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The process of induction of compressive stresses in the structure before it is put to its actual use is known as Pre-stressing. Pre-stressed Concrete member is a member of concrete in which internal stresses are introduced in a planned manner, so that the stresses resulting from the superimposed loads are counteracted to a desired degree

Pre-stressing is the intentional creation of permanent stress in a structure or assembly, for improving its behaviour and strength under various service conditions. In ordinary reinforced concrete, consisting of concrete and mild steel as basic components, the compressive stresses are born by concrete while tensile stresses are born entirely by steel. The concrete only acts as a binding material; it does not take part in resisting the external forces. In pre-stressed concrete, compression is induced prior to loading in the zones where external loads would normally cause tensile stresses. In the case of long beams, where large shear forces exist, the beam sizes have to be large to limit the diagonal tensile stresses under certain limits. Pre-stress decrease diagonal tensile stresses. This has led to adopt modified I-section and T-section in which there is substantial reduction in web area.

In order to get the maximum advantage of a pre-stressed concrete member, it is necessary to use not only high strength concrete but also high tensile steel wires. Concrete used for pre-stressed work should have cube strength of 35N/m m2 for post-tensioned system and 45N/m m2 for pre-tensioned system. In the design of a pre-stressed concrete member, the estimated loss of pre-stress due to shrinkage of concrete and creep of concrete and steel is at the order of nearly 200N/m m2 Tendon A high strength steel strand or bar for prestressing concrete
Abutment A structure for anchoring the reinforcing tendons in the pre- tensioning of a concrete member

Anchor A mechanical device for locking of a stressed tendon in position and delivering the prestressing force to the concrete either permanently in a post tensioned member or temporarily during hardening of a pretensioned concrete member

Jacking force The tensile force exerted temporarily by a jacking the pre-stressing of a concrete member

Need of Pre-stressing To offset the deficiency of tensile strength in concrete, steel reinforcement is provided near the bottom of simple beams to carry the tensile stresses. ADVANTAGES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 1. Durability As this technique eliminates weakness of concrete in tension, such members remain free from cracks; hence can resist the effects of impact, shock, and reversal of stresses more efficiently than R.C.C. structure. They provide reliable long-term performance in extremely harsh conditions that could destroy lesser materials. They are resistant to deterioration from weather extremes, chemical attack, fire,accidental damage and the determined efforts of vandals. Winter construction can proceed with few weather delays as pre-cast components are Prefabricated in heated plants.

2. Adaptability Pre-cast pre-stressed concrete products can be designed and manufactured for any application, ranging in size from short span bridges to some of the largest projects in the world. Permits pre-cast manufacturers to vastly expand the design variety possible using pre-cast components. the inherent plasticity of concrete permits to create pre-cast components in shapes and sizes, which would be prohibitively expensive using other materials 3. Fire resistance Pre-stressed concrete bridges are not easily damaged by fire. Have excellent fire resistance, low maintenance costs, elegance, high corrosion resistance, etc.

4. impacts local economy directly Pre-stressed concrete is produced by local small business - employing local labour. Most of its raw materials are also locally purchased and the health of the local prestressed concrete industry directly impacts further on the local economy. Due to smaller loads, due to smaller dimensions being used, there is a considerable saving in cost of supporting members and foundations. standard structural shapes such as hollow core, double tees, beams, columns and panels can be mass-produced at low cost. 5. Fast and Easy Construction Pre-cast concrete components lend themselves to fast construction schedules. Pre-cast manufacturing can proceed while site preparation is underway. Pre-cast units can be delivered to the jobsite and installed the moment they are needed in any weather. Fast construction means earlier completion and the resulting cost savings. Saves the cost of shuttering and centring for large structures.

