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Table of Contents
What are diodes made out of?____________________slide 3 N-type material_________________________________slide 4 P-type material_________________________________slide 5
The pn junction_________________________________slides 6-7
The biased pn junction___________________________slides 8-9 Properties of diodes_____________________________slides 10-11
Diode Circuit Models ____________________________slides 12-16
The Q Point____________________________________slides 17-18 Dynamic Resistance_____________________________slides 19-20 Types of diodes and their uses ___________________ slides 21-24 Sources_______________________________________slide 25
Kristin Ackerson, Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002
meaning they have 4 valence electrons. • In both the diamond lattice and zincblend lattice. Their structure allows them to grow in a shape called the diamond lattice. GaAs creates a zincblend lattice structure. Kristin Ackerson. Si +4 Si +4 Si +4 Si +4 Si +4 Si +4 Si +4 Si +4 Si +4 • Gallium is a group 3 element while Arsenide is a group 5 element.and N-type materials that become the diode. This sharing of electrons is what ultimately allows diodes to be build. When put together as a compound. especially in the case of LEDs because of it’s large bandgap. The light green lines represent the electronic bonds made when the valence electrons are shared. A compound that is commonly used is Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . Ge or GaAs it changes the properties of the material so we are able to make the P.What Are Diodes Made Out Of? • Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) are the two most common single elements that are used to make Diodes. Each Si atom shares one electron with each of its four closest neighbors so that its valence band will have a full 8 electrons. each atom shares its valence electrons with its four closest neighbors. When dopants from groups 3 or 5 (in most cases) are added to Si. The diagram above shows the 2D structure of the Si crystal. • Silicon and Germanium are both group 4 elements.
Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . The 2D diagram to the left shows the extra electron that will be present when a Group V dopant is introduced to a material such as silicon. The most commonly used dopants from Group V are arsenic. +4 +4 +4 +4 +5 +4 +4 +4 +4 Kristin Ackerson. antimony and phosphorus.N-Type Material N-Type Material: When extra valence electrons are introduced into a material such as silicon an n-type material is produced. The dopants used to create an n-type material are Group V elements. This extra electron is very mobile. The extra valence electrons are introduced by putting impurities or dopants into the silicon.
P-Type Material P-Type Material: P-type material is produced when the dopant that is introduced is from Group III. and gallium. +4 +4 +4 +4 +3 +4 +4 +4 +4 Kristin Ackerson. or a positive charge that can move around in the material. The 2D diagram to the left shows the hole that will be present when a Group III dopant is introduced to a material such as silicon. boron. Group III elements have only 3 valence electrons and therefore there is an electron missing. This hole is quite mobile in the same way the extra electron is mobile in a n-type material. Commonly used Group III dopants are aluminum. This creates a hole (h+). Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .
Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .drift Kristin Ackerson.diffusion = e.The PN Junction Steady State1 Metallurgical Junction - Na - Nd + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + P - n ionized acceptors - - - - - + + + + + + Space Charge Region ionized donors E-Field + h+ drift = + h+ diffusion _ _ e.
The space charge region does not have any free carriers.diffusion = e.drift Space Charge Region: Also called the depletion region. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . Na & Nd: Represent the amount of negative and positive doping in number of carriers per centimeter cubed.The PN Junction Na Metallurgical Junction + + + + + + + + Steady State Nd + + + + + + + + + + + + ionized donors _ _ P - n ionized acceptors Space Charge Region E-Field + + When no external source is connected to the pn junction. Kristin Ackerson. Usually in the range of 1015 to 1020.and n-type materials meet. The width of the space charge region is denoted by W in pn junction formula’s. Metallurgical Junction: The interface where the p. diffusion and drift balance each other out for both the holes and electrons h+ drift = h+ diffusion e. This region includes the net positively and negatively charged regions.
Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . These are described on then next slide. There are two types of biasing: Forward bias and Reverse bias. Kristin Ackerson.The Biased PN Junction Metal Contact “Ohmic Contact” (Rs~0) _ + Applied Electric Field P n I + _ Vapplied The pn junction is considered biased when an external voltage is applied.
Vapplied > 0 Reverse Bias: Under reverse bias the depletion region widens.The Biased PN Junction Forward Bias: In forward bias the depletion region shrinks slightly in width. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . A small leakage current. This Vapplied < 0 causes the electric field produced by the ions to cancel out the applied reverse bias voltage. Therefore. This saturation current is made up of electron-hole pairs being produced in the depletion region. as the applied voltage increases. With this shrinking the energy required for charge carriers to cross the depletion region decreases exponentially. The barrier potential of the diode is the voltage at which appreciable current starts to flow through the diode. Saturation current is sometimes referred to as scale current because of it’s relationship to junction temperature. Kristin Ackerson. Is (saturation current) flows under reverse bias conditions. The barrier potential varies for different materials. current starts to flow across the junction.
