Communications I

(0701451) First semester 2011/2012




Outline of the course
 Introduction  Fourier representation of signals and systems

 Amplitude modulation
 Angle modulation

 Noise in analog communication systems


Historical Background
1844 – The Telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse

1864 – James Clerk Maxwell formulated the electromagnetic theory
1875 – The Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell 1887 – Heinrich Hertz confirmed the existence of radio waves

1901 – Marconi received a radio signal, 1700 miles across the Atlantic
1904 – John Ambrose Fleming invented the vacuum-tube diode 1906 – John Ambrose Fleming invented the vacuum-tube triode 1918 – Edwin Armstrong invented the AM radio receiver 1928 – The Television system was demonstrated by Philo Farnsworth

1933 – Edwin Armstrong demonstrated the Frequency Modulation (FM)

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was lunched in US 1991 . was built 1985 – The ARPANET was renamed the Internet 1983 .Global System for Mobile (GSM) was lunched in Europe 4/30 . called the ARPANET. was built at Pennsylvania university 1948 – The transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories 1958 – The first Integrated Circuit (IC) was produced by Robert Noyce 1962 – The Telstar satellite. ENIAC. was lunched 1971 – The first computer network. built by Bell Laboratories.Historical Background 1946 – The first computer.

The transmitter converts the message signal produced by a source of information into a form suitable for the transmission over the channel 2.Elements of communication systems 1. The receiver has the task of operating on the received signal so as to recover (estimate) the original message signal for the user of information 5/30 . the message signal is distorted 4. Due to channel imperfections (noise and interfering signals). The channel transports the message signal and delivers it to the receiver at some other location in space 3.

The channel encoder add some bits for the purpose of error detection and correction. fiber optic). Channel types: guided media (twisted pair. The modulator represent each symbol of the channel code word by a corresponding analog symbols (resulting in signal waveform) suitable for the transmission through the channel 5. At the receiver. Noise and interfering signals corrupt the transmitted signal in the channel 6. coaxial. The source encoder removes redundant information from the message signal and produce a source code word 3.Elements of digital communication systems Source of Information Source encoder Channel encoder Modulator Noise and interference (Unwanted signals) Destination Source decoder Channel decoder Channel Demodulator 1. unguided (wireless) 7. and produce the channel code word 4. The information source generate a message signal 2. the received signal is processed in reverse order to that in the transmitter so as to recover the message signal 6/30 .

Broadcasting vs Point-to-point Communications  Broadcasting:   Involves the use of a single powerful transmitter and many receivers Message signals flow only in one direction. FM radio and Television   Point-to-point Communications:    Takes place over a link between a single transmitter and a single receiver Bidirectional flow of message signals. from the transmitter each of the receivers Examples are AM radio. which requires the use of a transmitter and receiver (transceiver) Examples are satellite communications and mobile communications 7/30 .

amplified by the transponder (electronic circuitry on board the satellite).Satellite Communications  The information-bearing signal is transmitted from the earth terminal to the satellite via the uplink. and then retransmitted from the satellite via the downlink to the other earth terminal 8/30 .

Cellular telephone system  The cellular mobile telephone system consists of: Mobile Stations (MS). Base Stations (BS) and Mobile Switching Center (MSC). connected to the Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN) 9/30 .

mobile internet OFDMA LTE WiMAX 100Mbit/s AMPS : Advanced Mobile Phone System TACS : Total Access Cellular System GSM : Global System Mobile IS-95 : Interim standard 95 GPRS : General Packet Radio Service EDGE : Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution UMTS : Universal Mobile Telecommunication System OFDMA : Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access LTE: Long Term Evolution WiMAX : Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access See http://en.Mobile Generations Generation 1G (1980s) Services Analog voice Multiple access FDMA Standards AMPS. CDMA TDMA.wikipedia. CDMA WCDMA. multimedia TDMA. CDMA2000 10/30 . IS-95 GPRS.5G (end of 1990s) 3G (2000) Digital voice. short messages High capacity packetized data Broadband data. EDGE UMTS. TACS Date rate 1. MC/CDMA GSM.9 Kbit/s 2G (1990s) 2.4 Kbit/s 384 Kbit/s 2Mbit/s 4G (2010) Interactive multimedia.

video and data through the network  Each router has one or more hosts attached to it  hosts: refer to devices that communicate with one another 11/30 .Communication network  A communication network consists of the interconnection of a number of routers that are made up of intelligent processors  The routers route voice.

Circuit switching vs packet switching  Circuit switching:    Dedicated communication paths are established for the transmission of messages between two or more terminals (stations) The communication path (circuit) consists of a connected sequence of links from source to destination Circuit switching is well suited for telephone network  Packet switching:     The sharing of network resources is done on a demand basis The network principle of packet switching is store and forward The message signal is divided into packets each might goes through different path The original message is reassembled at the destination on a packet-by-packet basis 12/30 .

session. data link control.Data or Computer Networks  A communication network in which the hosts are all made up of computers is commonly called data or computer network  The design of computer network is based on a layered architecture  A layer refers to a process or device inside a computer system that is designed to perform a specific function  The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is a 7 layer network model (Physical layer. application). transport. presentation. network. see the next slide 13/30 .

OSI Network Reference Model 14/30 .