6. Aesthetics Pre-cast components can be delivered with a wide range of shapes and finishes ranging from smooth dense structural units to any number of architectural treatments. Strikingly rich and varied surface textures and treatments can be achieved by exposing colure sands, aggregates, cements and colourings agents using sandblasting and chemical retarders. custom form liners can be used to introduce reveals, patterns and other architectural effects. Stone, tile brick and other materials can be cast into pre-cast panels at the factory,enabling designers to achieve the expensive look of masonry.

DISADVANTAGES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Although pre-stressing has many advantages, there are still some drawbacks of this process. The unit cost of high strength materials being used is higher as mostly high tensile steel is used. extra initial cost is incurred due to use of pre-stressing equipment and its installation. extra labour and transportation cost for pre-stressing is also there. pre-stressing is uneconomical for short spans and light loads.

COMPARISON OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH RCC BEAMS 1. In RCC beams, the concrete in the compression side of the neutral axis alone is effective and the concrete in the tension side is ineffective. But, in the prestressed beams, the entire section is effective. Reinforced concrete beams are generally heavy. Pre-stressed concrete beams are lighter. RCC beams being heavy and massive are more suitable in situations where the weight is more desired than strength. Pre stressed beams are very suitable for heavy loads and long spans. In RCC beams, there is no way of testing the steel and the concrete. In prestressed concrete beams, testing can be done while pre stressing. RCC construction does not involve many auxiliary units. But pre-stressed beams require many auxiliary units.

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Assumptions in design of pre-stressed concrete members

Pre-stressed concrete members are analysed and designed on the basis of the following assumptions given below: A transverse plane section of the member will remain a plane after bending also. Within the limits of the deformation taking, Hooks law is applicable to concrete and steel components. The stress in the reinforcement does not change along the length of the reinforcement. Stress changes take place for the concrete component only. Variation of stress in the reinforcement due to changes in the external loading is ignorable.

Principles of pre-stressing: large pre-stressing force are applied to the member by the tendons, high bearing stresses are developed at the ends by the anchoring devices. The anchorages are generally designed to be meant for use only for high strength concrete work. Busting stresses liable to at the ends of the beam cannot be satisfactorily resisted by low strength concrete work. When stress transfer to concrete has to take place by bond action, the concrete should have a high strength concrete. Shrinkage cracks will be very little when high strength concrete is used. Due to the high modules of elasticity of high strength concrete, the elastic and creep strain are very small resulting in smaller loss of pre-stress in all steel reinforcement.


Therearemanywaysofclassifyingpre-stressconcretemembersbasedofthe memberofdesign,constructionandapplicationofpre-stress,someofthemare asfollows:- 1. Externalorinternalpre-stressing 2. Linearorcircularpre-stressing 3. Pre-tensioningandposttensioning Pre-tensioningsystem (fullybondedconstructions) Posttensioningsystem (endanchoredconstructions) 2. Fullpre-stressingorpartialpre-stressing


InExternal Prestressing,themember isprestressedbyexternalreactionoffered byrigidabutments. Inthis,thenecessaryprestressingforcecanbe appliedbycompressingthememberbyjackingagainstabutments. Aslidingsurfacemaybeprovidedunderneaththebeam. Aftertheprestressingisover,thespacebetweentheendofthebeamandthe abutmentmaybepackedwithconcreteandthejackrecovered. Disadvantages Prestresstransferredtothememberislikelytobelostduetoanypossible outwarddisplacementsoftheabutments. Shrinkageandcreepofconcreteare likelytoaffecttheinitiallyappliedprestress. Evenslightverticaldeformationsofthesupports willdisturbthestressesseriously. InInternal Prestressingtendonisprovidedfromwhichtheprestress canbeapplied

B. LINEAR OR CIRCULAR PRESTRESSING. Linear prestressingisatermappliedtoprestressingstraightmemberslike beamsandslabs.

Thetermcircular prestressingisappliedtoprestressingcircularstructures likecylindricaltanks,silosandpipes.Inthiscase,thetendonsareprovidedinthe formofrings

