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What is ECOLOGY ?
Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. The study of the interaction of people with their environment.

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Ecology seek to explain :


Life processes and adaptations. Distribution and abundance of organisms. The movement of materials and energy through living communities. The successful development of ecosystems. The abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment.

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LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
INDIVIDUAL: ex.- elephant POPULATION: a group of
individuals in the same species living and interacting in one area.

COMMUNITY: ECOSYSTEM: BIOSPHERE:

multiple populations

interacting in one area. all populations in one area interacting with each other and their non-living environment. all areas of earth from the ocean depth Free Powerpoint Templates that to the atmosphere supports life.

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ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
It is the process by which a community progressively transforms itself until a stable community is formed. It is further divided in two parts:
PRIMARY SUCCESSION SECONDARY SUCCCESSION

For example :

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CARRYING CAPACITY
Carrying capacity refers to maximum number of organisms resources can sustain. ECOLOGICAL COLLAPSE:
refers to a situation where an ecosystem suffers a drastic reduction in the carrying capacity for all organisms, often resulting in mass extinction.
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COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE


It is proposition which states that the two species competing for same resources cannot co-exist, if ecological factors are constant.
Russian ecologist Georgii Frantsevich Gause formulated this law based on laboratory competition experiments using two species of Paramecium, the Paramecium aurelia and Paramecium caudatum in which caudatum dominated aurelia .
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ECOLOGICAL CRISES
Ecological crises occurs when the environment of a species or a population changes in a way that destabilizes continued survival. Causes:
Environment quality does not match the species needs. Over production of species. Poor quality of life of species.
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ECOLOGICAL EXTINCTION
At local level, It refers to the reduction of a species to such low abundance that though it is present but its community is no longer interacts with other species. At global level, it simply means that the species have disappeared from the ecosystem.
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BIODIVERSITY
The word BIODIVERSITY is formed from two wordsBIO meaning LIFE And DIVERSITY meaning VARIETY Thus, biodiversity refers to the variety and variability among all groups of living organisms.
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LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY

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GENETIC BIODIVERSITY
It is the basic source of biodiversity. When genes within the same species show different versions due to the new combination it is called genetic variability.

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SPECIES BIODIVERSITY
It basically represents, the species richness and their abundance in the community

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ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY
The ecosystem also shows variations with respect to physical parameters like moisture, temperature, altitude and precipitation.

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THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
According to the estimates the number of known species have declined by 40% since 1970. Since 2000,primary forest have been loosing 6 million hectares per area. Around 20% of the coral reefs have been destroyed through polluting and over fishing. Free species could 25% all known Powerpoint Templates

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MAJOR CHALLENGES FOR BIODIVERSITY

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