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• Features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes • The major cell components and how they interact to deliver observable cell behaviour • insights into the manner in which cells interact • key exemplars of cell components and processes
• Dr A Simpson
• Dr P Miller
Pearson Education ...ANAT123 -about the course. Lodish et al. Alberts et al. Garland Publishing. Campbell and Reece. Scientific American Books • Molecular Biology of the Cell.ac. Pearson Education • Biology.liv.. Becker et al.uk • Molecular Cell Biology. • Biological Sciences handbook page 22 • Website: • https://vital. • The World of the Cell.
Unit 3.net/science/cellcity/ . chapters 6. Unit 5. chapters 13.Recommended Reading • Biology. chapters 26 and 27. Campbell and Reece. 7th Edition • Unit 2 „The Cell‟.7. • A visit to www.open2.com is highly recommended • http://www.11 and 12.campbellbiology. Pearson Education.
.x2 within lectures slots.Assessment • • • • 100% examination 60 multiple choice (1 correct from 4) Exam 1.5 hrs Self assessment.
Lecture 1: Introduction to Course • • • • • • What is life? General properties: Order Reproduction Growth and development Energy Organisms take in energy and use it to perform work • Response to the environment • Homeostasis • Evolutionary adaptation .
All self-sustaining life is based on cells What is a cell? • A unit of life • • • • All organisms are constructed from cells All organisms derived from a single cell Cells are the simplest independent units Cells can only arise by the replication of other cells • = CELL THEORY .
. 1839 Schwann(animals) Organisms grow only by growth and division of cells. • 1838 Schleiden(plants). Every animal appears as the sum of vital units. Pattern described as cells. each of which bears in itself the complete characteristics of life.History • 1665 Hooke drew the cut surface of cork as seen through a microscope. • 1858 Virchow.
So what? • Cells all evolved from some sort of ancestral cell • All cells are related by ancestry • PROVE IT! .Cell theory .
Evidence for cell theory • Based on similarities of structure and function • • • • • • Use of DNA for hereditary data storage Use of universal genetic code Use of DNA > RNA > Protein Have highly related genes (sequences) Have similar metabolic mechanisms Use lipid bilayers as boundary membranes .
Bacteria • have cell membrane • e. .g.What sorts of cells are there? • Prokaryotes (prokaryotic cells) • no nucleus – Chromosome • Eukayotes (eukaryotic cells) • nucleus – Contains chromosomes • e.fungi/protozans/ plant cells/animal cells • have cell membranes • have organelles……..g.
Evolution of cells • Billions of years 0 1 2 3 4 Prokaryotic cells Euk Mult .
Relationship between prokaryotes and eukaryotes • Prokaryotes are simple – evolved first • Eukayotes came later – – – – Eukaryotes have organelles similar to aerobic bacteria (mitochondria) photosynthetic bacteria (chloroplasts) archaebacteria (host cell) • Eukaryotes evolved from symbiotic fusion of prokaryotes .
Eukaryotes are more “advanced” • Multicellular organisms are colonies of eukaryotic cells • The diversity of organisms arises from the properties of these cells • The cells within an organism have different properties • = DIFFERENTIATION .
Cell differentiation • .
Tissues – B. Organs .Organisation of an organism • Singled cell life forms – The cell IS the organism • Multicellular organisms – Differentiated cells • ORGANISED into – A.
Mesenchymal tissue…….. • Tissues are organised into organs – heart liver brain etc . Epithelia – B.An example of cell organisation • Cells are organised into Tissues – Two fundamental sorts of tissue in our bodies – A..
Basic types of tissue • Epithelia – Basement membrane • (extracellular matrix) • Mesenchymal cells .
Brief summary • • • • • Cells are the fundamental unit of life Two major types of cell: eukaryotic and prokaryotic Eukaryotic cells developed from prokaryotic Eukaryotic cells evolved to form multicellular organisms • The structure of organisms is based on fundamental types of tissue .
Pearson Education . Becker et al.ANAT123 Course Information • Reading... Pearson Education • Biology. Scientific American Books • Molecular Biology of the Cell. Lodish et al. Garland Publishing. Alberts et al. Lecture material and course content are derived from the following texts: • Molecular Cell Biology.. • The World of the Cell. Campbell and Reece.
Campbell and Reece. Lecture material and course content are derived from the following texts: Molecular Cell Biology.. Scientific American Books Molecular Biology of the Cell. Pearson Education .ANAT123 Course Information Reading. Pearson Education Biology. Lodish et al.. Alberts et al. Becker et al. The World of the Cell.. Garland Publishing.