C. PRE-TENSIONING AND POST TENSIONING Pre-tensioned members- Inthese,thetendons

aretensionedevenbefore castingtheconcrete. Oneendofthereinforcement(i.e. tendon)is securedtoanabutmentwhiletheotherendof thereinforcementispulledbyusingajackand thisendisthenfixedtoanotherabutment. Theconcreteisnowpoured.Aftertheconcretehascuredandhardened,the endsofthereinforcementarereleasedfromtheabutments. Thereinforcementwhichtendstoresume its original lengthwillcompress the concrete surrounding it by bond action.Theprestress is thus transmitted to concrete entirely by the action of bond between the reinforcement and the surrounding concrete.

Post-tensioned member -Itisoneinwhichthereinforcementis

tensionedafter theconcretehasfullyhardened. Thebeamisfirstcastleavingductsforplacingthetendons. Theductsaremadeinanumberofways-byleavingcorrugatedsteeltube intheconcrete,byprovidingsteelspirals,sheetmetaltubing,rubberhaveor anyotherduct forming unit intheformwork.

Whentheconcretehashardenedand developeditsstrength,thetendonispassed throughtheduct. Oneendisprovidedwithananchorandis fixedtooneendofthemember. Now,theotherendofthetendonispulledby ajackwhichisbuttingagainsttheendofthe member.

Thejacksimultaneouslypullsthetendonandcompressestheconcrete. Afterthetendonissubjectedtothedesiredstress,theendofthetendonis alsoproperlyanchoredtotheconcrete. Toavoidcrushingofconcreteduetoexcessivebearingstress,adistribution plateisprovidedateachend.

Asystemofprestressingmeanstheactualprocessadoptedinmakinga prestressedbeam.Asystemofprestressinginvolves: processoftensioningthetendons securingthemfirmlytotheconcrete A. Pre-tensioning system HOYER SYSTEM TheHoyersystemisusuallyadoptedfortheproductionofpre-tensionedmembers onalargescalelikeprecast beams. Wiresarestretchedbetweentwobulkheadsatlargedistanceapart. Theconcreteisnowpouredsothatanumberofbeamscanbeproducedinone line,byprovidingsuitableshutteringbetweenthem. Aftertheconcretehashardened,thewiresarereleasedfrom thebulkheadsandbetweenthedifferentunitsinonelineof beams. Theprestressistransferredtotheconcretethroughbond betweenthetendonsandtheconcrete. Pre-tensioningsystemisfounduneconomical for large spans. Inordertogrip the pre-tensioned wiresproperlytothebulkheadthedevicesare shown


1. THE FREYSSlNET SYSTEM Hightensionsteelwires5mmto8mmdiameterabout 12innumberarearrangedtoformagroupintoacable withaspiralspringinside. Thespiral spring provides properclearancebetweenthewires andthusprovidesachannelwhich canbecementgrouted. Itfurtherassiststotransferthe reactiontoconcrete. Thewholethingisenclosedinthinmetal steel.

Theanchorageconsistsofagoodqualityconcretecylinderandisprovidedwith corrugationsontheoutside.Ithasacentralconicalholeandisprovidedwithheavy hoopreinforcement. Theconical plugsarepushedintotheconicalholesaftercablesaretightened.The centralholepassingaxiallythroughtheplugpermitscementgrouttobeinjected throughit. Inthiswaythespacebetweenthewireswillbefilledwiththegrout.Thisprovides additionalrestraintagainsttheslippingofthetendons.

Advantage of the system (i) Securingthewiresisnotexpensive. (ii) Thedesiredstretchingforceisobtainedquickly. (iii) Theplugsmaybeleftintheconcreteandtheydonotprojectbeyondtheends ofthemember. Disadvantage of the system (i) Allthewiresofacablearestretchedtogether.Hencethestressesinthewires maynotbeexactlythesame. (ii) Thegreateststretchingforceappliedtoacableisfrom250KN to500kN. This maynotbesufficient. (iii) Thejacksusedareheavyandexpensive.