Properties of Diodes Figure 1. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .10 – The Diode Transconductance Curve2 ID (mA) • VD = Bias Voltage • ID = Current through Diode. ID is Negative for Reverse Bias and Positive for Forward Bias • IS = Saturation Current IS VBR ~V VD • VBR = Breakdown Voltage • V = Barrier Potential Voltage (nA) Kristin Ackerson.
• VT is the thermal equivalent voltage and is approximately 26 mV at room temperature.Properties of Diodes The Shockley Equation • The transconductance curve on the previous slide is characterized by the following equation: ID = IS(eVD/VT – 1) • As described in the last slide.38 x 10-23 J/K q = 1. IS is the saturation current and VD is the applied biasing voltage. The equation to find VT at various temperatures is: VT = kT q T = temperature in Kelvin k = 1.6 x 10-19 C • is the emission coefficient for the diode. It somewhat varies with diode current. For a silicon diode is around 2 for low currents and goes down to about 1 at higher currents Kristin Ackerson. It is determined by the way the diode is constructed. ID is the current through the diode. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .
Application .Properties of Diodes MathCAD Example .
The perfect diode would be a perfect conductor in one direction (forward bias) and a perfect insulator in the other direction (reverse bias). Determine the value of ID if a) VA = 5 volts (forward bias) and b) VA = -5 volts (reverse bias) RS = 50 ID VA + _ a) With VA > 0 the diode is in forward bias and is acting like a perfect conductor so: ID = VA/RS = 5 V / 50 = 100 mA b) With VA < 0 the diode is in reverse bias and is acting like a perfect insulator. Example: Assume the diode in the circuit below is ideal. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . In many situations. using the ideal diode approximation is acceptable. therefore no current can flow and ID = 0. Kristin Ackerson.Diode Circuit Models The Ideal Diode Model The diode is designed to allow current to flow in only one direction.
Diode Circuit Models The Ideal Diode with This model is more accurate than the simple ideal diode model because it includes the Barrier Potential approximate barrier potential voltage.V = 4. Example: To be more accurate than just using the ideal diode model include the barrier potential. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .V ID = VA . Remember the barrier potential voltage is the + V voltage at which appreciable current starts to flow. RS = 50 ID VA + _ V + With VA > 0 the diode is in forward bias and is acting like a perfect conductor so write a KVL equation to find ID: 0 = VA – IDRS .7 V = 94 mA RS 50 Kristin Ackerson.3 volts (typical for a germanium diode) Determine the value of ID if VA = 5 volts (forward bias). Assume V = 0.
this is usually not necessary since the RF (forward resistance) value is pretty constant. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .Diode Circuit Models The Ideal Diode with Barrier Potential and Linear Forward Resistance This model is the most accurate of the three. while higher power diodes have a RF value closer to 1 ohm. However. For low-power germanium and silicon diodes the RF value is usually in the 2 to 5 ohms range. + ID V RF Linear Portion of transconductance curve RF = VD ID ID VD VD Kristin Ackerson. It includes a linear forward resistance that is calculated from the slope of the linear portion of the transconductance curve.
Diode Circuit Models The Ideal Diode with Barrier Potential and Linear Forward Resistance RS = 50 ID VA + _ V + Example: Assume the diode is a low-power diode with a forward resistance value of 5 ohms.V .IDRF ID = VA . Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .V = 5 – 0.5 mA RS + RF 50 + 5 RF Kristin Ackerson.3 = 85. The barrier potential voltage is still: V = 0.3 volts (typical for a germanium diode) Determine the value of ID if VA = 5 volts. Once again. write a KVL equation for the circuit: 0 = VA – IDRS .
Kristin Ackerson.5 mA These are the values found in the examples on previous slides where the applied voltage was 5 volts. the barrier potential was 0.Diode Circuit Models Values of ID for the Three Different Diode Circuit Models Ideal Diode Model with Barrier Potential Voltage Ideal Diode Model with Barrier Potential and Linear Forward Resistance Ideal Diode Model ID 100 mA 94 mA 85.3 volts and the linear forward resistance value was assumed to be 5 ohms. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .
Kristin Ackerson. shows how the Q point is determined using the transconductance curve and the load line. This line is the load line. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 + _ V + .The Q Point The operating point or Q point of the diode is the quiescent or nosignal condition. Next we will draw the line connecting these two points on the graph with the transconductance curve. The example 3 below that is continued on the next slide. RS = 1000 ID VA = 6V First the load line is found by substituting in different values of V into the equation for ID using the ideal diode with barrier potential model for the diode. With RS at 1000 ohms the value of RF wouldn’t have much impact on the results. ID = VA – V RS Using V values of 0 volts and 1. The Q point is obtained graphically and is really only needed when the applied voltage is very close to the diode’s barrier potential voltage.6 mA respectively.4 volts we obtain ID values of 6 mA and 4.