Electromagnetic Spectrum 15/30 .

frequency and photon energy  The electromagnetic wave at a particular wavelength λ has an associated frequency f and photon energy E : c   f E  hf  where hc  c  3  10 8 m / s is the light speed Planck’s constant 16/30 h  6.s  4.13567 eV / GHz .626 10 34 J .Electromagnetic wavelength.

fiber optic cable  Unguided transmission media : air. coaxial cable. water.Operating frequency of various guided and unguided transmission media  Guided transmission media : twisted pair cable. space : wireless 17/30 .

Twisted pair and coaxial cables 18/30 .

Optical fiber cable 19/30 .

Wireless Propagation Ground-Wave 20/30 .

Wireless Propagation Sky-Wave 21/30 .

Wireless Propagation Line-Of-Sight (LOS) 22/30 .

military communication. submarine communication Long-range navigation.Electromagnetic Spectrum Band ELF (extremely low frequency) VF (voice frequency) Frequency range 30 to 300 Hz 300 to 3000 Hz Propagation characteristics Ground Wave (GW) propagation GW propagation Typical use Power line frequencies Used by the telephone system for analog subscriber lines Long-range navigation. longdistance aircraft and ship communication 23/30 . marine communication AM broadcasting VLF (very low frequency) 3 to 30 kHz GW propagation LF (low frequency) MF (medium frequency) 30 to 300 kHz 300 to 3000 kHz GW propagation Sky-Wave (SW) ionospheric propagation SW ionospheric propagation HF (high frequency) 3 to 30 MHz international broadcasting.

wireless local loop Experimental. radar. wireless local loop Infrared LANs. Aircraft navigational aids UHF television. FM broadcast AM aircraft communication. consumer electronic applications Optical communication UHF (ultra high frequency) 300 to 3000 MHz LOS Propagation SHF (super high frequency) 3 to 30 GHz LOS Propagation EHF (extremely high frequency) Infrared 30 to 300 GHz 300 GHz to 400 THz LOS Propagation LOS Propagation Visible light 400 THz to 900 THz LOS Propagation 24/30 . cellular telephone. radar. Line-Of-Sight (LOS) Propagation Typical use VHF television. personal communications systems Satellite communication.Electromagnetic Spectrum Band VHF (very high frequency) Frequency range 30 to 300 MHz Propagation characteristics SW ionospheric and tropospheric propagation. terrestrial microwave links. microwave links.

Atmospheric Transparency for Electromagnetic waves 25/30 .

26/30 . examples : 1. 2. minimize frequency band allocation in a multi-user environment Television channels. Transmitted power : the average power of the transmitted signal Channel bandwidth : the width of the pass-band of the channel  Power-limited channels. 2.Primary Communication Resources  Two primary communication resources: 1. available power on board of satellite transponder is limited Deep-space links. 3. Wireless channels. examples : 1. keep transmitted power low so as to prolong battery life Satellite channels. the available channel bandwidth is limited (licensed spectrum)  bandwidth-limited channels. available power on board a probe exploring outer space is limited Telephone channels. 2.

given bandwidth B.. M=4.e. 01.1). 10. highest signal rate is 2B  For binary signals (0. 2B bps need bandwidth B Hz  Can increase rate by using M signal levels or M symbols (e.g. Quaternary: 00.Data rate vs Bandwidth  Consider noise free channels  If rate of signal transmission is 2B bits/s then we can carry signal with frequencies no greater than B Hz  i.11) [bps]  Nyquist formula (Capacity): C  2 B log 2 M  So increase rate by increasing signal levels  at cost of receiver complexity  limited by noise & other impairments 27/30 .

the design of a communication system depends on SNR and channel bandwidth (B) 28/30 . examples: noise produced by thermal agitation of electrons in the front-end amplifier of the receiver 2. Interference due to other users signals transmitted signal power  Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR): SNR  noise power 1.  The SNR in decibels (dBs): SNRdB  10 log 10 transmitted signal power noise power  Shannon’s channel capacity (C) in bits/s is related to the channel bandwidth (B) in Hertz and SNR by: C  B log 2 (1  SNR)  So. Atmospheric noise 3.Noise in Communication Systems  Noise: unwanted signal that tend to disturb the quality of the received signal in a communication system.

3MHz = 1MHz 2. Based on Nyquist formula.Example  Example: Suppose that the spectrum of a channel is between 3MHz and 4MHz and the SNRdB=24dB. SNRdB  24dB  10 log10 SNR  SNR  251 C  B log 2 (1  SNR)  10 6 log 2 (1  251 )  8 10 6  8Mbps 3. The channel capacity (C) 3. The channel bandwidth (B) 2. Find: 1. B = 4MHz . C  2B log 2 M 8 106  2 106 log 2 M  M  16 29/30 . how many signalling levels are required to achieve the max capacity Solution: 1.

Theories of Communication Systems  Modulation Theory: changing some parameter of a carrier wave in accordance with the message signal. the receiver has to recover (detect) the original message signal in a reliable manner  Probability Theory and Random Processes:   Probability theory for describing the behavior of randomly occurring events in mathematical terms Statistical characterization of random signals and noise 30/30 . which is perturbed by noise. Example:  Sinusoidal carrier wave. whose amplitude. frequency or phase is modified by the message signal  Fourier Transform: is a linear mathematical operation that transforms the time-domain description of a signal into a frequency-domain description  Detection Theory: given a received signal.

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