2. THE MAGNEL BLATON SYSTEM Inthissystemacableofrectangular sectionisprovided,whichcontainslayersof wires5mm to8mm diameter. Thewiresarearrangedwithfour wires per layer.Thewiresinthesamelayerand thewiresinadjacentlayersareseparatedwith aclearanceof4mm. Thegeometricpatternofthewiresismaintainedthroughoutthelengthofthe cablebyproviding grills or spacersatregularintervals.Thegrillsdonotoffer anyappreciablefrictionalresistancetothewireswhichcanbemovedrelativeto eachotherduringthetensioningprocess. Thewiresareanchoredbywedging,twoatatimeintosandwich plates(25 mm thickandareprovidedwithtwowedge-shapedgroovesonitstwofaces). Thewiresaretakentwoineachgrooveandtightenedbyjackingtwowiresata time. Thenasteelwedgeisdrivenbetweenthetightenedwirestoanchorthem againsttheplate. Eachplatecananchoreightwires.Thevarioussandwichplatesformingaunit arearrangedoneabovetheotheragainstadistributionplate.


Thismethodoffersthefollowingthreemethods ofprestressing:

First method Thisisearliestofthethreemethodsofthissystem. Inthismethodthewires are stressed and anchored one by oneinaseparate cylinder using small wedging grips called udall grips. Eachgripconsistsoftwo-halfcones. Thebearingplatebearsagainstathrustringwhichiscastintotheconcrete. Theductendisencircledbyahelix. Anchoragesaresuppliedtosuitcablesof2,4,6and12wires. Second method Inthismethod,thewiresareanchoredbywedgeswhich fitdirectlyintotaperedrecessesmadeinthebearingplate. Thebearingplatebearsagainstatubeunitcontainingthetubeunitandthehelix. Thistubeunitiscastintotheconcrete. Anchoragesaresuppliedforcablesof8to12wires. Thisarrangementiscompactandminimizesthecongestionofthesteelwiresin anchorblock.

4. P.S.C. MONOWIRE SYSTEM Inthissystemalsothewiresaretensioned individually. Theanchorageconsistsofasinglepiece collet sleeve wedginginaconcialhole. Asteeltruncatedguideleadseachwire fromthecabletotheanchoragepointalonga gentlecurvature. Inadditiontotheguideacentralblockisalso providedtoanchorthecentralwires.


5. ELECTRICAL PRESTRESSING Thisisamethodofposttensioningwithout the use of jacksintroducedby Bittner and Carlson, Steelbarsareprovidedwithacoatingofsu]phur,beforetheyareembeddedin concrete. Afterthehardeningofconcreteelectriccurrentoflowvoltageandhigh amperageisusedtoheatthebarstoatemperatureof1700C. Asthebarsexpandlongitudinally,thenutsontheprojectingendsaretightened againstheavywashers. Asthetemperaturefalls,theprestressisdevelopedinthebarsandthebondis againrestoredbytheresolidificationofthesulphurcoating.

Post-tensioning system
Inordertoensurethecorrect prestressinthereinforcement,itispreferableto measuretheloadappliedbythejackaswellastheconsequentextensionofthe reinforcement. Extension measurementsgiveanideaastohowmuchofthesteelisbeing properlystretched. Forinstancethesidesoftheductsmayobstructthestretchingofthe reinforcementparticularlyattheendremotefromthejackandthispartofthe reinforcementmaynotreceivethefulltension.Thisdefectisliabletooccur whencurvedcablesareprovided. Ontheotherhand;itmaybepossiblethattheextensionmighthavetakenplace duetoacertainpartofthetendonbeingoverstressed.Forthisreason,itis necessarytomeasuretheprestressingforceapplied. Excessivebearingstresseswillbeproducedattheendsofthemembersdueto theanchoringdeviceswhichbearagainsttheconcrete.Inthispartofthememberit willbenecessarytoprovideadditionalreinforcementtopreventlocalsplittingand failurebyshear.