0 1.The Q Point ID (mA) 12 10 The transconductance curve below is for a Silicon diode. 2 VD (Volts) 0. 8 Q Point: The intersection of the 6 5.2 1.4 .3 mA.7 Kristin Ackerson.4 0.6 0.2 0.7 V and 5. The Q point in this example is located at 0. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 0.6 4 load line and the transconductance curve.8 1.3 4.
Capacitance and Voltage of PN Junctions Diode Operation – Animation Webpage Link .
the equation for dynamic resistance is: rF = VT ID The dynamic resistance is used in determining the voltage drop across the diode in the situation where a voltage source is supplying a sinusoidal signal with a dc offset. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . The ac component of the diode voltage is found using the following equation: vF = vac rF rF + RS The voltage drop through the diode is a combination of the ac and dc components and is equal to: VD = V + vF Kristin Ackerson. Therefore.Dynamic Resistance The dynamic resistance of the diode is mathematically determined as the inverse of the slope of the transconductance curve.
9 ID 5. The source voltage is now.Dynamic Resistance Example: Use the same circuit used for the Q point example but change the voltage source so it is an ac source with a dc offset.2 mA 1000 rF = VT = 1 * 26 mV = 4.3 mA vF = vac = 1 is a good approximation if the dc current is greater than 1 mA as it is in this example. It is a silicon diode so the barrier potential voltage is still 0.9 + 1000 Therefore. VD = 700 + 4. vin = 6 + sin(wt) Volts. Virginia Tech EE diode) Spring 2002 .9 = 4.7 volts. RS = 1000 ID + vin V + The DC component of the circuit is the same as the previous example and therefore ID = 6V – 0.9 sin (wt) mV (the voltage drop across the Kristin Ackerson. rF = sin(wt) V 4.7 V = 5.88 sin(wt) mV rF + R S 4.
The pn junction diode is the typical diode that has been used in the previous circuits. A Schematic Symbol for a PN Junction Diode K P n Representative Structure for a PN Junction Diode Zener Diodes: Are specifically designed to operate under reverse breakdown conditions. A Schematic Symbol for a Zener Diode K Kristin Ackerson.Types of Diodes and Their Uses PN Junction Diodes: Are used to allow current to flow in one direction while blocking current flow in the opposite direction. These diodes have a very accurate and specific reverse breakdown voltage. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .
A Schematic Symbol for a four-layer Shockley Diode K Kristin Ackerson.Types of Diodes and Their Uses Schottky Diodes: These diodes are designed to have a very fast switching time which makes them a great diode for digital circuit applications. They are very common in computers because of their ability to be switched K on and off so quickly. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . These types of diodes are generally used to control the average power delivered to a load. A Schematic Symbol for a Schottky Diode Shockley Diodes: The Shockley diode is a four-layer diode while other diodes are normally made with only two layers.
Lower bandgap LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes) emit infrared radiation. A Schematic Symbol for a Light-Emitting Diode K The arrows in the LED representation indicate emitted light. while LEDs with higher bandgap energy emit visible light. Kristin Ackerson. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 . Many stop lights are now starting to use LEDs because they are extremely bright and last longer than regular bulbs for a relatively low cost.Types of Diodes and Their Uses Light-Emitting Diodes: Light-emitting diodes are designed with a very large bandgap so movement of carriers across their depletion region emits photons of light energy.
This type of diode is used in the production of solar power. when the pn junction is exposed to a certain wavelength of light. This type of diode is used in CD players. Kristin Ackerson. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .Types of Diodes and Their Uses Photodiodes: While LEDs emit light. They are constructed so their pn junction can be exposed to the outside through a clear window or lens. Photodiodes are sensitive to received light. A K In Photoconductive mode the saturation current increases in proportion to the intensity of the received light. A K Schematic Symbols for Photodiodes In Photovoltaic mode. the diode generates voltage and can be used as an energy source.
Electronic Devices and Circuits. pg 11 3 Liou. Neamen. Donald.2.S. the electric field. (pp 1-15. Discrete and Integrated. Prentice Hall. and Yuan.10. Kristin Ackerson. The space charge region. 7 Example from pages 13-14 Figure 1. Denton. New Jersey: 2001. Semiconductor Physics & Devices. Determination of the average forward resistance of a diode.15. 211-234) 1 Figure 6. Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002 .Sources Dailey. 752-753) 2 Figure 1. Semiconductor Device Physics and Simulation. New York: 1998. Boston: 1997. (pp 2-37. pg. pg 213. J. Basic Principles. The diode transconductance curve. and the forces acting on the charged carriers. J. Plenum Press. McGraw-Hill.J.