 1 A training vector is propagated through the layers to compute the output Oj for each node The outputs Oq of the nodes in the output layer are then compared against their desired responses rp.

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Thank you .