Pre-tensioningandposttensioningaretheonlypracticallyadopted methodsofmakingprestressedconcretemembers. Inpre-tensioning,thecompressiveforceinconcreteisduetothebondbetween concreteandthesteelwires,whicharekeptstretchedbetweenbuttresses. Thismethodiseconomicallyadoptedinmass production infactorieswhich makeconcreteproductsoflimitedsize. Thisissobecause,handling as well a transportinglargeproductsarehighly expensiveandmaybepracticallyimpossible,iftheemembersaretoolarge. Thelengthofaprestressedconcreteproductthatcanbeeconomicallymadeby thismethodmaynotexceed20m.Eventhislengthinvolvesconsiderable difficultyintransport.00 In post tensioning,theprestressingwiresarestretchedafterthehardeningof concrete.Thiscanbedonebymanywayslikethefollowing:

Thesemethodscanbeadopted in sitesorontheground,andlater hoisted into position.Forinstance,iftimberiscostlyorscarceitmaybeeconomicaltomake thememberonthegroundinsteelmoulds.


1- High-Strength Concrete: High strength concrete mix:

Pre-stressed concrete requires concrete which has a high compressive strength, with comparatively higher tensile strength. Low shrinkage, minimum creep characteristics and a high value of Youngs modulus are generally deemed necessary for concrete used for concrete used for pre-stressed members. A minimum cement content of 300 to 360 kg/m3 is prescribed mainly to cater to the durability requirements. In high-strength concrete mixes, the water content should be as low as possible with due regard to adequate workability. To safeguard against excessive shrinkage, the code prescribes that the cement content in the mix should preferably not exceed 530kg/m3.

Aggregate of rock types having high moduli of elasticity and low values of differed strain are more effective in restraining the contraction of the cement paste and their use reduces the shrinkage of concrete. The commonly used aggregates, in increasing order of effectiveness in restraining shrinkage, are sand-stone, basalt, granite, quartz and limestone. The values of total residual shrinkage strain recommended in the I.S. code for the purpose of design are 3.0X10-4 for pre-tensioned members and(2.0X10-4)/log(t+2) for post-tensioned members, where t is the age in days of the concrete at transfer.

Light-weight Aggregate Pre-stressed Concrete:

The main advantage of light weight concrete is that it reduces the self weight of the structure, thus minimizing the amount of concrete and steel required for carrying the load. The light weight criterion becomes important especially in long span structures where dead load forms the major portion of the total design load on the structure, or when the self-weight of the member is a factor to be considered in the transportation and erection, as in precast concrete construction.

The light-weight aggregates, generally used for prestressed concrete are foamed slag, lytag and aglite. The modulus of elasticity of light-weight concrete is about 50 to 55 percent of the modulus of elasticity of normal- weight concrete and hence the loss of prestress due to elastic deformation is higher and deflections of flexural members are comparatively higher due to the lower values of modulus of elasticity. The unit weight of light-weight concrete varies considerably between 1450 and 1750 kg/m3. The shrinkage and creep of light-weight concrete is comparable, with marginal variations, to that of sand and gravel concrete.

2- High-Tensile Steel:
For pre-stressed concrete members, the high tensile steel used generally consists of wires, bars, or strands. The higher tensile strength is generally achieved by marginally increasing the carbon content in steel in comparison with mild steel. High tensile steel usually contains 0.60 to 0.85 percent carbons, 0.70 to 1.00 percent manganese, and 0.05 percent of sulphur and phosphorus with traces of silicon. The high-carbon steel ingots are hot-rolled into rods and colddrawn through a series of dies to reduce the diameter and increase the tensile strength. The process of cold-drawing through dies decreases the durability of the wires. The cold-drawn wires are subsequently tempered to improve their properties. Tempering or ageing or stress relieving by heat treatment of the wires at 150-420oC enhances the tensile strength. The cold drawn stress relieved wires are generally available in nominal sizes of 2.5,3,4,5,7 and 8mm diameter and they should confirm to the Indian standard code IS: 1785-1983.

The hard drawn steel wires which are indented or crimped are preferred for pre-tensioned elements because of their superior bond characteristics. The small diameter wires of 2 to 5 mm are mostly used in the form of strands comprising two, three or seven wires. The high-tensile steel bars commonly employed in pre-stressing are manufactured in nominal sizes of 10,12,16,20,22,25,28 and 32mm diameter and are covered in IS:2090-1983. The ultimate tensile strength of a plaindrawn steel wire varies with its diameter. The tensile strength decreases with increases in the diameter of the wires. And referred in the relevant Indian standard codes.

LOSS OF PRE-STRESS A reduction in initial pre-stress resulting from the combined effect of creep, shrinkage or elastic shortening of the concrete, relaxation of the reinforcing steel, frictional losses resulting from the curvature of the draped tendons and slippage at the anchorage. The steel wires of a pre-stressed concrete member do not retain all the preliminary pre-stress .

The initial pre-stress in concrete undergoes a gradual reduction with time from the stage of transfer due to various causes. A loss of pre-stress will affect the stress distribution on the section of the member.

The loss of pre-stressed takes place due to many causes. In general these can be classified as: Loss of pre-stress during the tensioning process Loss of pre-stress at the anchoring stage. Losses occurring subsequently PRE-TENSIONING
Elastic deformation of concrete

1.No loss due to elastic deformation if all the wires are simultaneously tensioned. If the wires are successively tensioned there will be loss of pre-stress due to elastic deformation of concrete 2.Relaxation of stress in steel 3.Shrinkage of concrete 4.Creep of concrete 5.Friction 6.Anchorage slip

Relaxation of stress in steel Shrinkage of concrete Creep of concrete

In addition there may be losses of pre-stress due to sudden changes in temperature, especially in steam curing of pre- tensioned units. The rise in temperature causes a partial transfer of pre-stress (due to elongation of the tendons b/w adjacent units in the long line process) which may cause a large amount of creep if the concrete is not properly cured. LOSS OF PRE-STRESS DURING THE TENSIONING PROCESS DUE TO FRICTION Friction in the jacking and anchoring system and on the walls of the duct where the wires fan out at the anchorage with the result, the actual stress in the tendons is less than what is indicated by the pressure gauge. The losses due to friction in the jack and at the anchorage are different for different system of pre-stressing. This loss due to friction may be classified into: Loss Due To Length Effect The extent of friction met with in a straight tendon due to slight imperfection of the duct (the straight tendon). Hence the cable will touch the duct or concrete, wobbing effect, or wave effect

Loss due to curvature effect

In the case of curved ducts, the loss of pre-stress depends upon the radius of curvature of the duct and the coefficient of friction between the duct surface and the tendons. LOSS OF PRESTRESS AT THE ANCHORING STAGE This loss is due to the fact that the anchorage fixtures themselves are subjected to a stretch. It is also possible that the friction wedges holding the wires the wires may slip a little The necessary additional elongation may be provided for at the time of tensioning to compensate for this loss. LOSS OF PRESTRESS OCCURIING SUBSEQUENTLY The loss which occur subsequently to pre-stress are: Loss Of Stress Due To Shrinkage Of Concrete: Contraction of concrete due to chemical changes and drying. This depends only on the interval of time and the moisture conditions, but is independent of the stresses in the members due to loads

By minimizing the water cement ration and proportion of cement, the shrinkage can be reduced. Loss Of Stress Due To Creep Of Concrete Creep of concrete means the deformation of concrete, which depends upon the interval of time to which the member is loaded This additional deformation of the stressed member is remaining in a stressed state is called CREEP. Loss Of Stress Due To Elastic Shortening Of Concrete (a) Pre-tensioned member

Due to the pre-stress transfer to the concrete, the concrete will shorten. This results in a corresponding shortening of steel


Post tensioned member

Suppose only a single tendon has been provided in a member, the concrete gets shortened as the tendon is jacked against it. Hence, after tightening, no more shortening of concrete can take place

Loss Of Stress Due To Creep Of Steel(Stress Relaxation)

Total loss of pre-stress depends on many factors such as properties of concrete and steel, moisture and curing condition, the magnitude and system of pre-stress The first three types of losses take place due to reduction in the length of concrete resulting in reduction in reduction of the initial extension of the steel. The loss of stress due to elastic shortening of concrete is maximum in pretensioned members. In the case of post tensioned members those losses occur only when a number of cables are progressively stressed one after another.


Concrete is an all-round construction material. Almost every building contains some concrete, but its questionable application in certain buildings-for example in its use in the style of brutalism - has brought it into discredit. Its dull grey colour has contributed to the fact that the word concrete has become a synonym for ugly. In the field of bridges, concrete deserves a more favourable judgement. MEGA FLOOR,the Prestressed slab Slab:Hollow core slab, Preslab or predalle , prestressed ribs and blocks , lintels. Beam: Prestressed rectangular beam and I-beam for bridges Other prestressed components: Lintels , Wineyard stud. Not all concrete bridges have turned out to be beauties, but pleasing bridges can be built with concrete if one knows the art. Concrete is poured into forms as a stiff but workable mix, and it can be given any shape; this is an advantage and a danger. The construction of good durable concrete requires special know-how - which the bridge engineer is assumed to have.

Pre-stressed concrete - if correctly designed - also has high fatigue strength under the heaviest traffic loads. Pre-stressed concrete bridges soon became much cheaper than steel bridges, and they need almost no maintenance - again assuming that they are well designed and constructed and not exposed to de-icing salt.

In bridge building, concrete beams and arches predominate. The shaping of concrete is usually governed by the wish to use formwork, which is simple to make. Plain surfaces, parallel edges and constant thickness are preferred. This gives a stiff appearance to concrete bridges, and avoiding this is one task of good aesthetic design All types of structures can be built with reinforced and pre-stressed concrete: columns, piers, walls, slabs, beams, arches, frames, even suspended structures and of course shells and folded plates.
Tanks Foundation panels Poles

Modular block retaining wall system

Wall panels Concrete units Slabs Roofing and flooring Lintel and sunshade Beams Columns girders

STRAND Wrapped circular pre-stressed concrete tanks are long life liquid storage structure with virtually no maintenance. Concrete construction makes for a substantial, sturdy tank structure that easily contain the internal liquid pressure while comfortably resisting external forces such as earthquake, wind.

Uses These tanks are used in portable water treatment and distribution system, wastewater collection and treatment system and storm water management. They are also used in a variety of commercial applications including thermal energy storage, LNG containments, large industrial process tanks and large bulk storage tanks. Water Pre-stressed concrete is the most efficient material for water tanks and coupled with the circular shape, eliminates all stress conditions. By placing the steel of the pre-stressed strands in tension and the concrete in compression, both materials are in an ideal states and the loads are uniformly distributed around the tank circumference. PROPERTIES Low maintenance can be enjoyed throughout the life as these are built with concrete, durable material that never corrodes and does not require coatings when in contact with water or the environment.

Pre-stressing counteracts the differential temperature and dryness loads that a tank core wall experience. The tank walls are wet on the inside and dry on outside and the temperature varies between the two sides. If not properly accounted for, these moisture and temperature differential will cause a tank wall to bend and crack. Counteract these force in both the vertical and horizontal direction and diminish subsequently the cracking and leaking Tanks are very ductile, enabling to withstand seismic forces and varying water backfill. Tanks utilize material efficiently steel in tension, concrete in compression Pre-cast tanks can store or treat anything from potable water to hazardous waste to solid storage bins. Storage capacities can range from 0.4 to 120 mega liters Diameters of the tank can vary upto 90 m

METHOD Pre-cast concrete wall elements are usually pre tensioned vertically in the plant and post tensioned horizontally through ducts cast in the panels. Vertical pre stressing diminishes vertical bending in the wall and subsequent leakage Circumferential pre-stressing counteracts bursting loads from interior liquid. Joints closures are usually poured concrete on site. This method of sealing the joints allow the tank to [perform (after post tensioning) as a monolithic structure OF THE TANKS SHAPE to resist hydraulic, temperature and seismic forces.

PRECAST CONCRETE foundation panels consist of steel reinforced concrete studs, reinforced tops and bottom beams and concrete facing. Insulation can be placed between the studs. A typical panellised foundation can be erected in four to five hours, according to a manufacturer, with no on site concrete work (the panels sit on gravel bed in lieu of footings.)


FastTrackEasyInstallation LowCostWalling DurableLowMaintenanceWalling AllWeatherConstruction NoTradesFoundationFreeWalling HighImpactResistanceCladding Protection AddedSecurityandFireStop Properties SteelFrameCompatibleWallingSystem FastSimpleandRobustAngleBracket Connection TongueandGrooveJoints VariableHeightWalling SimpleTopLifterInstallation AnyLength

Ideally suited for many Building Application such as Industrial, Light Industrial & Commercial, Heavy Duty Warehousing, Bulk Storage and Waste Transfer Stations Pre-stressed Concrete Panel Division are manufacturers and suppliers of prestressed concrete panels for use in both agricultural and construction industries. These panels are used in a variety of applications including fast track wall construction, retaining walls, bulk storage bunkers, grain stores and silage clamps. Manufactured in lengths of up to 7000mm, the pre-stressed panels are offered in a selection of thickness to suit various applications and a range of widths. Their simple clamp bracket connection and tongue/grooved profile make for a fast and efficient installation system.

POLES Low maintenance, competitive price and aesthetic appearance of the pre-cast concrete poles make them superior to steel or wood for use in utility, communication area lighting application The use of concrete poles preserve our forest requires no chemical treatment and utilizes environmentally safe materials in he production and placement. Some other benefits are corrosion resistance, long service life Because of mineral vibration and deflection, pre-cast concrete poles offer greater service life to ballast for light and this in turn means less down time and less costly equipment repair. Pre-cast concrete poles can save erection time and money by eliminating the need for anchor based structure, which may take days or weeks to install.


Straight Flights

Integral Landings (quarter/half landings)

Separate Landings

MODULAR BLOCK RETAINING WALL SYSTEM Modular block or segmental, retaining walls employ interlocking concrete units that tie back into the earth to efficiently resist loads. These pre- engineered modular systems are an attractive, economical and durable an alternatives to atone or poured concrete retaining walls. The inherent design flexibility can accommodate a wide variety of site constraint, project sizes and aesthetic preferences. BENEFITS Controlled manufacturing conditions ensures a durable, damage resistant product. These systems allow for some flexibility, such as curved walls . Construction is generally faster than poured in place concrete or stonewalls Site conditions have a major impact on cost

APPLICATIONS (some examples): The following fig. Shows the typical pre-stressed concrete flat slab floor construction using the lift slab technique

13-storeyapartmentbuildingwithpre-cast Posttensionedliftslabconstruction,203mm Thicklightweightconcreteslabof8.6mspans, SANFRANSICO Pre-stressed concrete twin box girder bridge construction using the segmentally cast cantilever method

Chaco-corrientesBridge,Argentina, Thelongestpre-castpre-stressed concrete CablestayedboxGirderBridge InSouthAmerica

Pre-stressed concrete folded plate roof structure